Sustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable city


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Sustainable Transport: Making Hong Kong a walkable city

  1. 1. Sustainable TransportLiving streets, Walkable city2013
  2. 2. Integration pays off• Economic benefits of a free flow of people,goods and services and the integration of ourtransport network with the mainland havebeen well established• The 2022
  3. 3. Cross Border Traffic Capacity
  4. 4. New demand for roads• The design capacity of border crossings will be 188,000vehicles every day.• The average daily cross border traffic has been steadyaround 42,000 crossings for last five years.• Trucks dropped from over 60% to under 50%, andprivate cars increased from 28% to over 40%.• Without expansion of the port or manufacturing, thespare capacity of 146,000 crossings a day will be filledwith private cars, up from the current 17,000.• Our private car fleet is only 433,202 in 2011.• The majority of future crossings will be taken up bymainland vehicles.
  5. 5. No Park’nRide, No ERP• Government decided that mandatory Park-and-Ride would discourage the use of the bordercrossings, and decided that drivers could useparking at rail stations voluntarily. (2009)• No land has been reserved for Park-and-Ridefacilities at border crossings (16 February 2012,Eva Cheng, Secretary for Transport)• No progress has been made towards a territorialroad pricing system to incentivize visitors to keeptheir vehicles away from congested districts.
  6. 6. Residents pay the price• Building more highways and bypasses in and to Hong Kongwill only add more cars faster to the queues as we simplycan’t absorb more cars in our dense urban areas.• Mainland private cars and coaches will join the queues ofvehicles trying to get into Mong Kong, the tip of Kowloon,Hung Hom, Kowloon Bay, North Point, Causeway Bay,Wanchai, Central, Sheung Wan, Repulse Bay and StubbsRoad.• Touring visitors may not mind being stuck in traffic whilesightseeing• Hong Kong residents will pay the price spending more timein traffic to get essential things done: doctor visits, helpingout family, being in time for exams, ..
  7. 7. Congested network• Hong Kong has a short 2,000km road network with thehighest density of vehicles only after Monaco.• Over 3 decades we carefully crafted a transport policywith rail as the backbone to steer the city clear of thegrid lock it suffered in the 1970s.• The number of vehicles has been stable in Hong Kong,except for the private cars which have jumped by 20%over the last five years.• As a result traffic congestion is increasing and theaverage journey speed has dropped to 24.9km inKowloon and 21.3km on Hong Kong Island.
  8. 8. Pedestrians will pay the price• Forget pavement widening or fixing intermittent footpaths,to cater for more vehicles road improvements willdeteriorate the walkability of Hong Kong.• Hong Kong will see more street crossings removed, andmore guard railings, footbridges and subways to stoppedestrians from impeding the flow of traffic• All resulting in crowding of footpaths, mind numbingtunnels, detours and level changes, and more roadside airand noise pollution.• Every day 80% of Hong Kong’s residents walk to transport,work, school, and shopping, and that will become even lessconvenient.
  9. 9. More cars? More space?更多車? 更多行人路?
  10. 10. Walking has its problems already• Precinct study 2001• “.. narrow and overcrowded pavements,barriers to movement, pedestrian/vehicularconflicts, unsatisfactory crossing facilities,traffic pollution, unattractive streetscape,inadequate weather protection, poorsignage, and unfriendly to the elderly andpeople with disabilities.” (Townland, 2001)
  11. 11. Oh yes, more footbridges• The Road Safety Review (Transport, 2004)• “comprehensive segregated pedestriannetworks”• to combine complete safety ‘with maximumconvenience’.
  12. 12. Oh yes, more comfortable footbridges• The Hong Kong Government’s strategy forencouraging walking is by implementing• ‘comfortable all-weather walking corridorswhich obviate the need to walk on the road,• improve pedestrian safety and minimize shortmotorized trips’ to reduce congestion, airpollution, noise and allow further increases inbuilding density. (Letter from STH, 2010)
  13. 13. How many?• Hong Kong has more than 1 footbridge ortunnel for every two kilometers of road(excluding footbridges and subways maintainedby private developers and the MTRC).• The Highways Department is reported to bemaintaining 717 footbridges, 435 subways(Audit, 2010) and 730km of railings as atDecember 2009 (SCMP, 2010) while the totalroad network was only 1,977km in 2007.
  14. 14. HK, An Unwalkable City
  15. 15. We don’t like level changes and detours• A 2003 survey found that 70% of the respondentspreferred at-grade crossings to footbridges andsubways.• Many pedestrians do not like to use footbridges andsubways because of the need to walk longer distancesinvolving staircases or ramps.(Census, 2003) (TPDM, V6. (Appendix 7).• Police reports of territory-wide pedestrian safetycampaigns show that pedestrians often ignorefootbridges and pedestrian subways and cross roadsclimbing over kerbside fences and through centralreservations (Police, 2010)
  16. 16. Designing Hong Kong Research 2011• What do people prefer?• How do people choose their routes?• 98% residents• 57% male, 43% female• 78% between 22 and 55 years old• HKI (42%), KLN (30%), NT/Islands (28%)
  17. 17. 77% prefer street level crossings
  18. 18. ResponsesEspecially when the weather is nice
  19. 19. But when it rains: Tunnels and footbridges
  20. 20. Hong KongA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY• 80% of Hong Kong people walk everyday• Hong Kong is a walkable city: you don’t need a car to get around• The challenge:– how to make it enjoyable for people to walk longer– how to make it enable people to walk further• Resolve obstacles pedestrians face:Detours, level changes, over-crowding, obstructions, conflict withvehicles, inclement weather, air and noise pollution• Offer route and level choiceWalkable streets, livable city
  21. 21. VXComprehensive overlapping network with route and level choiceTypical Hong Kong pedestrian network: Limited choice, forced detoursWalkable streets, livable city
  22. 22. Central
  23. 23. Figure 13: Ground-level pedestrian map of CentralCentral – Street level
  24. 24. Figure 14: Below-ground pedestrian map of CentralCentral – Subway
  25. 25. Figure 15: Above-ground pedestrian map of CentralCentral – Elevated
  26. 26. Figure 12: Overall pedestrian map of CentralCentral
  27. 27. Tsim Sha Tsui
  28. 28. TST Ground NetworkFigure 3: Ground-level pedestrian map of Tsim Sha TsuiTsim Sha Tsui - Street
  29. 29. TST Below-Ground NetworkFigure 4: Below-ground pedestrian map of Tsim Sha TsuiTsim Sha Tsui - Subway
  30. 30. TST Above-Ground NetworkFigure 5: Above-ground pedestrian map of Tsim Sha TsuiTsim Sha Tsui - Elevated
  31. 31. Figure 2: Overall pedestrian map of Tsim Sha TsuiTsim Sha Tsui
  32. 32. Tsuen Wan
  33. 33. Figure 18: Ground-level pedestrian map of Tsuen WanTsuen Wan – Street level
  34. 34. Figure 19: Below-ground pedestrian map of Tsuen WanTsuen Wan – Subway
  35. 35. Figure 20: Above-ground pedestrian map of Tsuen WanTsuen Wan – Elevated
  36. 36. Figure 17: Overall pedestrian map of Tsuen WanTsuen Wan
  37. 37. Tai Kok Tsui
  38. 38. Figure 8: Ground-level pedestrian map of Tai Kok TsuiTai Kok Tsui – Street level
  39. 39. Figure 9: Below-ground pedestrian map of Tai Kok TsuiTai Kok Tsui – Subway
  40. 40. Figure 10: Above-ground pedestrian map of Tai Kok TsuiTai Kok Tsui – Elevated
  41. 41. Figure 7: Overall pedestrian map of Tai Kok TsuiTai Kok Tsui
  42. 42. Yau Ma Tei
  43. 43. 30haLand taken by roads, flyovers and amenity areas segregating neighbourhoods.
  44. 44. Kai Tak
  45. 45. 20haResidential neighbourhoods are segregated from the leisure, recreation and sports activitiesalong the approach channel by roads, flyovers and amenity areas.
  46. 46. Can we create active corridorswith GFA for mixed uses underand on top of road infrastructureso that people can enjoy the areaaround the approach channel, anarea which has potentially thesame properties as Marina Bayand Darling Harbour??
  47. 47. Crossings
  48. 48. DetoursElectric Road and King Wah Road
  49. 49. Wanna cross the road?Mong Kok Road and Tung Choi Street
  50. 50. Fight!Mong Kok Road and Tung Choi Street
  51. 51. Fight!Mong Kok Road and Tung Choi Street
  52. 52. Fight!Mong Kok Road and Tung Choi Street
  53. 53. Fight!Mong Kok Road and Tung Choi Street
  54. 54. Wanna cross the road?King’s Road and Model Lane
  55. 55. Wanna cross the road?King’s Road and Model Lane
  56. 56. Run!King’s Road and Model Lane
  57. 57. Run!King’s Road and Model Lane
  58. 58. Run!King’s Road and Model Lane
  59. 59. Intermittentfootpaths
  60. 60. Videowww.missinglinks.hkVideo
  61. 61. Obstructions
  62. 62. Escalator at High Street near Bonham Road
  63. 63. Seats
  64. 64. Toilets
  65. 65. Toilets
  66. 66. Way finding
  67. 67. Incomplete map of subway network
  68. 68. Complete map of subway network
  69. 69. Make sure maps are pointing north?
  70. 70. Rethink signage?
  71. 71. LegibleHong KongWayfindinginamulti-layeredCity
  72. 72. Walkability
  73. 73. WalkabilityGlobal trendA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY• Walking is good to health and the environment• Pedestrian-First Approach to city planningneeded• Pedestrian network is the city’s most importantpublic space, not only for transport, but also forsocial life• “People will walk when they can sit…”• Choice is good• Priority street level – truly public
  74. 74. Common Issues• Long detours and level changes• Street obstacles• Universal access lacking• Lack of seating• Street aesthetics• Way-finding obstacles, especially for people withdisabilitiesA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY
  75. 75. Principles for comprehensive multi-layered pedestrian networks• Sufficient connectivity, allowing for ample route choice– Preserve ground-level connections when possible (removebarriers, add crosswalks)– Allow travel without forced entrance into private shoppingareas• Well-integrated level changes• Diversity of amenities, public rights of access and recreation• Comprehensive standardized way-finding systemA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY
  76. 76. Recommendations• Plan for district networks, not just station networks• Resolve land premiums• Prioritize pedestrian connectivity at street level• Fix street level crossings – favour pedestrians• Widen effective footway (remove obstacles, widen pavement)• Integrate parks and properties into pedestrian network planning• Provide comprehensive overlapping grade separated network• Branding of the grade separated network• Name tunnels and bridges (same name as road above/under?)• Extent visual identity of properties (land marks)• Way finding• Standardize signage, maps• Experience• Seats and toilets• Diversity and truly public spaces at all levelsA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY
  77. 77. Advertising
  78. 78. World Class Streets – Remaking NY
  79. 79. Videowww.missinglinks.hkVideo