Integration pays off• Economic benefits of a free flow of people,goods and services and the integration of ourtransport network with the mainland havebeen well established• The 2022 Foundationwww.2022foundation.com
New demand for roads• The design capacity of border crossings will be 188,000vehicles every day.• The average daily cross border traffic has been steadyaround 42,000 crossings for last five years.• Trucks dropped from over 60% to under 50%, andprivate cars increased from 28% to over 40%.• Without expansion of the port or manufacturing, thespare capacity of 146,000 crossings a day will be filledwith private cars, up from the current 17,000.• Our private car fleet is only 433,202 in 2011.• The majority of future crossings will be taken up bymainland vehicles.
No Park’nRide, No ERP• Government decided that mandatory Park-and-Ride would discourage the use of the bordercrossings, and decided that drivers could useparking at rail stations voluntarily. (2009)• No land has been reserved for Park-and-Ridefacilities at border crossings (16 February 2012,Eva Cheng, Secretary for Transport)• No progress has been made towards a territorialroad pricing system to incentivize visitors to keeptheir vehicles away from congested districts.
Residents pay the price• Building more highways and bypasses in and to Hong Kongwill only add more cars faster to the queues as we simplycan’t absorb more cars in our dense urban areas.• Mainland private cars and coaches will join the queues ofvehicles trying to get into Mong Kong, the tip of Kowloon,Hung Hom, Kowloon Bay, North Point, Causeway Bay,Wanchai, Central, Sheung Wan, Repulse Bay and StubbsRoad.• Touring visitors may not mind being stuck in traffic whilesightseeing• Hong Kong residents will pay the price spending more timein traffic to get essential things done: doctor visits, helpingout family, being in time for exams, ..
Congested network• Hong Kong has a short 2,000km road network with thehighest density of vehicles only after Monaco.• Over 3 decades we carefully crafted a transport policywith rail as the backbone to steer the city clear of thegrid lock it suffered in the 1970s.• The number of vehicles has been stable in Hong Kong,except for the private cars which have jumped by 20%over the last five years.• As a result traffic congestion is increasing and theaverage journey speed has dropped to 24.9km inKowloon and 21.3km on Hong Kong Island.
Pedestrians will pay the price• Forget pavement widening or fixing intermittent footpaths,to cater for more vehicles road improvements willdeteriorate the walkability of Hong Kong.• Hong Kong will see more street crossings removed, andmore guard railings, footbridges and subways to stoppedestrians from impeding the flow of traffic• All resulting in crowding of footpaths, mind numbingtunnels, detours and level changes, and more roadside airand noise pollution.• Every day 80% of Hong Kong’s residents walk to transport,work, school, and shopping, and that will become even lessconvenient.
Walking has its problems already• Precinct study 2001• “.. narrow and overcrowded pavements,barriers to movement, pedestrian/vehicularconflicts, unsatisfactory crossing facilities,traffic pollution, unattractive streetscape,inadequate weather protection, poorsignage, and unfriendly to the elderly andpeople with disabilities.” (Townland, 2001)
Oh yes, more footbridges• The Road Safety Review (Transport, 2004)• “comprehensive segregated pedestriannetworks”• to combine complete safety ‘with maximumconvenience’.
Oh yes, more comfortable footbridges• The Hong Kong Government’s strategy forencouraging walking is by implementing• ‘comfortable all-weather walking corridorswhich obviate the need to walk on the road,• improve pedestrian safety and minimize shortmotorized trips’ to reduce congestion, airpollution, noise and allow further increases inbuilding density. (Letter from STH, 2010)
How many?• Hong Kong has more than 1 footbridge ortunnel for every two kilometers of road(excluding footbridges and subways maintainedby private developers and the MTRC).• The Highways Department is reported to bemaintaining 717 footbridges, 435 subways(Audit, 2010) and 730km of railings as atDecember 2009 (SCMP, 2010) while the totalroad network was only 1,977km in 2007.
We don’t like level changes and detours• A 2003 survey found that 70% of the respondentspreferred at-grade crossings to footbridges andsubways.• Many pedestrians do not like to use footbridges andsubways because of the need to walk longer distancesinvolving staircases or ramps.(Census, 2003) (TPDM, V22.214.171.124.3.xiii.h) (Appendix 7).• Police reports of territory-wide pedestrian safetycampaigns show that pedestrians often ignorefootbridges and pedestrian subways and cross roadsclimbing over kerbside fences and through centralreservations (Police, 2010)
Designing Hong Kong Research 2011• What do people prefer?• How do people choose their routes?• 98% residents• 57% male, 43% female• 78% between 22 and 55 years old• HKI (42%), KLN (30%), NT/Islands (28%)
Hong KongA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY• 80% of Hong Kong people walk everyday• Hong Kong is a walkable city: you don’t need a car to get around• The challenge:– how to make it enjoyable for people to walk longer– how to make it enable people to walk further• Resolve obstacles pedestrians face:Detours, level changes, over-crowding, obstructions, conflict withvehicles, inclement weather, air and noise pollution• Offer route and level choiceWalkable streets, livable city
VXComprehensive overlapping network with route and level choiceTypical Hong Kong pedestrian network: Limited choice, forced detoursWalkable streets, livable city
20haResidential neighbourhoods are segregated from the leisure, recreation and sports activitiesalong the approach channel by roads, flyovers and amenity areas.
Can we create active corridorswith GFA for mixed uses underand on top of road infrastructureso that people can enjoy the areaaround the approach channel, anarea which has potentially thesame properties as Marina Bayand Darling Harbour??
WalkabilityGlobal trendA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY• Walking is good to health and the environment• Pedestrian-First Approach to city planningneeded• Pedestrian network is the city’s most importantpublic space, not only for transport, but also forsocial life• “People will walk when they can sit…”• Choice is good• Priority street level – truly public
Common Issues• Long detours and level changes• Street obstacles• Universal access lacking• Lack of seating• Street aesthetics• Way-finding obstacles, especially for people withdisabilitiesA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY
Principles for comprehensive multi-layered pedestrian networks• Sufficient connectivity, allowing for ample route choice– Preserve ground-level connections when possible (removebarriers, add crosswalks)– Allow travel without forced entrance into private shoppingareas• Well-integrated level changes• Diversity of amenities, public rights of access and recreation• Comprehensive standardized way-finding systemA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY
Recommendations• Plan for district networks, not just station networks• Resolve land premiums• Prioritize pedestrian connectivity at street level• Fix street level crossings – favour pedestrians• Widen effective footway (remove obstacles, widen pavement)• Integrate parks and properties into pedestrian network planning• Provide comprehensive overlapping grade separated network• Branding of the grade separated network• Name tunnels and bridges (same name as road above/under?)• Extent visual identity of properties (land marks)• Way finding• Standardize signage, maps• Experience• Seats and toilets• Diversity and truly public spaces at all levelsA key component of a city’s LIVEABILITY