City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Chapman Lam of MVA


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Development and transport are closely related, but how do we connect the dots and guarantee a livable city for future generations?

Lifting the moratorium in Mid-levels, reducing the threshold for redevelopment and the constant pressure to increase density are all choking the older parts of Hong Kong with more traffic and roadside air pollution.

How do we deal with the increased traffic on new roads to the Mainland? How many more roads are we planning to build on our waterfront? Is there too much public transport clogging up our roads? Is replacing pedestrian crossings with subways and footbridges a good thing?

What plans are there for environmentally friendly transport and aesthetically more pleasing transport infrastructure in Hong Kong? Where are the hopes for making our city more pedestrian-friendly? Can new engine technology solve our problems? Could electronic road pricing help? Will the new rail lines be enough? Do we have a sustainable (transport) plan for our city?

Planners, engineers, academics and officials will discuss whether transport is our solution or our enemy.

Designing Hong Kong is a not-for-profit organisation focused on sustainable urban planning. See:

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City Speak XI - Is transport the solution or the enemy? Chapman Lam of MVA

  1. 1. Balancing the Need to Travel with the Need to Improve Quality of Life in Hong Kong April 24, 2010 Presented by: Mr. Chapman Lam Divisional Director (Transportation engineering), MVA Hong Kong Limited
  2. 2. Top Down / Bottom Up World China Pearl River Delta Hong Kong CBD Neighbourhoods People A World City A Liveable City
  3. 3. HK History 1194 (Sung Dynasty) 1834 (Qing Dynasty)
  4. 4. HK History Coastline originally a resource to accommodate urban growth and economic development Now seen as an asset in itself to be maintained for the community
  5. 5. Hong Kong <ul><li>Evolved into: </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Homes </li></ul>A Super-Icon Statue Square, 1925 Admiralty, 50’s
  6. 6. Pollution in Hong Kong Asia’s World City
  7. 7. Sustainable Development : Evolution of Priorities Adjusting transport strategies to meet balanced economic, environmental and social development
  8. 8. Extending Consultation to Participation, Implementation and Travel Choice A better educated and more affluent public want more involvement and can bring new insights and ideas Participation in the process to enable the public to take on greater civic responsibilities and make better choices
  9. 9. Policy Directions <ul><li>Priority to rail and public transport </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced infrastructure development </li></ul><ul><li>Managing road use including vehicle ownership restraint </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting environmentally friendly modes </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting walking and pedestrian facilities </li></ul>The challenge is to turn policy statements into coordinated plans and implement them
  10. 10. Boundary Crossings and Modes Destination for International and Cross-boundary Travel
  11. 11. Future Railway Network By 2021 Rail Network Coverage in urban area will Approach International Levels Providing the Opportunity for Sustainable Transport Initiatives
  12. 12. Mode Share Comparison of Major Cities Hong Kong Central London Singapore Tokyo Paris 89% 58% 63% 67% 45% 11% 42% 37% 33% 55% Public Transport Private Car
  13. 13. Future Highway Network Future Roads for Planning and Environmental Objectives not just to Meet Traffic Growth
  14. 14. Bus Network Optimisation <ul><li>World Class Bus System </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentally Advanced Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Integration with Rail </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Priority? </li></ul><ul><li>Reorientation as Railways Expand? </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain Choice? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Role of Our Streets Streets were once for people and public transport but now are often seen as movement space for vehicles with poor environments
  16. 16. Changing the Mindset What We Don’t Want What We Want <ul><li>Resource waste </li></ul><ul><li>Economic costs </li></ul><ul><li>Social dislocation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>People-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficient </li></ul><ul><li>High mobility </li></ul>
  17. 17. Car Ownership and Traffic Growth Hong Kong must continue to contain traffic levels for economic, social and environmental reasons - HOW In the 1980s Hong Kong had the foresight to restrain vehicle ownership
  18. 18. Containing Traffic Growth Objectives – congestion, environment, economic Ownership Restraint Successful since early 1980s fundamental policy Network Management Reallocation of roadspace to more efficient users and for planning and environmental purposes Complex issues requiring full public participation and concensus Changing Behaviour – Pricing Congestion charging / Eco charging Reduced traffic by 15-25% Changing Behaviour - Voluntary car pooling / staggered flows, limited impact in Hong Kong
  19. 19. Future Harbour Area Road Network A largely underground strategic network provides opportunities to reorientate surface road hierarchies to favour pedestrians and public transport – not just to permit traffic growth
  20. 20. Reordering the Road Network Hierarchy
  21. 21. Future Railway Network in Harbourfront Area <ul><li>All activity areas within 500m of a railway station </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-modal hubs integrating rail and bus </li></ul><ul><li>Hubs to distribute international and cross-boundary travellers </li></ul>
  22. 22. Environmentally Friendly Transport : Intermediate Capacity Systems Modern and environmentally friendly modes for intermediate capacity quality (high priority) corridors Bus Rapid Transit Automatic People Movers Wireless Tram
  23. 23. Making the Most of the Tramway An icon and a public transport system <ul><li>Des Voeux Road Central Precinct </li></ul><ul><li>Antique Tramway on the Reclamation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Transport Modes Walking is the most sustainable mode of transport Walking Bicycles Railway / Tram Bus / Mini-bus Taxi Private Car
  25. 25. Why Support Pedestrians <ul><li>Environmentally Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable </li></ul><ul><li>Affordable </li></ul><ul><li>Socially Cohesive </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes Public Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable </li></ul>
  26. 26. Footbridge as a Mean to Improve Junction Capacity Efficient but need to take a balanced view
  27. 27. Pedestrian Space <ul><li>Strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Passive / Recreational </li></ul>
  28. 28. Past Walking Strategies Tsim Sha Tsui Central Mid-levels Scheme West Kowloon Reclamation NW-Kowloon Scheme Strategic plans have been implemented piecemeal losing community and network connectivity
  29. 29. Pedestrian and Public Transport Network Plan Creating a public transport and pedestrian city E-Transport System
  30. 30. Grasping Opportunities Ahead : Harbour Walk Comprehensive, continuous, comprehensible and connected Pedestrian Cross Harbour Walk
  31. 31. Past Nathan Road Improvement Concept - 2005 Nathan Road Before Nathan Road After
  32. 32. Past Nathan Road Improvement Concept - 2005 Nathan Road Before Nathan Road After
  33. 33. Road Map to Sustainable Transport Bringing the components together to form a strategy which meets the community needs Rail
  34. 34. What HK Should be <ul><li>High density mixed use </li></ul><ul><li>(This is what we are) </li></ul><ul><li>High quality physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrant, exciting social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetically and culturally attractive </li></ul><ul><li>High accessibility and mobility </li></ul>A PLACE WHERE PEOPLE WANT TO WORK, LIVE LEARN AND PLAY, AND INVESTORS ARE CONFIDENT IN A REWARDING FUTURE LIVE LEARN WORK PLAY
  35. 35. Sustainable Transportation Objectives <ul><li>Provide a multi-modal inclusive transport system to meet the needs of all travellers. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a comprehensive people-oriented travel environment to maximise opportunities for walking, social interaction and mobility. </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the use of environmentally friendly vehicles and mass carriers, especially railways and modern road-based public transport. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect and capitalise on essential transport infrastructure provision. </li></ul><ul><li>Contain road traffic growth to prevent traffic congestion and help resolve street level air quality and noise problems </li></ul>
  36. 36. Striking the Right Balance <ul><li>Our choice? </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive pedestrian networks and people dominated environments? </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding the railway network further and giving greater priority to feeder buses? </li></ul><ul><li>More coordination or more choice? </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing new modes? </li></ul><ul><li>With CWB and CKR to rethink the allocation of roadspace? </li></ul><ul><li>To contain traffic growth or build more roads? … </li></ul>Public participation not only through consultation but by being given opportunities to make better travel choices to create a more liveable city
  37. 37. Engineer’s Responsibility
  38. 38. Thank you