Enhancement Ecosystem: Enriching content with user tags and annotations
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Enhancement Ecosystem: Enriching content with user tags and annotations

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How do we increase the findability and value of content? How do we maintain metadata and thesauri? Automated tools help apply structure to content, yet these capabilities deliver greatest value when ...

How do we increase the findability and value of content? How do we maintain metadata and thesauri? Automated tools help apply structure to content, yet these capabilities deliver greatest value when combined with human-curated enhancement. When designing content/data applications, we pay particular attention to the "Enhancement Ecosystem."

Applying context and meaning is an ongoing activity - not something you do once during creation. This is particularly important for long-lived content: historically important texts/media, scientific literature, archives, museum/library object descriptions, data sets with multiple uses, and content where contributions span over years.

We explore: Tagging and folksonomy so authors/editors understand how users apply language and meaning to content; Curation and rule-setting in concept extraction; Mining user annotations and the content locations where they are applied; How auto-tagging suggestions can be refined to maximize the meaning that is applied to unstructured content over time.

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Enhancement Ecosystem: Enriching content with user tags and annotations Enhancement Ecosystem: Enriching content with user tags and annotations Presentation Transcript

  • www.designforcontext.com Duane Degler @ddegler Thomas Vander Wal @infocloud Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content with User Tagging and Annotation SEMTECH BIZ 2013 2nd October 2013, New York
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal2 Add structure Goal: Content Enhancement Nulla nunc velit, suscipit iaculis dictum Fringilla egestas ante. Integer sit amet rhoncus orci. Phasellus egestas at dolor pretium rutrum. Morbi at ultrices tortor. Donec vehicula convallis enim a interdum. Nunc sed aliquet risus. Integer tempus orci sed dui euismod tristique. Etiam sit amet lectus non neque porttitor consectetur sit amet ut mauris. Proin sit amet est at justo auctor dapibus. Phasellus non neque blandit, volutpat nunc at, tempus lorem. Pellentesque ac consequat nibh. Phasellus egestas semper massa, eu placerat nisl ultrices eu. Nulla et posuere mauris, at viverra nunc. Nam porttitor laoreet arcu, id tempor libero egestas euismod. Nulla in diam nisl. Phasellus elementum turpis ac ipsum dignissim, at porttitor leo semper. Duis sollicitudin velit eu dolor placerat rhoncus. Ut ut turpis nec nibh ultricies aliquet eget ac arcu. Praesent dapibus rhoncus accumsan. Integer laoreet tellus sed turpis interdum congue. Praesent nulla ipsum, iaculis nec dictum quis, posuere in nulla. Cras nec dui ornare orci blandit pretium nec consequat tellus. Etiam eu neque odio. Nunc posuere sem sed orci faucibus aliquet. In sagittis tellus non dui laoreet, id mattis libero pharetra. Praesent sollicitudin odio a lobortis pellentesque. Integer ullamcorper dapibus auctor. Pellentesque urna magna, posuere placerat nibh vitae, feugiat adipiscing mi. Maecenas euismod, eros eget luctus tempor, eros risus placerat enim, quis gravida odio nisl id turpis. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nullam a accumsan velit, ac facilisis erat. ctus eu. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Duis non nulla lectus. Morbi mollis convallis. Nulla nunc velit, suscipit iaculis dictum Fringilla egestas ante. Integer sit amet rhoncus orci. Phasellus egestas at dolor pretium rutrum. Morbi at ultrices tortor. Donec vehicula convallis enim a interdum. Nunc sed aliquet risus. Integer tempus orci sed dui euismod tristique. Etiam sit amet lectus non neque porttitor consectetur sit amet ut mauris. Proin sit amet est at justo auctor dapibus. Phasellus non neque blandit, volutpat nunc at, tempus lorem. Pellentesque ac consequat. Phasellus egestas semper massa, eu placerat nisl ultrices eu. Nulla et posuere mauris, at viverra nunc. Nam porttitor laoreet arcu, id tempor libero egestas euismod. Nulla in diam nisl. Phasellus elementum turpis ac ipsum dignissim, at porttitor leo semper. Duis sollicitudin velit eu dolor placerat rhoncus. Ut ut turpis nec nibh ultricies aliq uet eget ac arcu. Praesent dapibus rhoncus accumsan. Integer laoreet tellus sed turpis interdum congue. Praesent nulla ipsum, iaculis nec dictum quis, posuere in nulla. Cras nec dui ornare orci blandit pretium nec consequat tellus. Etiam eu neque odio. Nunc posuere sem sed orci faucibus aliquet. In sagittis tellus non dui laoreet, id mattis. Metadata Issue: 7 (10) Author: A. Maecenas Author: G. Euismod Date: 10.2.2013 Word Ct: 3,187 Keywords: faucibus, aliquet, sagittis, tellus Related Content • Integer ullamcorper dapibus auctor • Pellentesque urna magna • Posuere placerat • Vitae, feugiat adipiscing • Euismod, eros eget luctus te Tags • ullamcorper • dapibus auctor • urna magna • placerat LD Linked Data TA Text Analytics IA Information Architecture UX User Experience KM Knowledge Management ES Enterprise Social
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal3 Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal3 Is time our enemy? Or our friend? Creating an Enhancement Ecosystem
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal4 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Review & Assess Use Crawl Track Annotate LinkTag Collaborate Enhance & Validate
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal5 Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal5 Enhancement Ecosystem Source Material Extract & Index
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal6 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Considerations for automated processing Automated tools have “editorial perspective”  What something is about  What is explicit, rather than implied But more challenging . . .  What is inherent, even if not made explicit?  What is the external focus? Context of use?
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal7 Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Taxonomy enhancement  Must update and evolve to remain relevant • Should be a continual process, not “big bang” every few years  Embracing evolution lowers costs • Improvement cost • Misalignment cost  Formalize the evolution, don’t just react to drift Considerations for taxonomies
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal8 Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal8 Enhancement Ecosystem Enhance & Validate
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal9 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Successful adoption…  Keep it simple.  It is easier for users to recognize a term and validate its relevance than it is to recall a term that aligns with user expectations.  In the ecosystem, this step is iterative for continuous improvement. Author / Editor / SME
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal10 Enhancement support during writing and reviewing Structured and unstructured sources proactively provided as resources for authors and editors.
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal11 Enhancement support for elaborating contexts A range of sources. Recognition is easier and more consistent than recall.
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal12 Enhancement support for elaborating contexts Information available when applying terms helps users understand what terms mean.
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal13 Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal13 Enhancement Ecosystem Review & Assess
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal14 The iteration step!  Not “one and done.”  Pattern-finding based on what matters to users.  Assess value: • Relevance • Quantity • Significance • Quirkiness Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Owner’s iterative review & assessment Review & Assess
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal15 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Review & Assess Use Crawl Track Annotate Link Collaborate Tag Enlisting our users
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal16 Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal16 Enhancement Ecosystem Crawl & Track
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal17 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Review & Assess Use Crawl Track Surfacing how and where used  Formal & informal references to content  Identifying where something is cited provides: • Context • Perceived value from user • Surrounding terms
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal18
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal19
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal20
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal21 Tasks produce path patterns, uncovered by analytics 1 2 3 4 5 Yellow brick road (set path) A G D SN 8 Family Circus (wandering) 1b 1c 1d Spelunking (deep dive) Window shopping (look- leave-look) ! Serendipitous (‘aha’ discovery)
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal22 Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal22 Enhancement Ecosystem Annotate, Tag & Link
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal23 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Review & Assess Use Annotate LinkTag Tags & Folksonomy  Discover vocabulary  Valid personal perception  Emergent terms  Gap identification
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal24 Folksonomy tagging triad Definition Interest Identity Metadata Object Vocabulary
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal25 Dual folksonomy triad TerminologyCommunity Culture Definition Interest Identity Metadata Object Vocabulary
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal26 Taxonomy < > Folksonomy ? Taxonomy Folksonomy Structure Efficiency Solid foundation Messy Difficult findability Slow to emerge Resource intensive Not emergent Difficult to validate Relatively inexpensive Emergent by nature Continual validation
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal27
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal28
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal29
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal30
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal31 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Review & Assess Use Annotate LinkTag Interpreting linked content  Context and conceptual patterns  See things in the aggregate  Surface conceptual distance, not semantic distance
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal32 One NY Times article gets different URLs in Twitter. The application aggregates them and captures surrounding text for analysis.
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal33 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Review & Assess Use Annotate LinkTag Users’ context-setting  With Location  With tool / service  Direct link to concept within an object  Can apply structure to enhance: • Hypothesis • Noting Structure • Interpretation (strong)
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal34 The increase in OA-related musculoskeletal pain especially in the growing elderly population has created heightened interest in effective treatments with better safety profiles. The Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) was designed to examine the effects of the dietary supplements glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate given alone or in combination as compared to celeecox or placebo on pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. The primary symptomatic outcome assessment of the GAIT study was after 24 weeks of randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled therapy.[6] An ancillary structural study describing the effects of the agents on radiographic joint space width loss for up to two years has also recently been reported.[7] To date, very few data have been reported for the long-term treatment of OA with any agent including the supplements and celecoxib studied here. Patients in the structural study continued to have safety and clinical efficacy assessments at all scheduled visits. This paper details the clinical efficacy and safety experience with these agents alone and in combination along with celecoxib as compared to placebo in patients from this subset of GAIT over 24 months of follow-up. chondroitin sulfate celecoxib radiographic joint space Add note, action Search on this now Tag forTag for search Add case note “Smart” notes for knowledge workers Capture knowledge of important terms Tag for Search “Radiographic joint space”  Just capture the keyword  Mark as a target term  Mark as a general concept Associate with existing concept: Measurement Search notes: Add term cancel Capture hypotheses and elaborations Add case note Paragraph 45 “…radiographic joint space…”  Case note  Private note Associate with:  Hypothesis ☐ Evidence ☐ Concept in case documents Other cases (cross-reference): Save note cancel
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal35 Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal35 Enhancement Ecosystem Collaborate
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal36 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Review & Assess Use Collaborate Data from collaborations  Richer resource, as used more often with more complete thoughts captured  Easy to use  Larger narrative  But: • Hard to algorithmically harvest • Not as precise
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal37
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal38
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal39 Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal39 Enhancement Ecosystem
  • Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content | SemTechBiz East | October 2, 2013 | © Degler, Vander Wal40 Manage Legacy content Taxonomy • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ • ------ Extract & Index Enhance & Validate Review & Assess Use Crawl Track Annotate Link Collaborate Tag Enhancement Ecosystem: Iterative, Relevant, User-Centered
  • www.designforcontext.com Duane Degler @ddegler Thomas Vander Wal @infocloud Enhancement Ecosystems: Enriching Structured Content with User Tagging and Annotation SEMTECH BIZ 2013 2nd October 2013, New York