The Best Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains

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The Best Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains

  1. 1. The Best Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrains
  2. 2. Thank You To Our Sponsor
  3. 3. Before We Start  This webinar will be available afterwards at www.designworldonline.com & email  Q&A at the end of the presentation  Hashtag for this webinar: #DWwebinar
  4. 4. Moderator Presenters Miles Budimir Design World Brian Wismann Brammo Jay Schultz Parker Hannifin
  5. 5. 10 April 2014 – Design World Examining the difference in energy consumption between a PMAC and an induction motor over various drive cycles and how this impacts battery costs Speaker/Co-author: Jay Schultz Industry Market Manager Vehicle Electrification jschultz@parker.com 707-584-2417 Division: Electromechanical Division North America www.parker.com/hev
  6. 6. Outline • About Jay Schultz • About Parker Hannifin • The HEV • Electric Motors • Induction Motors • PMAC Motors • The usage cycle • Conclusions www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  7. 7. Jay W Schultz • Industry Market Manager • Leading product management • Global marketing strategy • Key business development • Spoken at numerous industry events on the subject of motors • Find/Connect with me on LinkedIn • QR Code to Download Full Paper http://www.linkedin.com/in/jaywschultz www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  8. 8. Parker Hannifin Today www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing $13 Billion Sales 8 Product Groups 140 Divisions 250 Plants WW 1,200 Markets 2,750 Product Lines 8,600 Distributors 50,000 Employees 525,000 Customers 1,000,000 Products Headquarters - Cleveland, Ohio
  9. 9. Customer-Centered Structure www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing Seal Aerospace Instrumentation Fluid ConnectorsAutomation Hydraulics Automation Group: • Vehicle Electrification • Traction, ISG, Aux • Vehicle Pneumatics Climate & Ind’l Controls Filtration
  10. 10. The HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle • Powertrain • Electric motors placed in the driveline to deliver power to the wheels to help assist the engine • Hydraulic Implement • Hydraulic pumps are removed from PTO and electric motors are then connected to hydraulic pump • Engine can be off while electric motor provides power to the hydraulic system www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  11. 11. The HEV – Hybrid Electric Vehicle 1. Internal combustion engine (ICE) 2. Electric generator 3. Generator controller 4. Battery pack 5. Motor controller 6. Electric Motor 7.Axle/Wheel assembly (powertrain) 8. Hydraulic pump (EHA/ePump) Powertrain Electro-hydraulic/ePump www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  12. 12. Focus on Electric Motors • When an OEM has a hybrid electric program, two major motor choices: • Induction Motors • Permanent Magnet AC (PMAC) Motors • IMs and PMAC motors are very similar • Housings • Shafts • Copper • Steel • Electrical cables • More www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  13. 13. Focus on Electric Motors • Major Differences are in the rotor inserts: Induction Motor: Copper or aluminum inserts PMAC: Rare earth permanent magnet inserts Isometric view. Induction motor active parts. (Drawing source: www.infolytica.com) www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  14. 14. Focus on Electric Motors • What areas are impacted when exchanging copper bars for permanent magnets? • Speed and torque characteristics • Physical size and weight • Efficiency • Material costs • Energy consumption over usage cycle www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  15. 15. Focus on Electric Motors • Before moving on, we must create a fair scenario • Look at a “real” application, with real requirements • Keep all other hybrid system parameters and components constant • Voltage and current on inverter • Battery pack voltage and energy storage • Create a PMAC motor and induction motor that meets vehicle specifications • Compare differences www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  16. 16. Focus on Electric Motors • Required Vehicle Specifications • This is a real customer requirement • Vehicle specifics www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  17. 17. Focus on Electric Motors • Software Methods • Finite element analysis models used to create an optimized induction motor and PMAC motor to meet specifications • A variety of operating points were simulated and interpolation used when a desired point fell between two simulated points • Thousands of FEA simulations required for results • Assumptions • Both motors run at most efficient points • Slip was adjusted (IM) to meet maximum efficiency • Both motors have sufficient cooling, not necessarily equal www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  18. 18. Focus on Electric Motors • Speed and Torque Characteristics Required operating points • Induction Motor (run at max efficiency) • Tp = 600Nm, Pp = 115kw • Tc = 300Nm, Pc = 60kw • Top speed = 5000 rpm • Meets all given specs • PMAC Motor • Tp = 600Nm, Pp = >200kw • Tc = 400Nm, Pc = 160kw • Top speed = 5000 rpm • Meets and exceeds given specs www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  19. 19. Focus on Electric Motors • Physical size and weight • Induction Motor • Volume: 15.5 liters • Weight: 72.8 kg • PMAC Motor • Volume: 9.8 liters • Weight: 49.8 kg LIM LPMAC DPMAC DIM Dimensions of Active IM Components Value Unit Diameter 290 mm Length 234.4 mm Total Volume 15.5 L www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  20. 20. Focus on Electric Motors • Electromagnetic efficiency • Does not include mechanical losses • Induction Motor • Lower efficiency across most regions • Best efficiency at low torque and high speed 88% 90% 92% • PMAC Motor • Very large “sweet” spot for efficiency • Lower losses at peak torque • Higher losses at low torque and high speed 90% 92% 94% www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  21. 21. Focus on Electric Motors • Material costs of active components • Based on actual procurement costs • No labor or overhead • No amortized tooling Induction Motor: Copper or aluminum inserts PMAC: Rare earth permanent magnet inserts Isometric view. Induction motor active parts. (Drawing source: www.infolytica.com) www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  22. 22. Focus on Electric Motors • Initial Conclusions • IM takes up ~60% more volume • PMAC is ~32% lighter • Max efficiency is comparable • Both meet torque and power specs • Active material of induction motor is 26% less expensive • If size and weight are not factors, Induction Motor seems more attractive • PMAC more attractive if weight and size are important considerations www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  23. 23. The Usage Cycle • What impact does “use” have? • What losses are present at certain points • Low speed, high torque • Mid speed, mid torque • High speed, low torque • Looking at the energy over a usage cycle and total losses • Highly dynamic cycle, city driving • Low dynamic cycle, rural driving • Constant speed, freeway driving www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  24. 24. • Operating Point #1: Low Speed, High Torque • Total Losses of PMAC = ~6kW • Total Losses of IM = ~17kw (almost 3x) The Usage Cycle www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing PMAC IM
  25. 25. The Usage Cycle • Operating Point #2: Mid Speed, Mid Torque • Total Losses of PMAC = ~1.2kW • Total Losses of IM = ~2.7kw (over 2x) PMAC IM www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  26. 26. The Usage Cycle • Operating Point #3: High Speed, Low Torque • Total Losses of PMAC = ~1.2kW (over 1.3x) • Total Losses of IM = ~0.9kw PMAC IM www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  27. 27. The Usage Cycle • Those three points give insight into what to look for in a usage cycle • How often does the motor change power points? • How drastic are the changes between power points? • How long does the application require the motor to operate at each power point? www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  28. 28. The Usage Cycle • Highly Dynamic Usage Cycle – City Driving • Characterized by frequent changes in velocity • Exhibits large amplitude • Low to mid speed range (of the motor) • Tendency for short periods (<50s) www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  29. 29. The Usage Cycle • Highly Dynamic Usage Cycle • Powertrain: City driving • Average Speed: 7mph • As this cycle is repeated, the PM motor would use 1 kwhr per hour less of stored energy www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  30. 30. The Usage Cycle • Moderately Dynamic Usage Cycle – Rural Driving • Characterized by less frequent changes in velocity • Amplitude of demand, still might be high • Medium speed range (of the motor) • Much longer periods (150s to 300s) • Average speed of ~30mph www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  31. 31. The Usage Cycle • Moderately Dynamic Usage Cycle • Powertrain: rural driving • Average Speed: ~30mph • As this cycle is repeated, the PM motor would use 0.3 kwhr per hour less of stored energy www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  32. 32. The Usage Cycle • Low Dynamics Usage Cycle – Freeway Driving • Characterized by little (or no) change in velocity • Smaller amplitudes between peaks and valleys • Higher speed range (of the motor) • Very long periods, or rise to a constant demand • Average speed: 57mph RequiredPower www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  33. 33. The Usage Cycle • Low Dynamics Usage Cycle • Powertrain: freeway driving • Average Speed: ~57mph • As this cycle is repeated, the PM motor would use 0.1 kwhr per hour less of stored energy www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  34. 34. Conclusions (Value in use) • PMAC motors are more efficient over a dynamic usage cycle enabling lower energy storage costs • $1000 to $30000 per vehicle in energy storage costs • 35% less energy used yields: • Cost reduction of $350 to $10500 per vehicle • Significantly increased range per charge (customer proven) • PMAC preferred choice when: • Vehicle is very sensitive to size and weight • If the application has a highly or moderately dynamic usage cycle • Large operating region of the motor is required www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  35. 35. Conclusions (Value in use) • Induction motors have ~26% less upfront cost than PMAC. Preferred choice when: • Applications with higher constant speed and low power draw • Dynamic efficiency not a concern • Size and weight optimization of vehicle are negligible • Narrow performance range www.parker.com/hev www.parker.com/racing
  36. 36. Examining the difference in energy consumption between a PMAC and an induction motor over various drive cycles and how this impacts battery costs Speaker/Co-author: Jay Schultz Industry Market Manager Vehicle Electrification jschultz@parker.com 707-584-2417 Division: Electromechanical Division North America www.parker.com/hev 10 April 2014 – Design World
  37. 37. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT Brammo Motorcycles Case Study Design World Webinar / 4.10.2014 37
  38. 38. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT Brian Wismann Introduction 38
  39. 39. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT The EV Motorcycle Exposed 39 Brammo Empulse R Production Electric Motorcycle 9.3 kWh Li-Ion Battery Pack 3kW on-board charger 42kW / 90Nm PMAC Motor 110 mph Top Speed 470 lbs. Packaging, Weight, and Performance
  40. 40. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT Search for a new motor… 40 • PMAC showed promise in the 2009 race over brushed DC and ACIM motors, but needed a custom, traction focused solution. • Of 2 Brammo bikes entered in the 2009 IOMTT race, only one finished due to motor overheating and demagnetization. • In 2010, Brammo began working with Parker-Hannifin on a new bike with a development of their “MPT” PMAC motor.
  41. 41. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT ACIM vs. PMAC for EV Racing Applications 41  PMAC preferred by Brammo due to:  Reduced Packaging Size and Weight  Torque/Speed characteristics supports a direct drive or single stage reduction.  Lower rotor losses at high torque (racing applications) lowers the cooling system requirements.  More flexibility with magnetics architecture (specific to Parker’s GVM design)  Great technical team and working relationship. ACIM @ ~120kW PMAC @ ~120kW 550 lbs. 470 lbs.
  42. 42. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT Technology Development = High Pace 42 NOW2009 3.1 kWh 6.2 kWh 9.3 kWh 2x 3x 7.9 kWh 55 HP 90 mph 14.3 kWh 170 HP 170+ mph Keeping pace with Tesla 87 Wh/kg 99 Wh/kg 145 Wh/kg 79 Wh/kg 129 Wh/kg ~125 Wh/kg
  43. 43. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT Brammo Powertrain Tech Overview 43  Samarium-Cobalt (SmCo) Internal Permanent Magnet (IPM) motor developed for production with Parker-Hannifin through Brammo Racing program.  Multiple diameters and stack lengths for different torque/power levels. i.e. Flexible product architecture – scales up or down.  High continuous power (vs. just peak power) due to magnetics design and Brammo’s cooling design. Smaller motors can be used for a given application.  Transmission provide an option to do more with less. i.e. the equivalent performance direct-drive system would be 1.5x the power requirement. PMAC EV Drivetrain Benefits:  High Specific Power/Volume  High Torque at low RPM w/good efficiency.  Good speed range for traditional gear ratios.  Good overall efficiency makes the most of the on-board energy capacity.
  44. 44. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT Key Technology Focus – Systems Approach 44  Strong systems approach and understanding will allow for more integrated solutions over time.  Range and performance improvements are not just a battery problem.  Capturing and understanding data is key to Brammo’s understanding and optimization of EV systems. Range Determined by:  Battery Capacity  System Efficiency  Charge Rate
  45. 45. CONFIDENTIAL DOCUMENT 3 Seasons of Racing Success w/ PMAC 45 2012 2011 2013
  46. 46. Questions? Miles Budimir Design World mbudimir@wtwhmedia.com Phone: 440.234.4531 Twitter: @DW_Motion Brian Wismann Brammo BWismann@brammo.com Phone: 541-482-9555 ext.301 Twitter: @BrammoDesigner Jay Schultz Parker Hannifin JSchultz@parker.com Phone: 707-584-2417
  47. 47. Thank You  This webinar will be available at designworldonline.com & email  Tweet with hashtag #DWwebinar  Connect with Design World  Discuss this on EngineeringExchange.com

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