Ind eng-005 - doc


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Ind eng-005 - doc

  1. 1. GARBAGE ACCUMULATION Garbage in a city can cause a variety of problems. These include contamination of ground water, surface water, and even the cities water system, if leaching of chemicals occurs from the disposal site. A lowering of pH by these chemicals can add to acidity problems in the water and even the air. Landfills can also cause sealing of the ground surface, which will lead to flooding. Disposal areas attract wildlife, such as rats, dogs and birds. Besides causing a danger of wildlife/ human interactions (birds flying into planes, or dogs in roaming in packs) these usually bring diseases with them, such as plague, meningitis, pneumonitis, and toxoplama-gondii. Another problem is the accumulation of infectious or toxic waste items. May people in cities do no destroy dangerous items, they often just throw objects that should be incinerated. This can create a heap of items as dangerous as medical waste or toxic and corrosive chemicals. Often there are infectious diseases associated with
  2. 2. medical waste that can cause or heighten an epidemic. In short, garbage pollution in a city causes a myriad of problems. These include but are not limited to contamination of air & water, increased disease risk, attraction of undesirable wildlife, soil sealing and flood problems. Garbage accumulation in cities has been a problem all over the world for centuries. Garbage is created both at a government level and at the level of individual households. Landfills have always been regarded as sources of disease and offensive odors. Early in their development cities generally have few disposal regulations and individual homes disposed of garbage in their own unique ways. Therefore, means of disposal were based on the culture, background, occupation and size of each of the different households (Crane, 2000). Throwing away garbage is always a balance between hygiene and thrift (Lucas, 2002). Used material may come in handy at a future date, but in the mean time, storage of it causes certain problems, not the least of which is sanitation concerns. WATER POLLUTION: Rain water percolates through garbage. The runoff from the rain will then become contaminated by the sewage, sediment, chemicals and diseases that are contained by that garbage. It is therefore necessary for garbage dumps to either be waterproof or clear of water born contaminants. Or, a better solution is to have garbage disposal not present in the water shed of the public drinking supply. This is more a concern in many developing countries than in countries that are more economically advanced. Socio-economic factors make it very difficult to solve these types of urban drainage problems (Silveira, 2002) AIR POLLUTION:
  3. 3. Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere.The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report.[1] SOIL POLLUTION: Soil contamination (soil pollution) is caused by the presence of xenobiotic (human-made) chemicals or other alteration in the natural soil environment. This type of contamination typically arises from the rupture of underground storage tanks, application of pesticides, percolation of contaminated surface water to subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping, leaching of wastes from landfills or direct discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most common chemicals involved are petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals. This occurrence of this phenomenon is correlated with the degree of industrialization and intensities of chemical usage. SOLUTION: Rather than control garbage disposal through negative legislation, there are many people attempting to come up with positive solutions to this problem. Cohen, promotes a plan, in New York City, which is sponsored cooperatively by the city and the state, to build high- temperature incinerators that generate electricity. This way, the garbage no longer is a disposal problem, it is instead an energy source (Putting Garbage to Good Use).
  4. 4. WILL LEAD TO..................................................................................... .. A super clean environment here afterwards which i hope will be in hearts when you throw a bit of paper outside the dustbin! CONCLUSION: Garbage pollution is a serious problem in urban areas. Disposal has been a concern of urban governments since the first city. It can cause a myriad of problems for the citizens and wildlife in the urban area. These range from creating an unpleasant atmosphere to creating a center for disease infection, to altering the environmental quality of the water, soil and native population. Done by your Shruthi.M,Vaishnavi.V,G.V.Srividya,Aruna Devi.J, Rajashree.H