Urban eco-constructs_Port Philip bay ecocenter_presentation_20th may 2007
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Urban eco-constructs_Port Philip bay ecocenter_presentation_20th may 2007

on

  • 192 views

Urban eco-constructs studio challenged the students to investigate and employ natural ecosystems and eco-systemic cycles as a model for landscape design. ...

Urban eco-constructs studio challenged the students to investigate and employ natural ecosystems and eco-systemic cycles as a model for landscape design.

Studio works of Monique Govers, Nicholas Beer, Bride Blake (Chlorophyll park), Keith Farnsworth, Faculty advisor: Archana Sharma

Statistics

Views

Total Views
192
Views on SlideShare
192
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Urban eco-constructs_Port Philip bay ecocenter_presentation_20th may 2007 Urban eco-constructs_Port Philip bay ecocenter_presentation_20th may 2007 Presentation Transcript

    • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 8
    • SAFE UN-‐SAFE ACTIVITY
    • SAFE UN-‐SAFE ACTIVITY
    • Design Through Making Studio Westgate Park constructed-ecologies in hyper-urban environments RMIT Landscape Architecture Folio Nicholas Beer (s3078289) Tutor: Archana Bhatt
    • Introduction - The Hunch Westgate Park is one of those places that you become exposed to when driving along a freeway; one of those places you say to yourself: ‘I should go there one day’. The patchwork of different coloured lakes seen from atop the Westgate freeway seem to inspire thoughts of otherworldliness; surrounded as it is by an unrelenting industrial context. On visiting the park, one is drawn into the world of wetland birds, distant views and the occassional snake slithering across the path. Like many parks these days, Westgate park has a few information boards. Looking across the stretch of lake refered to as the salt lake, one notices a large body of water surrounded by dwarfing grassed mounds and the imposing Westgate freeway. After wandering around for a while, we arrive at the freshwater lake and rather than admiring the water itself, our attention is drawn to the many birds which seem to call the lake home. How is it that two lakes, not more than a hundred metres apart, can display such a difference? It is from this question that this project begins. The hunch being that a site surrounded by salt water (Port Phillip Bay and the esturine reach of the Yarra River) should be able to support at least as much wildlife in its salt water habitat as in the freshwater environment.Westgate park is relatively isolated from adjact residential communities. Access to the park is predominantly from bicyclists’ visiting from recent residential developments at Docklands, South Melbourne and via river access provided between Newport and the park’s eastern boundary. It is believed that the key to the success of Westgate park revolves around the management of its various habitats, as this element provides a key difference between other inner public spaces. Due to hypersaline conditions, the saltlake functions more as an ornamental lake than a viable habit. “We are focusing most of our attention on the freshwater lake because that is where most of the life is” (Friends of Westgate Park) “The freshwater lake is actually brackish, and the saltwater lake is hypersaline” (Neil Duncan, Eco-centre)
    • Westgate Park : a brief history Design Through Making has been an eight week landscape architectural design studio based at Westgate Park exploring techniques in constructed ecologies. The studio brief was to undertake independent research which explored the relevant issues pertaining to Westgate Park’s role as a designated habitat area for indiginous flora and flora and how this might be responsive to its broader context within Melbourne’s industrially zone Fishermans Bend, as well as the human occupation of the site. photo circa 1940’s indicating site bounday of Westgate park Westgate Park is located on the site of an old sand quarry which was subsequently used an aircraft landing strip during WWII (refer opposite) and later as a landfill. During the construction of the Westgate freeway (which adjoins the park), the site was designated as parkland, who’s design was largely dictated by the need to incorporate vast quantities of the Westgate freeway’s excess excavated soil and construction debri. This construction fill was utilised in the partks design to serve various purposes such as: windbreaks, clearly defined water catchment areas, to provide opportunities for different plant communities and also to reveal distant views. Westgate park has continued to mature over the past twenty years. Today, the casual visitor might observe a distinctly Australian-looking landscape clothed in eucalypts, heathlands and several wetland environments; which serve as habitat for an array of birds, and other animals. Despite its naturalistic appearance, Westgate park receives considereable outside attention to maintain its role as a habitat for a diverse range of species. A look ‘behind the scenes’ of Westgate park reveals a different nature altogether... one inhabited by: underground pipes and mechanical pumps transporting water from outside and within the park; and an ongoing human labour, be it planting, weeding or handwatering to maintain and expand the stock of plants within the park. Such is the nature of nature in our cities these days. photo circa 1995 indicating site bounday of Westgate park Constructed ecologies such as Westgate park have the potential to create rich environments for wildlife and human recreation. Like all parks, Westgate park is a product of its past, present and projected future. As the scale of habitats continue to diminish, spaces like Westgate park are asked to perform compressed ecological functions over and above the natural systems on-site which might enable these to emerge. Far from being a problem-solution scenario, constructed ecologies invite us to explore and play with alternatives to expand the domain of ecology to what might seem at first unrelated fields.
    • Westgate Park residential Exchanges combined industrial Webb dock salt water habitat park entry points bike path, river punt train line Westgate park is located at the intersection of several major urban scaled edges, most notably that of the Fishermans bend peninsular. The park’s immediate neighbours are large scale industry, the Yarra River and Webb Dock (currently under redevelopment). Rain water is harvested from several locations outside the park. Considering the parks proximity to the salt water environments (Port Phillip Bay, Yarra River, Marybrynong River and Stony Creek) it is surprising that most of the park’s wetlands are focused on fresh or brackish water environments pedestrian access habitat edges infrastructure industry
    • Colonisation Westgate park is located in area of the esturine reach of the Yarra River. Over millions of years, the processes of sedimentation and accumulation of aeolian sands in the area created a rich environment for esturine species. Successive generations of development around Melbourne’s docks precinct have transformed the area from a rhythmic delta (constantly eroding and colonising areas according to climatic variations) by an extensive process of land reclamation which has imparted a somewhat regular course to the Yarra River. Despite the monumental changes to the Fishermans bend peninsular, it still maintains an ongoing relationship with the historic processes which originally shaped it, both above and below groun level: the Fishermans bend peninsular is generally one to two metres above the high tide mark, and continues an intimate relation with the salt waters of the Yarra and Port Phillip Bay through two water aquifers created by the sedimentary layers of the Yarra River’s past. What this means for Westgate park, is that it must develop strategies to either work with, or against, the the presence of salt. At present the park has been successful in the former, but as yet seems to struggle with coming to terms with this most mediating of site conditions. 10 teatree scrub 07 brackish lake 08 island habitat 09 brackish lake SECTION AB DETAIL 1:1500 11 path path salt water lake 13 carpark 12 bench 14 Todd Rd SECTION AB 1:6000 01 industry A 02 Shipping Dock 04 industry 03 Yarra River 05 06 Webb Dock Goods Train Recommissioned circa 2017 refer section detail 15 Motor Racing Circuit Schematic Diagram of the Hydrological Cycle of the Fishermans Bend & Webb Dock Precinct. (refer also geological sections) 01 02 03 04 05 B 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 14 13 15 Westgate Park Salt Lake Westgate Park Brackish Lake Salt Water (Port Phillip Bay & Tidal Reach of Yarra Delta) Yarra River (Brackish Water) Terrestrial Run-off Ground Water Salt Water Terrestrial Intrusion
    • westgate park boundary salt concentration (lake depth) webb dock railway frog habitat existing physical barriers between park and train line friends of W.P depot wetland vegetation communities flat ground (buffer before mounds) paths
    • Hydrology The watertable at Fishermans bend is saline and close to the surface. Unlike the smaller wetlands which are perched, Westgate park’s two main lakes are deep enough to be effected by the saline groundwater. The differing construction techniques and access to surface run-off between these two wetlands has resulted in the larger wetlands displaying distinct ecologies. The northern wetland has a low-permeability clay lining which reduced groundwater infiltration and also receives stormwater run-off from an adjacent road and from the roof of the herald-sun building; these combined conditions maintain the lake at a brackish concentration (slightly saltier than fresh water but well below sea water salt concentrations.), The southern wetland is a relic from the earlier sand mining. Groundwater is the main recharge of this lake and decades of evaporation have gradually caused the lake to becopme hyper-saline (ie: several times the salt concentration of sea water). train access road car park paths car park Water bodies and paths: light blue brackish; Dark blue - salt Drainage patterns: Black - ridgelines; Arrows - surface water flow Water movement: Red - gravity fed; Blue - mechanical Brackish Lake Combined Salt Water Lake Clay Lake Lining Fill Sand Coode Island Silt Geological section adapted from Westgate freeway geological survey.
    • salt concentrations: Blue - salt content increases with water depth; Yellow - salt contnt highest at top of silty clay soil profile Presumed sectional profile (pre-european): Brown - silty Clay; Yellow fine sand; Red - existing section Surface Run-off Presumed content of Fill: Red - landfill including toxic pollutants; Grey - rubble Surface Run-off Wet-land fill Groundwater (sand) Confining unit (silt) Aquifer (Gravel) Confining unit (silt) Geological Section of Salt Water Lake 1:1000 Three primary factors contribute to producing hyper-saline conditions in the saltlake. 01. The lake receives much of its recharge from saline groundwater. 02. Sand mining has created conditions whereby the bottom of the lake has close proximity to the underlying Coode Island Silt, which concentreates its salt load at its upper horizon. 03. The evaporative process removes water from the lake but not water’s salt content. As a result the salt content increases over time.
    • Freshwater lake edges Cherry Lake Reserve - Melbourne Water Retarding Basin (Altona) sections 1 :200 Variations at the waters edge create environments with distinct wetting regimes, which are exploited by plants adapted to those conditions. Constant edge conditions favour the emegence of a dominant species, while rapid fluctuations are colonised by a greater range of species. grasses & small shrubs single species of reed melaleuca and cassuarina transition zone grasses & small shrubs single species of reed open water transition zone reed open water Newport Lakes Park (former Bluestone Quarry) section 1 : 100
    • Salt water edges Unlike the freshwater wetlands where growth is dictated by how close a plant is to water, saltwater wetlands are dictated by how far away a plant is from water. The reason for this is that plants require very special adaptations to deal with the harsh growing conditions provided by salty conditions. The further away a plant is from the saturated area (seepage zone, or groundwater) the less salt that the plant must deal with. This phenomena is evident in a visual banding around saltwater wetlands. Plants growing high salt concentration areas tend to be short-stunted plants. As such, we can predict with reasonable accuracy how these bands will be distributed and what plants will grow in these bands, should we attempt any changes to these environments. Saltmarsh environments are generally associated with low lying areas next to the coast and receive varying salt laden tidal waters from the sea (such as Point Cook). The exception to this scenario is in areas which were at one point in history submerged by the waters of the ocean and as a result the soil and groundwater retain a high concentration of dissolved salts (such as Lake Eyre and Westgate Park). 50cm 20cm 00cm Cheetham Wetlands - Point Cook section 1 : 50 moderate salt content: grasses - small shrubs high salt content: succulent groundcovers high salt content: no growth saline watertable: no growth
    • Case Study: Murray River: Groundwater interception_ salt harvesting 02 01 03 04 The Murray River creates an arterial of water which passes through the dry interior of south-eastern Australia. Water from the Murray River is used to irrigate farmland. The presence of water in an otherwise creating dry laqndscape enables a vastly improved productivity to areas inland from the Murray. As the ‘natural’ conditions of the area have been modified, salt (deposited when the area was part of an inland sea) has begun to mix with the freshwater of the Muraay Basin. The presence of high salt concentrations are not conducive to the farming practices of the area which rely on freshwater. The major source of salt contamination in the area is the move ment of saline groundwater into the Murray River. To moderate the amount of salt entering the Murray River a large number of groundwater interception projects have been initiated. These projects work by first isolating whichgroundwater aquifers have high salt concentrations. The saline groundwater in these areas is pumped to the surface before it can enter the Murray River. The project creates a condition where there are large quantities of salty water. Some of this salty water is used in aqui-culture farms for the raising of saltwater fish, but the majority of the saltwater is utilised by harvesting chrystal salt through means of evaporation. 04 Diagrammatic workings of groundwater interception salt harvesting scheme salt harvest upstream flow (fresh) evaporation relative salt concentration 03 02 saline groundwater net loss of salt entering river 01 groundwater pump
    • Case Study: Large Scale Salt Harvesting (Port Said, Egypt) This salt harvesting operations is located close to the shores of the Mediteranian Sea, and as such has a virtually unlimited reserve of salt water which it can process. This salt farm is situated on a large tract of flat land which enables it The salt farm pumps water from the sea in order to regulate intake of water to match the changeable evaporation rate (ie: variations in temperature and wind strength).
    • Case Study: Small Scale Salt Harvesting (Vinh Tien, Vietnam) This salt harvesting operation is located next to the ocean. The phases of the moon create abornmally high tides once or twice a month. This projectutilises these high tides to bring sea water into its first storage pond. The advantage of this method is that it is cheaper than pumping the water, yet it does not allow the same control of water volumes, which have a direct influence on the evapoartion rate.
    • Salt Harvesting Schemes SALT HARVESTING CYCLE isolate concentrate evaporate SALT WATER dissolved mineral TRANSPORTATION tidal gravity mechanical groundwater POND DIMENSIONS depth surface area EVAPORATION temperature wind transpiration rainfall CHRYSTALISED SALT harvesting All salt harvesting schemes require reliable access to salt water; this is generally sourced from the ocean, inland seas, or saline groundwater. The climatic requirements of a salt havesting scheme are a consequitive three moth (minimum) period where evaporation rates are higher than precipitation rates. In order to produce a harvestable amount of salt the water content must be evaporated. Salt harvesting scheme use a number of sequential ponds so that the salt concentration in the water is progressively increased so that at the end of the processes a significant amount of salt is deposited in one place. The water must either be pumper or gravity fed betwenn these ponds. Salt harvesting in Peru. The use of terraces allows the water to be gravity fed from one pond to another. Unfortunately the terraces require alot of maintenance as the processes of wetting and drying create instability in the soil. For this reason the majority of salt harvesting schemes are located on flat ground, which also reduces the construction costs.
    • Water Budget To achieve a net reduction over time in salt concentration of the hypersaline lake it is important to calculate the volume of water in this lake and its fluctuations over time. The lake is experiencing drought conditions at present which enables an assessment of the lakes’ profile. A conservative average depth of the drought level of the lake at 1-1.5m means that the lake experiences a 10% fluctuation during drought conditions. This upper 10% occurs at the shallow edges of the lake which has a low volume to surface area ratio. As a general rule the more water that is in the lake the lower the evaporation rate and hence a slowing of the hypersalinity process. With the lake experiencing a 10% variation of volume between high rainfall years and drought conditions, it is considered that a removal of around 2% will keep lake levels within the existing fluctuation range. Evaporation Rates: Melbourne’s six warmest months Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Precipitation Evaporation 67mm 108mm 59mm 138mm 59mm 162mm 48mm 177mm 47mm 168mm 51mm 120mm Difference 41mm 79mm 103mm 129mm 121mm 69mm # days rain 14 12 10 8 7 9 days >30 deg.C 1 3 6 8 7 5 Month wind speed 15km/h 16km/h 16km/h 15km/h 15km/h 14km/h Sustainable average water budget for salt pans 2% of 15,000 m3 = 300 m3. With four viable evaporative periods available this equates to four first stage evaporative ponds with a capacity of 75m3.this upper 10% would lead to higher evaporation rates in the lake. estimating salt lake volume recent maximum level +50cm average rainfall years +20cm drought level 00cm effect of drought conditions on volume of water in salt lake fluctuation lake full 20cm fall 50cm fall surface area volume difference water loss in drought 15,902m2 1,275m3 = 8.5 % 14,710m2 - 238m3 @ full 11,252m2 - 1,037m3 @ -20cm estimate of lake volume at drought level (ie: - 50cm mark) av. depth (@ -50cm) volume @ - 50cm 1m 11,252m3 1.5m 16,878m3 volume @ at full 12,572m3 (10% fluctuation) 18,153m3 (8% fluctuation) estimated level in salt lake during average rainfall years 15,000 m3 continuous bands around lake reveal 3 constant levels
    • Salt Pond Specifications (Adapted from Nelson, 1991: Design & Construction of Small Earth Dams) The proposed salt pans must respond (at minimum) to several functional considerations. We must consider what are the specific spatial and climatic requirements of a salt harvesting scheme and how do the conditions of Westgate park inform the place ment and design of such a scheme. Dam Type Study Hillside Dam DISADVANTAGES Largest storage area relative to amount of earthworks. Water is naturally directed towards dam. Gully Dam ADVANTAGES Predominately a approach to catch run-off or stream flow. Site’s gully’s are too small to accommodate salt pond network. Provides gravity supply to flow regime. Site conditions present several suitable hills, with the added advantage of close proximity to flatish areas. Significant earthworks required. Pressure of water is evenly distributed as opposed to dyke wall. Relativley cheap, as main requirement is for sealing base of dam. . Requires relatively flat ground. As the water table is high, excavation in these areas will generally cause these dams to fill up. Hence, unsuitable for evaporation purposes. Also, gravity to flow regime becomes difficult. Excavated Tank excavation depth SITE LOCATIONS picnic area small isolated
    • Dam type study The process of concentrating the salt content in water is undertaken in a series of ponds (as mentioned previously). A common method employed by most salt harvesting schemes is to maintain a similar surface areas of each ponds. As a significant proportion of the water evaporates at each stage the volume of water decreases, with the effect that the size of the dam also decreases. Recommended depths at the various stages are: 15cm chrystalisation pond 30cm evaporation pond pond 01 50cm pond 02 30cm pond 03 15cm. Ponds 01 and 02 require access only for opening and closing the gates which allow water to flow between ponds. The dimensions of Pond(s) 03 are dictated by the harvesting method. Small scale salt farms are generally harvested by raking the salt into piles. As a result the maximum width of these ponds is generally under 4m. 50cm evaporation pond sectional qualities 1:100 Zoned Diaphram Advantages Disadvantages Construction of dam is simplified by the use of a single structural clay. Homogenous Subject to excessive expansion and shrinkage if water levels in dam are not relatively stable (as is the case in salt harvesting) Stucturally the strongest type of dam and can therefore be built with steerper slopes, which reduces the amount of earthworks. This type of dam maintains its impermeability zone in the centre of the dam, thus absorbing much of the concentrated saline liquid. Less like to experience structural change with continual wetting and drying. The remainder of the dam wall can be constructed from material on-site. Requires more earthworks and is not as structurally sound as a zoned dam, yet considering the shallow water level required for salt harvesting this does not pose a significant problem.
    • Case study: 50cm Evaporation Pond at different grades If the cost of costructing is dam is largely dependent on the amount of earthworking required, then it is not surprising that most salt harvesting schemes are located in flat areas, or ones with gentle slopes. The advantage of locating a dam on a slope is that the dam can intercept surface run-off water. The intention of salt pans is not to collect water but rather to store water in conditions conducive to its evaporation. Salt pans necessarilly need to be shallow for this purpose, as a result, their construction on slopes requires significant amounts of earthwork to achieve minimal storage volumes 1:3 Slope Over 50m 1:200 1:200 1:25 Slope Over 50m 1:200 1:10 Slope Over 50m
    • numbers The three stages of the evapoartive process require variations in size of ponds required. To maintain structural stability the fill required for the dams becomes greater relative to the volume it needs to hold. Having calulated these dimension a series of quick placement excercises reveal many combinations which might be achieved, and allow us to speculate on how these ponds might transform the spaces they inhabit. 50cm evaporation pond (plan 1:1000) 15cm chrystalisation pond 30cm evaporation pond massing study exploring the relationship between ponds and proposed path ponds informed by pedestrian path pedestrian path informed by ponds 15cm chrystalisation pond without harvesting access 15cm chrystalisation pond 15cm chrystalisation pond module form
    • Locating Salt Pans (socio-topographic-climatic considerations) existing topographic conditions Pedestrian Circulation Vegetation Adjacencies Prevailing Wind Infrasrtucture Adjacencies High Solar Penetration e a s t s l o p e slope requiring major additional earthworks slope requiring significant additional earthworks slope requiring moderate additional earthworks Three Potential Salt Pan Sites northerly wind slope requiring minor additional earthworks northerly westerly wind e a s t s l o p e westerly 03 02 01 south westerly south-westerly wind
    • Considerations The spatio-functional requirements of a salt harvesting scheme processing 2% of the total salt lake volume can be met at three seperate locations at Westgate park. Site 03 has been chosen as it offers the greatest potential for the project to create interactions the surface run-off created by the areas topography. Slope, Vegetation, Pedestrain Circulation And Prevailing Winds Potental Intermingling Zones Between Salt Water Seepage And Surface Run-off Water northerly wind westerly wind 03 02 03 02 01 01 DRAINAGE EDGES south-westerly wind
    • Surveying potentials No accurate contour information exists for Westgate park. Having isolated Site 03 as a potential location for the salt pans, it was undertaken to survey the surrounding area at 50cm contour intervals. As the proposed salt pans require approximately 100m3 of fill consideration as to where this might be removed from was investigated. The slopes in this area of the park serve either windbreak functions, or are part of the pedestrian circuit. A decision was made to remove the cut from the south-west corner of the surveyed area as this location did not interfere with the salt pan scheme and even moreso, this location provided the opportunity to address safety issues and could greatly enhance the experience and scope of the salt pan project points of access potential areas to remove cut cut flat areas long views unplanted mounded areas train edge (safety) sloped areas combined
    • 50cm contour plan 1:1000 01 view A 02 03 view A 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 view C view B view C 1:350 slope view B Sequential Surveyed Sections 1:1000 section 01 section 07 section 02 section 08 section 03 section 09 section 04 section 10 section 05 section 11 section 06 ground water level based on port of melbourne bore survey
    • Slope, Vegetation, Pedestrain Circulation And Prevailing Winds Slope The mounding in this area of Westgate park serves the primary function of intercepting and calming the prevailing westerly winds. The mounds are partly planted and rise to a height of 2-2.5m. 03 02 01 Existing Sectonal Elevation East 1:600 Potental Intermingling Zones Between Salt Water Seepage And Surface Run-off Water 03 02 01 drainage edges Existing Cross Secton Looking North 1:300 Existing Sectonal Elevation West 1:600
    • Planning strategy 01 proposed salt marsh habitat existing salt marsh habitat existing salt marsh habitat 01 The state government has recently announced plans that Webb Dock will be expanded as a container port and storage facility. Integral to the projects success is the recommissioning of the freight rail link, scheduled for 2017. Work is currently underway to establish a layer of construction fill over a large saltmarsh owned by Webb Dock. The Webb Dock saltmarsh is approximately twice as big as Westgate park and is an important habitat. The loss of the Webb Dock saltmarsh will place extra pressures on the saltmarsh habitats at Westgate park Webb dock development land-reclamation. Presently functioning as tidal saltmarsh Salt lake effected by hypersalinity Long-term measures taken to mediate effects of Hyperslinity ie: removal of a small quantity of the highly concentated salt found at the bottom of the lake. By-product of the works (water with high salt content) used as the catalyst for salt harvesting scheme, which requires construction fill. By-product of the works (hole in the ground) used as the catalyst for the creation of a saltmarsh, which compensates for any displaced species effected by the lowering of salinity levels in the salt lake and further integrates the parks edges with its adjacent ecologies. The construction of the salt pans requires vegetative cover to to bond the dam wall, which function as corridors allowing the salt ponds to interact with the wider salt marsh ecologies.
    • A Saltmarsh 10mm Grading Plan (1:200) Located at the intesection of the freight rail and pedestrian path (where they pass under the Westgate freeway), the saltmarsh provides a topographic and vegetive buffer between park users and the passing freight trains. above grade buffer existing grade 60cm+ : grasses and low shrubs 40-60cm: medium succulent growth 20-40cm: low succulent growth 00-20cm: pond edge (no growth) C salt pond (groundwater) D C D section CD 1:200 B A B section AB 1:200
    • Cut strategy In many ways the salt pans function as a mechanical organised system; pumping water from the salt lake, storing then releasing the water several times via operated gate-locks, until all the water has evaporated and we are left with salt. Seen in these terms a salt pan scheme can be ‘inserted’ in almost any place we might desire. The challenge for the strategy is: How can the salt pans utilise and adjust existing site conditions to create and strengthen relationships in the park? 1 0 The salt pan scheme derives its strategy to meet its requirements of 100m3 of on-site fill plugging-into the changing politicoecological circumstances surrounding the loss of saltmarsh habitat at Webb dock. The volume of cut required creates the potential to create a saltmarsh by excavating an adjacent area of land which lays a little over a metre above the saline watertable. The size of of the saltmarsh is proportional to the average depth of cut. By refering to salmarsh precedents we can reliably predict the effect which variations in micro-climate will create (vegetation relative to topographic height. 0 1 The salt marsh is thus created by its potential to maximise its size under the constraint of required cut. By adapting to the existing slope conditions the saltmarsh can receive additional surface run-off water and in this regard, provide the imputus for the siting of the salt pans. 2 1 0 0 1 2 2 2 0 1 1.5 1 0 1 2 0.5 0 0m -0.5m 0 1 -1m 500mm contour plan (1:1000) rl: 0m 2
    • Salt Pan Strategy (first iteration) 1 0 The first two salt pans wrap around the wind break, creating a channel and allowing sufficient space for a pedestrian path which follows the contours of the pond. Without modification the salt pans will gradually erode as water runs off the windbreak, and grading as yet does not deliver run-off water to the saltmarsh area. (C) (A) 1:500 1:500 1 0 (D) (B) 0 1 (second iteration) The introduction of a swale enables the transport of water run-off in two directions from the centre of the wind break. Sections AB and DC are indicictive of the upper reach of the swale, which is elevated to create flows further down the swale. All dams create a small amount of seepage which is indicated by in red (full volume for each dam) and yellow (evapoarted level prior to transfer into the next pond. The salt water seepage combined with freshwater run-off created envirnomnts suitable for saltmarsh plants. top of bank 0.6m (C) (A) 2 1 0.5 0m 0 1 2 0.5 0.5 0m (D) 0 -1m 0 top of bank 1m 0 1 2 2 0 1 1.5 -0.5m (B) section CA amendment detail 1:100 section AB amendment detail 1:100 2 500mm contour plan (1:1000) 1 2
    • Salt harvesting strategy To minimise the amount of fill required to realise the salt harvesting scheme it is necessary to position each of the three stage ponds in close proximity , so as to reduce the fall required to gravity feed each pond. For this purpose each of the three ponds have been tied into each other and a release gate positioned to facilitate water trasnport. The final stage (chrystalisation ponds) have used (with access modification) a type of dam refered to as a turkey’s nest dam. The turkey nest dam solves several problems unique to the chrystalisation ponds. Firstly, the rquirement for access to the evavorated salt (maximum 2 metres from either side). Also, the existing conditions created difficulties in forming more than one pond. Multiple chrystalisation ponds would need to be progressively further away from the source of water in the second evaporative pond and therefore increase the slope required to gravity feed the water. These small changes to the chrystalisation ponds would necessitate large changes to the height of dams which feed them. This problem is solved by the creation of one large dam. To provide access to pedestrians and the people harvesting the saltthe centre of the turkey dam has been modified at two opposite ends to create ramped access. The ramps contain a pipe which allows the flow of water from one side to the next. A small depression has bee created north of the chrystalisation pond to collect surface run-off water from the swale on the side of the windbreak. saltmarsh swale existing path proposed path existing mounds chrystalisation pond evaporative pond 01 evaporative pond 02 section 11 10 longitudinal section 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 run-off pond freight rail water release gate pump station, underground pipes longitudinal section
    • longitudinal section 1:600 sequential section 1:500 section 11 section 10 section 09 section 08 section 07 section 06 section 05 section 04 section 03 section 02 section 01
    • Chlor oph y ll Pa r k westgate park
    • 1 Port Melbourne Development Plan 2006-2035 2 park site analysis macro scale- Westgate Park’s role in the Port of Melboutne 3 Ecological metabolism:the carbon cycle- a self renewing system 4 PoM Industrial metabolism: the energy cycle- a non renewing metabolism 5 carbon sequestering systems and public parks 6 the ef ciency of current carbon sinks- a solution or a time bomb? 7. Westgate Park’s industrial heritage 8 Lifespan of a tree- it’s ability to sequester 9 park site analysis micro scale 12 intention and purpose 13 on site plant analysis- survival rates 14 intervention details 15 modeling 16 tree speci cs analysis 17 design life cycle- re-use of biomass energy for industrial purposes ta ble of c o n te n ts
    • The PoM ‘Port Development Plan’ is a 30 year proposal to manage the growth of Melbourne and its docklands. It speaks of ‘sustainability’ in an economical sense, but does not propose any plan for ecological bene ts/ detriments caused by such rapid development. The issues of channel deepening Port Phillip Bay is discussed to compensate for an increase in ship size and numbers. No environmental repercussions of this act are discussed, only noting that it is vital to maintaining Port of Melbourne as a key economic hub of Australia. An increase in ship numbers will bring an increase in greenhouse gas emissions from the shipping industry. In 1999, 1269 gigagrams of carbon dioxide was released by the shipping industry in Australia. (Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory p62.) Carbon dioxide emissions from shipping accounts for four percent of all emissions in the world. (Carbonfund.org) The plan threatens, without proposed development and ecological manipulations to the bay, Melbourne’s Docklands will be bypassed for more favourable shipping conditions in other states, taking with it employment and possible economic growth for Melbourne. If this development is inevitable, it’s environmental impacts must be considered and strategies implemented to minimise pollution and recycle industry and developmental waste. Por t De ve lopme nt Pla n 200 6 - 2 0 3 5
    • City Westgate Park PoM land Ma c r o sc a le pla n 1:28,000
    • roads and transportation residential business industrial parks and recreation 1:700,00 pla n s e r ie s P or t of Melbourne Zoning
    • Westgate park is a green fortress in the heart of Melbourne’s industrial centre. It plays an important role in balancing the total quantity of carbon in the atmosphere. The park is surrounded from every side by developed land and cannot branch out . It is an important site and must be retained as a green space. 1:10, 0 0 0 p la n compar ison of developed land and park land
    • plantable area 267988 m2 water bodies 8450 m2 existing planting 4740 m2 pathways 7563 m2 entir e area: 288741 m 2 Westgate Park 1:3500 current site plan
    • Westgate Parks’s industrial heritage included a sand mine and an air strip. Contours below show possible layout of site post mining, which brought about the formation of the salt lake. To retrace the history of Westgate park, the salt lake will be retained. With close proximity to the bay, there is a high salt content in lakes and soils. Salt tolerant species are prefered on site. 2 1 0 2 3 1 4 2 2 2 industr ia l he r ita ge - a san d min e
    • 2 2 3 4 2 3 4 4 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 3 4 2 3 1 2 3 4 3 1 4 2 2 2 4 3 1 1 3 1 3 4 2 4 5 4 3 5 1:3000 pla n c ontours c u r r e n t
    • Herman Prigann Yellow Ramp 1993-1995 open cast mine near Cottbus, Germany pr e c e de nt: a san d min e ecological r eclamation of industrial sites
    • a plant can produce carbon dioxide for growth through its own energy cycle. Carbon dioxide is one substance in a process that converts raw materials into energy for plant growth, emitting oxygen as a waste (by-product). This process is photosynthesis and occurs in the green part of the plant, called the chlorophyll. While plants convert carbon into oxygen and water, they also release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere through respiration, and also store carbon in the soil and their biomass. The amount of carbon a plant absorbs from the atmosphere exceeds the amount that it rereleased during the ‘growth’ stage of its lifecycle, making trees bene cial for their role against overproduction of carbon from anthropogenic (human) sources such as fossil fuels, transport and industry. sunlight oxygen carbon dioxide glucose rule no 1. carbon consumption 6CO2 + 12H20 + light = C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O carbon cycle- self renewing micto scale odum diagram diagramed with physical cycle water Ec ologic a l Me ta b o lis m the carbon cycle
    • Industry has the ability, through innovative spatial planning to create a self renewing metabolism, where each individual company or business takes responsibility for its own waste products arisen from goods production. They can recycle this waste by finding other companies that can productively use their waste as a new energy source for production. Through selling this waste they economically benefit and also benefit the environment, where otherwise unused waste products would go directly into the atmosphere or landfill. In this example from Kalundbeg Park, waste outputs such as gasses, acid, ash, waste water and heat, are sold to neighbouring industries. Parterning companies are in close proximity to each other to minimise loss, or accumulation of additional waste through transport. K alu n d b erg I n d ustr ia l Park- Denmark macr o scale Odum diagram consumer co n s u m er transform t ran s fo rm at i o n producer e r produc e n e rg y f l o w I ndustr ia l Meta b o lis m an eco park
    • carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, primarily by fuel from shipping. This waste product has no current reuse as a new energy source within the docklands precinct, thereby failing to create a non-renewable metabolism. CO 2 Carbon dioxide was not always a detrimental ‘greenhouse’ gas. It is normal to have a certain amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Humans release carbon dioxide when they breathe, as do plants. Carbon dioxide has become a problem as industry, transport and coal mining have created an imbalance in its atmospheric volume, due to the fact that they create volumes of this waste product but do not re-use it as plants and animals do. carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere through the respiration of plants, and is also reabsorbed by the plants as a new energy source for growth. Westgate Park’s green plants, post industrialisation, have a new source of their energy- the docklands. however, plants can only absorb so much carbon. Emissions from shipping far exceed the ability of westgate park to absorb. CO 2 Docklands CO 2 Westgate Park CO 2 CO 2 cconsumer r onsume transform tra n s fo rm at i o n producer p ro d u cer en erg y fl o w P oM Do c k la n d s I ndustrial Metabolism
    • sunlight oxygen one m etr e carbon dioxide glucose carbon cycle- self renewing water one me tr e rule no. 1- carbon sequestration rule no. 2- absorption per metre for carbon absorption to occur at rule no.1 rate, plant must be at a growing stage of the plant life cycle, water and sunlight must be present. one metre squared of healthily, growing planted space absorbs approximately 714 kgs of carbon dioxide, at its most ef cient, each year. This is its optimum level of absorption. de sign e le men t r u le s absor ption per planted metre plant carbon cycle
    • C a r bon Flux- C atalyst A BC R e p o rt e r : P a u l Wi l l i s R e s e a r c h e r : L e o n i e Ha n s e l l 4 March 2004 Have our forests gone crazy? Forests are often called ‘the lungs of the world’ - huge carbon sinks soaking up the carbon produced by the industrialised world, and producing the oxygen we need to live. But now researchers at the Australian Canopy Crane Research Facility in the Daintree Rainforest are nding worrying evidence that this forest may have started to produce carbon. It sounds unthinkable, but is it possible that rainforests could start to fuel the cycle of global warming rather than being the solution to it? “Put simply, Carbon ux is the balance between carbon gobbling photosynthesis and carbon dioxide producing respiration by the plants and microbes in the soil. Mike Liddel: So we’re interested to know what exactly the forest is doing. Is it doing more photosynthesis or more respiration? Once the forest had grown back, they expected it to start behaving as a balanced carbon neutral forest – using up as much carbon as it produced. What we know is that last year we had very little rain throughout the dry season. This year again it’s been a relatively dry season, drier than normal and the forest then is carrying out less photosynthesis... and the result is that our forest is producing carbon dioxide which is the last thing we want.Without enough water available to photosynthesise carbon into new plant matter decomposition was taking over and releasing carbon into the atmosphere.” http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s1058761.htm the e ff ic ie nc y of c ur r e nt c a r b o n s in k s a solution, or a time bomb?
    • equal mature age tree: input of carbon equals outputgrowth has ceased leaf mass thins with age, decaying branches release carbon death of aged tree releases soil and trunk accumulated carbon into atmosphere. ratio of carbon input vs carbon output growing stage: absorption exceeds release 1 year 5 year 10 year 15 year 20 year 30 year 50 year 80 year time deciduous trees vs evergreen trees lif e - c yc le o f a tr e e and its ability to sequester carbon dioxide ( eucalyptus- lif espan of 80 years)
    • In 1999, 1269 gigagrams (1,269,000,000kg) of carbon dioxide was released by shipping fuel consumption in Australia. 332 gigagram (332,000,000kg) of carbon dioxide was emitted from shipping in Victoria. .10 If 6 (extracted from Renaissance Magazine- http://www.ru.org/22forest.html) 5 one square metre of healthily growing, planted space can absorb seven hundred and fourteen kilograms of carbon dioxide per year, and our site perimeter area is squared, 288,741 metres 4 1269,000,000kg 714 kg = 1,777,310 metres squared is needed to absorb Victoria’s annual carbon dioxide emissions from Shipping. 3 1,777,310m2 288741m2 = 6.10 In other words... we need 6.10 Westgate Parks, fully planted and constantly at ‘growing’ phase’ to absorb Victoria’s shipping emissions. 2 1 The c a r bon me ta bolism of Vic to r ia non- r egener ating metabolism
    • A large public park situated within a high density city plays an important role as an atmospheric ‘cleaner’ while balancing its position as a public space. it must serve its residents with avialable open space and amenities that allow safe, comfortable, traversable use of the park, and also planting trees that can sequester overproduced carbon dioxide from its host city. Central Park, New York- refered to as the ‘lungs’ of the city, by absorbing carbon dioxide and converting it to oxygen for re use the me ta bolism of a pub lic p a r k
    • Battle i Roig Arquitectes La Vall d’en Joan Land ll Landscape 2002 restoration of controlled rubbish dumpmediating its storage use and potential as an energy source- agricultural crops planted in between standard vegetation planting dependent on slope e c ologic a l r e c la ma tion of industr ia l s ite s
    • ‘weave’ model grey shaped to site boundaries, strings can be pulled, increasing surface area, shown by the ltering of brown into boundaries folding model piece of paper cut to site boundary shape once folded, site retains surface area but has reduced boundary size by 75 percent. could this be plantable though? mesh model pinching mesh allows curves to form, visually representing possible alterations on site Ken Yeang Green skyscrapers note folding design of levels m o d e llin g ability to maximise sur f ace ar ea, thus increasing planting
    • current site: one metre contours, height reaches no more than ve metres. contours have evolved from sand mining in which the salt lake was created. proposed site: intention to ‘stretch’ contours by ten metres per metre, to increase surface area and increase potential for westgate park to sequester carbon dioxide amounts. c ur r e nt c ontour s vs. ne w c o n to u r s
    • park user safety issues? will temporary rails need to be implemented planting and erosion stability issues arise area of greater increase per variation will need additional structural support area of greatest increase per variation 902.06 880.00 862.00 847.54 836.61 828.06 820.95 815.92 812.04 808.03 805.97 803.60 801.11 800.00 798.56 797.32 796.22 795.26 794.40 793.63 792.93 792.31 791.74 791.22 790.74 790.30 789.90 789.52 789.12 788.85 780.00 1:1000 sectional variation in slope and opportunities for folding inve stiga tion of slope va r ia tio n s sur f ace ar ea in crease outcomes
    • 568 m 511 m 11% dec 588 m 3% inc 721 m 26% inc find balance nding a a bal- within ance within this middle ground, this middle for plants to survive ground, for whileplantsincreasing also to surface area and survive between one and 276 percent increase surface area between 1 and 26 percent. me d ia tio n
    • 1/2 1/2.5 1/2.1 1/2.5 1/1.2 1/2.6 healthy plants -small grasses with drought tolerance - steep, but also tall and wide, a well established hill dying plants - erosion of mulch and topsoil. - hill is tall and narrow, unstable healthy plants -next to lake, salt specific plants - slope part of an original contour of site healthy plants -well spaced shrubs, slope protected from wind and full sun -well established hill dead plants -tall and narrow hill - unsuitable plant species, fragile trees. -salt spray dying plants -full sun unsuitable for plant species -’cleanfill’ visible from surface.. not enough capping and topsoil on-site a na lysis of pla nt he a lth in r e la tion to slop e g r a d e s
    • small grasses: . 8 metre spacing medium-large shrub: 1.5 metre spacing low lying shrub: 1.5 metre spacing large grasses: . 1.2 metre spacing semi mature large tree: 3-4 metre spacing small perenials: . 8 metre spacing on - site a na lysis of pla nt he a lth in r e la tion to s p a c in g
    • 20 metres too steep a slope - safety issues for pedestrians - health of tree planting 138 metres surface area increase in surface area but at cost of plant health 15 metres 125 metres surface area 10 metres 114 metres surface area 05 metres 106 metres surface area more suitable slopes - possibly inhabitable by humans for recreation low percentage increase 103 metres surface area assigned pathways me d ia tio n sur f ace area increase vs suitability of slope
    • local work e r s employees from surrounding industry are often found in the carpark or as a group at wooden tables during lunch hours b i k e r iders path connects to Beacon Cove and city along the Yarra wa lke r s bird enthusiasts, Beacon Cove locals or loiterers thr e e c ommon use rs o f p a r k isolated park, limited users
    • 1:3000 pla n of inte r ve ntion top o g r a p h y w ith section lines
    • 1:3000 c olour pla n of inter v e n tio n
    • detailed intervention a. grade: flat surface detailed intervention b. grade: flat detailed intervention c. grade: 1/1.06 detailed intervention d. grade: 1/4.3 detailed intervention f. grade: 1/.8 detailed intervention e. grade: 1/1.4 1:4000 plan of inte r v e n t i o n with slope grades
    • b. 1. w e intervention 685 m existing 642 m length 640 m a. 2. c. n intervention 616 m existing 558 m length 556 m n s 2. w 1. e s 1:30,000 inte r ve ntion s e c tio n s length of entire site
    • intervention: increase in surface area by stretching site 10 metres vertically a. 111m 104m existing potential of site for tree planting increase in rows of trees 22 rows of trees- entire site 9,000 trees 24 rows of trees- entire site 10,000 trees 1:600 intervention detailed se c t i o n a .
    • more mounding, less stability with small intervention b. increase in surface area by 10 percent- tree planting on site water running off sharp edges could erode topsoil water loss through runoff 116m will capture more water, gradual slopes will reduce erosion likelihood 105m water will be lost, mulch will be lost smaller scale intervention surface cuts to allow water to capture and prevent erosion through water loss 1:6000 intervention detailed sec t i o n b .
    • c. increase in surface area through 10 metres, stretched vertically 94m 78m steep section- cannot be utilised for plantation for access and growth reasons choose more suitable plantation that will control soil erosion issues and can be removed by hand once reached its carbon sequestering potential 1:6000 intervention detailed sec t i o n c .
    • d e t a i led intervention b 1 : 1 0 0 0 plan of timber transportation t h r o u g h existing train line
    • detailed interven t i o n d + e 1:300 plan of human inhabitation of gent le sloping areas - tiered pathways mediating slope
    • detailed interv e n t i o n a 1:600 plan active r ecr eation possibilities on flat slope.
    • inte r ve ntio n a r e a c .
    • inte r ve ntio n a r e a f .
    • possibilities f o r s a n d w aste f r om dedging to be used as f ill f or extreme topography mixed w ith other soils or clean fill for stability
    • 1 5 y e a rs first round planting harvested, leaving soil to rest before re p la n tin g 3 0 y e a rs second round planting harvested, leaving soil to rest b e fo re re p la n tin g f ir st r ound planting second r ound planting thir d r ound planting 1 5 y e a rs third round planting harvested, leaving soil to rest b e fo re re p la n tin g pla nting a nd ha r ve s tin g p la n time based str ategy f or maximum car b on sequestration based on tree lifespan- ability to sequester
    • Eucalyptus polyanthemos Myrtaceae Red Box ORIGIN AND HABITAT central and north-east Victoria, and south central New South Wales. PLANT TYPE AND HABIT/FORM round-headed to upright evergreen tree. CULTIVATION AND MAINTENANCE no special attention needed. PROPAGATION seed. NOTES a very handsome tree; very popular as an ornamental in California. Slow growing for a eucalypt, although quite fast when young. tree evergreen 5 years 2-2.5 X 1m Maturity 10-15 X 6-8m full sun average to good salt spray very good drought tolerance average wind tolerance waterlogging not known tr e e spe c ie s sp e c if ic s
    • WESTGATE PARK
    • A PROJECT by KEITH FARNSWORTH RMIT SUMMER STUDIO 2006 design through making_bridging landscape_
    • CONTENTS INTRODUCTION COLLAGE WESTGATE PARK LOCATION 1 SITE GEOLOGY 2 TOPOGRAPHY 3 SOIL AND WATER ANALYSIS 4 REMEDIATION 5 CONTEXT MAPPING AND ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES 6 CONCEPTUAL PLAN 7 CONTOURS PLAN 8 DESIGN PROCESS 9 COLLAGE 10 PROPOSED PLAN 11 DESIGN DETAILS 12 MATERIALITY, FLORA AND FAUNA 13 3D PERSPECTIVE 14
    • INTRODUCTION This studio relates to taking an ecological basis and understanding of landscape systems and their processes to generate flexible programs and adaptive uses of space whilst maintaining biodiversity and providing opportunity for creating habitat. An ecological understanding of the site and its industrial urban context and history as an industrial landfill and sand mine, provides a foundation for the development of design elements, structure and materiality to address the effects of industry by-products and its impact on the surrounding environment. The challenge is a design outcome that is able to meet cultural, aesthetic and ecological sustainability with flexibility to have an adaptive strategy as evolving, emergent events occur. As Westgate Park is considered contaminated from being a non-biodegradable landfill site, my approach began from an abiotic position studying leachate flow and the role of producers and consumers in remediating or degrading toxic material.
    • 01 VE R WESTGATE PARK PORT MELBOURNE WESTGATE PARK IS LOCATED ON THE EASTERN BANKS OF THE YARRA RIVER, BORDERING THE WESTGATE BRIDGE, TODD ROAD AND AN INDUSTRIAL PRECINCT. OPEN SPACE , CLOSE TO THE MELBOURNE CBD IS RARE AND HAS ONLY EVOLVED BECAUSE OF BEING UTILISED AS AN INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND SAND MINING SITE. THE SITE HAS TWO LAKES, ONE FRESH WATER AND ONE SALT WATER. CURRENTLY, FRESH WATER IS PUMPED FROM STORMWATER COLLECTED FROM THE ROOF AREA OF THE HERALD/SUN BUILDING TO THE FRESH WATER LAKE WHICH THRIVES WITH LIFE, BUT THE SALT WATER LAKE IS POLLUTED,DEAD AND STAGNANT, NOT SUPPORTING LIFE. YA R RA RI DISCONNECTION THE LAKES ARE DIVIDED AND SEEM DISCONNECTED NOT ONLY FROM EACH OTHER, BUT MORE IMPORTANTLY WITH THE YARRA RIVER. THERE IS NO TIDAL FLOW, NOR THE DIFFUSION OF FRESH AND SALT WATER THAT ONCE EXISTED IN MARSHES ACROSS THE YARRA DELTA. N FRESH WATER LAKE SW VIEW 30 60 90 120 150 180 scale SW VIEW VIEW OF WESTGATE PARK FROM OPPOSITE BANK OF YARRA RIVER SALT WATER LAKE 210 230 260 290 M
    • SITE GEOLOGY GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE YARRA DELTA Referred to as the Jolimont Valley, the original valley was eroded in the Silurian aged bedrock and has since been filled with volcanic rocks and sediments deposited through time by the Yarra River. Tertiary aged sediments and volcanics form an uneven terrain, which in turn have been overlaid by the Quartenary sediments. BRICK AND CONCRETE FILL COMPACTED CLAY CAPPING SOUTH MELBOURNE SAND COMPACTED EARTH Cross section through the Yarra Delta area (Modified after Geological survey of Victoria 1:63360 scale geological map) Qrf GR AH AM Fill Qrp SA LM ON ST ST R RE E EE T r ive 17 re aR bo BW Ya rr MM T Port Melbourne Sand WATER The Port Melbourne Sands is the upper unit of the Yarra Delta Group. The unit is generally 5 to lOm thick. It is present on the southern side of the Yarra River in the Port Melbourne area near the West Gate bridge. The sand forms an Aquifer that extends SE towards St Kilda and generally consists of fine to medium grained sands. It overlies Coode Island SIlt and extends through West Gate Park with a width of aprox. 90m. WATER TABLE INDUSTRIAL WASTE NOT TO SCALE SAND MINING SW ASPECT BOTH LAKES HAVE COME TO EXIST IN CONNECTION WITH LANDFILL,ONE FROM SAND MINING AND THE OTHER FROM THE DEPOSITING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE. THE SAND THAT WAS REMOVED, ORIGINALLY PROVIDED A NATURAL FILTRATION SYSTEM TO THE AQUIFER BENEATH THE WETLANDS. HIGH SALINITY LEVELS IN THE SURROUNDING SOILS IS DETRIMENTAL TO PLANT SPECIES AND HABITATS. AQUIFER Qrc Qrf Qrp Qrc Port Melbourne Sand Qrf Fisherman’s Bend Silt Qrc Coode Island Silt Coode Island & Fishermen’s Bend Silt The Coode Island Silt is widely distributed in the Yarra Delta but is absent in some areas, mainly overlying the deposits of Fisherman’s Bend Silt. It is thickest where there is an absence of the underlying Fisherman’s Bend Silt and tends to then overy the Moray Street Gravels. Its thickness varies to 30m and consists of grey silty clays with clayey silts and sand lenses. Fill: Various amounts of have been placed in and around the Yarra to achieve the current river channel and surface profile of site. The fill consists of sandy clay, gravely clay, silty clay, clayey sand and clayey gravel with some organic material refuse and rubble. The fill may be contaminated in places. It is up to 7.5m thick however is generally 0.5-2m thick. Industrial waste dump 1930’s for 23 year period, capped with clay aprox. 1956-1960. Fresh water lake established over dump site during the late 1980’s Fresh water lake Sand mining 1930’s over 10 year period resulting in current saline lake Salt water lake N SCALE 1:5000 NOT TO SCALE SW ASPECT THIS SECTION SHOWS THE STRUCTURE OF THE SUBSOIL LAYERS OF MOUNDS AND SALTWATER LAKE. THE TOPSOIL HAS A DEPTH OF 100 MM OVER HARD COMPACTED CLAY AND IN SOME AREAS CONSTRUCTION RUBBLE IS VISIBLE JUST UNDER THE TOPSOIL SURFACE, PREVENTING THE PLANTING OF VEGETATION. BRICKS, CONCRETE AND DEBRIS LINE THE EDGES OF THE SALTWATER LAKE AND GREEN AND BLUE (CYANOBACTERIA) ALGAE BLOOMS THROUGHOUT THE LAKE INDICATING AN UNHEALTHY LAKE CONDITION 02
    • 03 TOPOGRAPHIC SECTIONS A A B B N RIDGE WATER RUN OFF SCALE 1:5000 Contoured mounds formed of construction fill, compacted clay and shallow topsoil, surround the lakes areas to catch rain water and provide wind breaks. The slopes encourage water runoff to the lakes, but have contributed to the toxic condition of the salt water lake and the stressing of vegetation. PREVAILING WINDS SCALE 1:2000 20 Runoff Runoff Runoff 40 60 80 100 120 05m 04m 03m 02m 01m 00m A 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 brackish lake to salt lake section 65 70 75 80 83.5m 0 B A 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 salt lake to carpark section 40 45 46.2 B Some potential views are prevented by the mounds, but also cause thermal stratification in the lakes Mounding prevents Wind currents from stirring water (mixing), causing stratification, stagnation and algae/bacterial blooms SALTWATER LAKE FRESHWATER LAKE ABOVE LANDFILL WATER TABLE SEDIMENT DISPERSAL THROUGH AQUIFER AND WATER TABLE 10 METERS PORT MELBOURNE SAND AQUIFER A CONTAMINATED PLUME CONSISTING OF IRON,CHROMIUM, CADMIUM, MERCURY,LEAD AND OTHER TOXIC SUBSTANCES ARE LEACHED INTO THE AQUIFER AND EVENTUALLY INTO THE YARRA RIVER AND PORT PHILLIP BAY 140 160 180 200 M
    • SOIL AND WATER TESTS the landfill 08. 07. 06. CONSTRUCTION FILL AND COMPACTION The lake salt lake edge reveals construction fill that has also been utilised to establish mounds. The photo of the lake below, shows signs of enrichment from phosphorus and nitrates. There is evidence that salinity is increasing throughout the site. Photo 1. & 2. of the lake edge, shows signs of high levels of osmotic stress. There is very little evidence of the food chain throughout the salt lake areas, except for where there may be a fresh water drain. 05. 04. 01. 03. Fresh water lake 02. 2. Salt water lake 3. N SCALE 1:3500 01. Dark sandy topsoil 100mm to extremely hard clay, exacerbated by drought conditions, very dry and would be considered a generic sample found in exposed open positions. 02. Top of mound, dark sandy topsoil 100mm, hard clay 03. Salt water lake sample, eutrophic, pea green color cyanobacterial blooms, planktonic algae, nitrogen levels in the water exceed 0.3 mg/L and phosphorus levels exceed 0.01 mg/L (Metcalf & Eddy, 1991, p 1213). oxygen levels extremely low, probably stagnant. 04. Jetty site on fresh water lake: slightly moist at start of clay at 100mm 08. EUTROPHICATION Shaded area to East side of fresh water lake, dark sandy topsoil to 100mm, hard clay compacted under topsoil 07. 4. Southern side of bank, soil profile to 300mm, 120mm black sandy loam topsoil to moist ocre colored clay with fragments of shale to 5-50mm. Moisture possibly from fresh water lake through capillary action. 06. An enriched lake is one which contains too many nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorous. Symptoms of such enrichment may include excessive algae, odor problems and low levels of dissolved oxygen. Lake shore line: black, silty clay, pungent odour, anaerobic condition, toxic sedimentation, detrimental to supporting plant life, lack of emergent macrophytes, soil organic colloids, high salinity, low pH. 05. 1. Fresh water lake sample: Very clear, olygotrophic to mesotropic, supporting wide variety of plant life The Port Melbourne Sand aquifer, tends to flow in a SE directions, following the course of the river. It is assumed that suspended leachate particles are dispersed in this direction also. As the water table is high and replenishes the salt water lake, contaminated sedimentation would be evident throughout the lake and soils. CONTAMINANTS The principal contaminates of concern that are possibly found leaching from West Gate Park, are metals (arsenic, zinc, mercury, lead, copper), phenolic, ammonia, hydrocarbons and volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons. Other contaminates recorded in the area include TPH, PAH, PCBs, OC Pesticides, cyanide and heavy metals (Sinclair Knight Merz, November 1999). Metals are often related to contaminated fill used in the area. Soil texture - Inorganic fractions • Gravel - particles greater than 2 mm in diameter. • Coarse sand - particles less than 2 mm and greater than 0.2 mm in diameter. • Fine sand - particles between 0.2 mm and 0.02 mm in diameter. • Silt - particles between 0.02 mm and 0.002 mm in diameter • Clay - particles less than 0.002 mm in diameter. Soil Related Stress Soil compaction frequently causes long-term health problems with plants. This compaction resulted from the use of a "sheep's foot," a piece of equipment used to compact soils in preparation for construction N INDICATES OLD LANDFILL SITE CONTAINING NON-BIODEGRADABLE WASTE FROM INDUSTRY DISPERSAL OF LEACHATE PLUME SE DIRECTION OF CONTAMINANT SPREAD 04
    • 05 REMEDIATIONS AND SOLUTIONS OLD SALT LAKE MSW MACHINE DRILLING PRB NEW CAPPING & LINER VOLVO Rhizofiltration and Bioretention Remediation AQUIFER PORT MELBOURNE SAND AQUITARD As the analysis of West Gate Park reveals major environmental and ecological problems, remediation must be approached from a combination of abiotic and biotic chains to have a sucessful design outcome. As anthropogenic activity has precluded any notion of a ‘restoration’ to a state that previously prevailed under certain conditions, consideration of possibilities that address current and future issues provide a guideline for design. Remediation involves ‘below/ above’, or starting from under the ground up, or more correctly, where both planes meet.. COODE ISLAND SILT MOUNDING TO BE REMOVED, MATERIAL CLEANED & SORTED CONCRETE, BRICK & STONE TO BE CRUSHED AND RECYCLED IN GABIONS & TO CONSOLIDATE GRAVEL FILTER BEDS IN WETLANDS. A PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER COULD BE CONSTRUCTED TO CLOSE OFF THE LANDFILL. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT A WELL COULD BE LOCATED ADJACENT TO THE PRB TO SUPPLY GROUND WATER TO THE LAKES FOR FURTHER FILTERING AND ULTIMATELY RECHARGED BACK INTO THE AQUIFER. PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER (PRB) Modern landfills could be described as a sealed ‘box in the ground’. As the old landfill at West Gate Park cannot be sealed at its base to prohibit leakage into the Port Melbourne Sand aquifer, it would still be feasible to construct a PRB that penetrates into the aquitard (Coode Island Silt) to filter out contaminants. Heavy metal soil stabilization techniques 1. Phytovolatization 2. Microbial Bioremediation 3. Extraction of Heavy Metals Containment of leachate to aquifer PRB PLAN VIEW 4. Constuct a bentonite & permiable reactive barrier around contaminant source 5. Empty salt water lake, extract non biodegradable waste 6. Cap salt water lake 7. Establish bioretention ponds and treatment train through a new freshwater wetlands Process and recycle 8. Sort, grade and process current construction fill mounds 9. Recycle large solid masonry fill through crushing and grading into various sizes for gabion cages, wetlands base. and use in bioretention train. SCALE 1: 5500 N Linkage to Yarra River edge 10. Establish fresh water lake close to the Yarra River edge, acting as recharge source, amenity and linkage to Yarra system /Port/ City. VOLATIZATION ACCUMULATION METABOLISM Red lines show mounds, preventing wind circulation and blocking views through to Yarra River UPTAKE BIODEGRADATION CONTAMINANTS THE PHYTOREMEDIATION PROCESS Contaminants are incorporated into the plant's tissues Opposite West Gate Park, mounds block views to the park and city beyond. Narrow sandy beaches at River’s edge, are used for fishing.
    • CONTEXT MAPPING & ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES KEY: CITY WESTGATE PARK INDUSTRIAL RESIDENTIAL RIVERS, BAYS & TRIBUTARIES LEACHATE FLOW DIAGRAMS MACRO SCALE DIAGRAM CITY YARRA RIVER RESIDENTIAL WESTGATE PARK LANDFILL PORT PHILLIP BAY INDUSTRY ATMOSPHERE MICRO SCALE DIAGRAM AMMONIA NITROGEN N INDUSTRY PORT STORM WATER AQUIFER BENZINE, DDT, ARSENIC, LEAD, MERCURY SALT LAKE RUNOFF LEACHING AIR/ DUST ATMOSPHERE PRECIPITATION PORT PHILLIP BAY MACROPHYTES LANDFILL SOIL STORAGE PRODUCER MACROPHYTES PORT MELBOURNE SANDS AQUIFER CONSUMER BENZINE, DDT, ARSENIC, LEAD, MERCURY YARRA RIVER 06
    • CONCEPTUAL PLAN WETLANDS ARE VANISHING FAST, ALONG WITH SPECIES ENDEMIC TO THE UNIQUE AND COMPLEX ECO-SYSTEMS WITHIN COASTAL ESTUARIES AND RIVER DELTAS. ALTHOUGH AN ORIGINAL TIDAL ESTUARY FLOOD PLAIN CANNOT BE RESTORED, CONNECTIONS AND REMEDIATIONS CAN BE APPLIED TO PROTECT AND ENHANCE EXISTING LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS, AND ALSO ENCOURAGE AWARENESS OF THE UNIQUE FUNCTIONS THESE SYSTEMS FULFILL. THIS PROPOSITION MAKES MULTIPLE CONNECTIONS TO VARIOUS LEVELS OF INTEREST, CONSOLIDATES THE PRECIOUSNESS OF OPEN SPACE WITHIN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO THE CITY AND PROVIDES A WORTHY ENHANCEMENT TO THE WESTGATE BRIDGE LANDMARK AND WESTERN CORRIDOR. THIS CONCEPT POTENTIALLY ESTABLISHES WESTGATE PARK FOR CONSIDERATION AS OF STRATEGIC SIGNIFICANCE FOR PURCHASE, ACCORDING TO THE CRITERIA GOVERNING THE LAND AQUISITION DOCUMENT. CONCEPTUALLY THIS PLAN ATTEMPTS TO BRIDGE A LINK BETWEEN INTERFACES, PROVIDING AN OPPORTUNITY TO RECLAIM A SMALL PORTION OF THE YARRA DELTA THAT MAY EMERGE AS SIGNIFICANT IN TIME FOR THE FUNCTION THAT IT FULFILLS ECOLOGICALLY. THIS PROJECT MAY BE CONSIDERED AS AN EMERGENCY CORONARY BYPASS TO RESTORE CIRCULATORY FLOW WITHIN THE MIDST OF AN INDUSTRIAL METABOLISM KEY: STAGE 1 SEDIMENTATION LAKE B STAGE 2 NUTRIENT STRIPPING LAKE STAGE 3 TIDAL ESTUARY INLET, MARSH & LAKE TO YARRA RIVER FILTER STRIPS & SWALES TREATMENT CHAIN C TODD RA RIV ER ROAD A YA R 07 1. 2. 2. STORMWATER INLET, SEDIMENTATION TRAP & SAND FILTER TO TREATMENT TRAIN LIMESTONE & DOLOMITE ROCKS TO REDUCE & NEUTRALISE LOW PH OF WATER (CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM CARBONATE CONTENT) BOARDWALK & BBQ AREA A EPHEMERAL MACROPHYTE ZONE/ CARBON TRAP 1. B TIDAL MARSH PATHWAYS & BOARDWALKS C SAND & SOIL REMEDIATION CELLS BRIDGE OVER ESTUARY INLET EXTENT OF WORKS 20 N 40 60 80 100 120 140 SCALE 1:2000 160 180 200 M TODD ROAD
    • CONTOURS PLAN 2 +2.5 2 2.0 3.0 R.L 0.0 Yarra River 2.6 +1.8 3 2.5 1.1 6 1. 0.0 +2.3 2 2.5 3 2.0 1.1 .7 1.4 2 +2.8 2 2.0 2 08
    • 09 DESIGN PROCESS LEACHATE DISPERSION PERMEATION PATHWAYS DISTRIBUTION THE DESIGN PROCESS EMERGED FROM LEACHATE FLOW INTO IMPERMEABLE AND PERMEABLE BARRIERS, INTERSECTIONS AND CELLULAR STRUCTURES AT MICRO AND MACRO SCALES. CORRIDORS FOR THE MIGRATION OF SPECIES ACROSS EDGE ZONES AND THE ABILITY OF CELLULAR ZONES TO MORPH AND RESPOND TO EMERGING CONDITIONS, PROVIDES AN UNDERLYING DESIGN PRINCIPLE AND STRATEGY WITHIN A FIELD OF ORGANISATION.
    • CORRIDORS FOR MIGRATION 10
    • ER RIV 375 300 Ø RA YAR 750 Ø 300 Ø AR IV ER WESTGATE PARK PLAN VIEW Ø 1650 Ø 300 Ø STREET 1650 LORIMER Ø 1800 Ø 300 300 Ø Ø 300 Ø Ø 1800 300 Ø 300 STREET Ø INDUSTRIAL SECTOR 300 Ø Ø Ø 300 Ø LORIMER 300 750 300 Ø 750 Ø 300 Ø 300 300 Ø Ø TODD Ø 1800 ROAD 750 RIV ER Ø Ø 750 225 Ø 300 Ø 225 Ø Ø 675 300 Ø Ø Ø 1800 300 600 Ø YAR RA ET STRE 750 Ø 600 Ø DRIVE PRIVATE Ø IMER 675 Ø 300 Ø AY Ø 675 600 Ø Ø 600 LOR 750 WIRRAW 300 Ø 450Ø 1200 Ø 600 300 600 Ø Ø Ø 300 Ø 300 Ø Ø 300 Ø 450 DRIVE Ø Ø 1200 Ø Ø 375 Ø 300 Ø 375 Ø Ø Ø 375 450 1050 Ø Ø 375 D 300 ROA Ø R Ø STREET 525 LORIME Ø RF WHA 300 Ø Ø 300 RAILWAY Ø 375 300 Ø 300 Ø DOCK WEBB Ø 675 Ø Ø 375 Ø 1050 Ø 750 Ø Ø 300 525 Ø 300 300 Ø 300 Ø 450 750x225 300 Ø 300 750x225 750 750 Ø 300 Ø 375 Ø Ø 300 300 Ø Ø 525 Ø 300 Ø Ø Ø 300 TODD ROAD 750 375 300 TODD ROAD Ø Ø 525 SABRE 525 300 750x225 YA RR Ø 300 E) 300 DRIVE Ø (PRIVAT 450 Ø 750 Ø 300 Ø 450 Ø NETWORK Ø GE BRID 525 SARDINE (PRIVAT WEBB TE Ø 525 TGA Ø Ø STREET Ø Ø 675 675 Ø 600 Ø Ø 300 300 Ø Ø 300 300 COOK 300 WES 600 300 (OVER) Ø BRIDGE 300 WESTGATE PARK DOCK E) ATE Ø 1050 Ø 675 Ø RAILWAY STREET WESTG 300 Ø 1050 Ø TODD Ø 300 300 Ø 300 Ø Ø 300 Ø E BRIDGE 300 Ø 1050 300 Ø PARADE 1050 ROAD WESTGAT HOWE (UNMADE) Ø Ø 2100 300 Ø HOWE PARADE 300 Ø 2100 ROAD Ø GOVERNMENT YARRA RIVER 11 (UNMADE) 300 Ø 2100 Ø Ø TODD 2100 ROAD 300 Ø 2100 Ø 300 Ø 300 Ø 300 Ø Ø LORIMER 300 FORMER DOCKSIDE 300 Ø 300 ROAD ROAD STREET Ø OWN WILLIAMST ROAD TOWN WILLIAMS FORMER B R VE RI WEB A RR YA DO CK LORIMER ST/TODD RD STORMWATER OUTFALL PLAN EXISTING FRESH WATER LAKES LIMESTONE WALL WITH REBATED PATHWAY GRASSLANDS LAKE FLOOD OVERFLOW DRAIN W ES TG AT E GROSS POLLUTANT TRAP LIMESTONE INFILL TREATMENT TRAIN BR ID GE CARPARK 2 SEDIMENTATION LAKE D A A WETLANDS RD TIDAL OUTFALL LAKE D TO 3 1 WETLANDS WETLANDS SAND DUNES WETLANDS TEA TREE THATCH RETAINING WALLS TE TGA GE BRID WES SHIPPING CONTAINERS N 0 10 20 30 40 50 A 60 70 80 90 100 M
    • DESIGN DETAIL 12 CELL & GABION DETAILS A. Wetland cells phytoremediation B. Secondary phytoremediation C. Final wetland remediation 1. Wetlands sedimentation lake 2. Bioretention lake 3. Salt water lake and marsh MACROPHYTES 0.2 2 3 1 Gabion cage wall A A A B Width variation to suit pathways and cell walls (adaptable) C B A B N 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0.9 70 80 90 100 M MACROPHYTES Gabions form moveable walkways and permiable walls. Configurations can be adapted to suit macrophyte growth and pedestrian traffic B 2M Fall total 0.9 B SCALE 1: 200 SECTION DETAIL Macrophytes to varying depths 0.9 - 0.2 M Wetlands depth 0.2- 0.9M 0.5M fall from lake to wetlands 2 3 2M max depth to lakes 1 Clay capping Fine & course gravels 2.0 1.5 M GRADIENT OUTLINE Filtration Heights of Gabions can be adapted to facilitate variations 0.2
    • 13 WATER CELLS & LAKES SOIL GROWING MEDIUM FINE GRAVEL LARGE GRAVEL FLOW LAYER GEOTEXTILE LINER COMPACTED CLAY LINER GABIONS MACROPHYTES STORMWATER FLOW GRAVELS IMPERMEABLE CLAY LINER DIAGRAM SHOWING PERMEABILITY OF GABION STRUCTURES AND GRAVEL SUBTRATES A sampling of flora and fauna
    • PERSPECTIVES WASTELAND TO WETLAND WESTGATE PARK EMERGES FROM A LONG PERIOD OF CONTAMINATION TO RECONNECT WITH ITS ANCESTRAL RIVER DELTA PAST 14