2014 Nature Night: Attracting Native Pollinators by Mace Vaughan

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Mace Vaughan from the Xerces Society presents at the Deschutes Land Trust's Nature Night on Attracting Native Pollinators. Learn all about native bees, challenges they face, and how you can help.

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2014 Nature Night: Attracting Native Pollinators by Mace Vaughan

  1. 1. Mace Vaughan, Pollinator Conservation Program Director The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation Attracting Native Pollinators! Photo: Rollin Coville
  2. 2. What is the Xerces Society? Photo:s California NRCS and Ed Ross Since 1971, the Society has worked to protect wildlife through the conservation of invertebrates and their habitat. Major Programs: •  Pollinator conservation •  Endangered species •  Aquatic invertebrates Xerces blue butterfly (Glaucopsyche xerces), the first U.S. butterfly to go extinct due to human activities
  3. 3. Photo: Eric Mader What is the Xerces Society? The Xerces Society’s Pollinator Conservation Program •  Habitat restoration •  Technical guides and trainings •  Documenting at-risk pollinators •  Applied restoration research Joint Staff Biologist Positions •  USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) •  University of Minnesota Extension Staff Backgrounds •  Farming, entomology, teaching, habitat restoration, beekeeping, wildlife conservation, and native seed production
  4. 4. Xerces Society Pollinator Conservation Xerces Society Pollinator Conservation Program Supported creation of more than 120,000 acres of habitat since 2008
  5. 5. Bring Back the Pollinators To bring back the pollinators, I will: •  Protect and provide bee nests and caterpillar host plants. •  Grow a variety of pollinator- friendly flowers which bloom from spring through fall. •  Avoid using pesticides, especially insecticides. •  Talk to my neighbors about the importance of pollinators and their habitat!
  6. 6. Why Care About Pollinators? Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  7. 7. Photo: Rollin Coville More than 85 percent of flowering plants require an animal, mostly insects, to move pollen. Ollerton, Winfree, and Tarrant. 2011. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos. 120:321-326. Insect Pollinators: Ecological Keystone
  8. 8. Benefits to Other Wildlife: •  Pollinator-produced fruits and seeds comprise 25% of bird and mammal diets •  Pollinators are food for wildlife, including 89% of birds!! •  Pollinator habitat is compatible with the needs of other wildlife, such as songbirds Importance of Pollinators: Wildlife © Sierra Vision Stock USDA-NRCS Mace Vaughan
  9. 9. Pollinators provide an ecosystem service that enables plants to produce fruits and seeds. •  35% of crop production, worldwide •  Over $18 to $27 billion value of crops in U.S. ($217 billion worldwide) •  Most of our vitamins and minerals are from insect-pollinated plants •  One in three mouthfuls of food and drink we consume Importance of Pollinators: Nutrition Photo: USDA-ARS/Peggy Greb Morse RA, Calderone NW. 2000. The value of honey bees as pollinators of U.S. crops in 2000. Bee Culture 128: 1–15. Klein et al. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc. R. Soc. B 274: 303-313. Eilers et al. 2011. Contribution of pollinator-mediated crops to nutrients in the human food supply. PLoS One 6 6): e21363.
  10. 10. Photo: USDA-ARS/Peggy Greb Importance of Pollinators: Nutrition
  11. 11. Photo: Whole Foods Market Whole Foods Produce With Bee Pollinated Crops
  12. 12. Photo: Whole Foods Market Whole Foods Produce Without Bees
  13. 13. Photos: James Cane; Jeff Adams; Dana Ross; Bruce Newhouse Main Groups of Pollinators Photos: Mace Vaughan, Bob Hammond, David Inouye, Bruce Newhouse
  14. 14. Bees: The Most Important Pollinators Photo: Rollin Coville • Collect and transport pollen • Forage in area around nest • Flower constancy
  15. 15. Photo: Rollin Coville Non-Native Bees: European Honey Bees
  16. 16. Photo: Robert W. Matthews, University of Georgia; Bugwood.org Honey Bees Are Not Typical Bees
  17. 17. North America: 4,000 species Oregon: 600-800 species? Bee Diversity Photo: Mace Vaughan
  18. 18. Photo: Stephen L. Buchmann Bee Diversity
  19. 19. Native Bee Diversity: Bumble Bees Photos: Eric Mader(Xerces Society), Steve Javorek (AgCanada)
  20. 20. Photo: Rollin Coville Native Bee Diversity: Leaf-cutter Bees
  21. 21. Photo: Mace Vaughan Native Bee Diversity: Leaf-cutter Bees
  22. 22. Photos: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society) Native Bee Diversity: Mason Bees
  23. 23. Native Bee Diversity: Carpenter Bees (big) Photo: Rollin Coville
  24. 24. Native Bee Diversity: Carpenter Bees (small) Photo: Rollin Coville
  25. 25. Native Bee Diversity: Striped Sweat Bees Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society)
  26. 26. Native Bee Diversity: Green Sweat Bees Photo: Rollin Coville
  27. 27. Native Bee Diversity: Green Striped Sweat Bees Photo: Rollin Coville
  28. 28. Native Bee Diversity: Miner Bees (Tickle Bees) Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society)
  29. 29. Native Bee Diversity: Long-Horned Bees Photo: Rollin Coville
  30. 30. Native Bee Diversity: Sun Flower Bees Photo: Rollin Coville
  31. 31. European honey bee is the principal crop pollinator. Disease, pests, and low honey prices have lead to: •  50% decline in managed hives since 1950 •  70-100% decline in feral colonies Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Honey Bee Declines
  32. 32. Photo: Eric Mader, (Xerces Society) Annual hive losses… Before CCD (1995-2006): 15% - 22% per year After CCD (2006-today): 29% - 36% per year Honey Bee Losses
  33. 33. Rusty-patched bumble bee 87% Range Loss Yellow-banded bumble bee 31% Range Loss Western bumble bee 28% Range Loss Franklin’s bumble bee Possibly Extinct Western North America Sources: Cameron et al. 2011, Evans et al. 2009, Colla and Packer 2008; Photos (clockwise from upper left): P Schroeder, L Richardson, J Knutson, JC Jones, P Michaels American bumble bee 23% Range Loss Eastern North America Native Bees in Decline According to a new analysis by the Xerces Society (in press) 30% of North American bumble bees are at-risk.
  34. 34. Bumble Bee Citizen Monitoring Project © Pat Michaels Bumble Bee Watch bumblebeewatch.org
  35. 35. Pollinators have many threats: •  Habitat loss •  Diseases and pests •  Climate changes •  Pesticides Photo: Matthew Shepherd Threats to pollinators
  36. 36. DISEASE HABITAT Threats to pollinators
  37. 37. DISEASE HABITAT Threats to pollinators
  38. 38. Bring Back the Pollinators To bring back the pollinators, I will: •  Protect and provide bee nests. •  Grow a variety of pollinator- friendly flowers which bloom from spring through fall. •  Avoid using pesticides, especially insecticides. •  Talk to my neighbors about the importance of pollinators and their habitat!
  39. 39. Beekeeping is not conservation. Keep honey bees if you: •  Think it would be fun •  Want to produce your own honey Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Bring Back the Pollinators
  40. 40. Beekeeping is not conservation. Keep honey bees if you: •  Think it would be fun •  Want to produce your own honey Photo: USDA-ARS/Scott Bauer Bring Back the Pollinators
  41. 41. Three Types of Native Bees Photos: Mace Vaughan, Rollin Coville, Elaine Evans Bumble Bees (social) Tunnel- Nesting Bees (primarily solitary) Ground-Nesting Bees (primarily solitary)
  42. 42. Photos: Dennis Briggs Life Cycle of a Solitary Bee Mining bee (Andrena sp.): a year in its underground nest as egg, larva, and pupa before emerging to spend a few weeks as an adult.
  43. 43. Photos: Eric Mader, Jim Cane, Matthew Shepherd, and Jennifer Hopwood Nearly 70% of native bee species nest underground •  Resemble ant-nests from above ground •  May be found in turf, more often on bare, exposed ground. •  Sandy to loam soils preferred but some will nest in clay too Ground Nesting Solitary Bees
  44. 44. Photos: Betsy Betros, Rollin Coville, Dennis Briggs • Nests may be anywhere from several cm deep or up to a meter or more deep • Nest chambers are lined with waxy glandular secretions, and can sometimes even resist flooding Ground Nesting Solitary Bees
  45. 45. Sabin Elementary School: Portland, Oregon Photos: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society) Ground-nesting bees need: •  Access to bare, sandy soil Ground Nesting Solitary Bees
  46. 46. Retain or create bare soil: •  Keep areas of bare ground •  Maximize untilled areas •  Clear away some plants from well drained slopes •  Experiment with no-till farming techniques •  Plant native bunch grasses Photos: Mace Vaughan Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society) Ground Nesting Solitary Bees
  47. 47. Retain or create bare soil: •  Keep areas of bare ground •  Maximize untilled areas •  Clear away some plants from well drained slopes •  Experiment with no-till farming techniques •  Plant native bunch grasses Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society) Ground Nesting Solitary Bees
  48. 48. Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society) Ground Nesting Solitary Bees
  49. 49. Photos: Mace Vaughan Illustration: Ken RumbaughPhotos: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society) Ground Nesting Solitary Bees
  50. 50. Retain or create bare soil: •  Keep areas of bare ground •  Maximize untilled areas •  Clear away some plants from well drained slopes •  Experiment with no-till farming techniques •  Plant native bunch grasses Photos: Mace Vaughan Illustration: Ken Rumbaugh Ground Nesting Solitary Bees
  51. 51. Photos: Edward Ross, Darrin O’Brien, Matthew Shepherd Roughly 30% of native species •  Nest in hollow or pithy plant stems, old beetle borer holes, man-made cavities and even old snail shells •  Nest tunnel partitions constructed of mud, leaf pieces, or sawdust •  Artificially managed for some crops •  Conserve snags, brush piles Tunnel Nesting Bees
  52. 52. Photos: Mace Vaughan, Eric Mader, Jennifer Hopwood Nest cells separated with mud or leaf partitions Tunnel Nesting Bees
  53. 53. Hollow stem example: Silk cocoons with dormant bees inside Mud cap closure Larva Pupa Adult Pollen mass Egg Mud wall Cross-section of silk cocoons Tunnel Nesting Bees
  54. 54. Photos: Matthew Shepherd; Mace Vaughan Nest Sites: Tunnel Nesting Bees
  55. 55. Bombus vagans on clover Bumble Bees (Social) Photos: Elaine Evans, Nancy Adamson 45 species in U.S. •  Social colonies founded by single queen •  Annual, last only one season •  Nest may contain 25-400 workers •  Nests in abandoned rodent burrows or under lodged grasses •  Conserve brush piles, un-mowed areas
  56. 56. Life Cycle of a Bumble Bee Colony Winter: Hibernating queen Spring: Queen establishes nest and lays eggs Summer: Colony peak Early Fall: Males leave nest, then new queens leave to find a mate Fall: Mated queens seek overwintering sites, founding queen dies Illustration: David Wysotski Early Summer: Worker females help grow the colony
  57. 57. Bring Back the Pollinators To bring back the pollinators, I will: •  Protect and provide bee nests. •  Grow a variety of pollinator- friendly flowers which bloom from spring through fall. •  Avoid using pesticides, especially insecticides. •  Talk to my neighbors about the importance of pollinators and their habitat!
  58. 58. Plants bloom everywhere but bees need the right type of flower. •  Retain existing flower patches •  Create new patches Forage Patches Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  59. 59. Photos: Matthew Shepherd; Berry Botanic Garde,n Mace Vaughan Plant Selection: •  Abundant pollen and nectar •  Preferred by pollinators •  Bloom throughout the year •  Create blocks of flowers •  Native vs. non-native Forage Patches: Plant Selection
  60. 60. Forage Patches: Native Plants are Best Garden varieties can look pretty but may offer little or no nectar or pollen. Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  61. 61. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Gold Currant Ribes aureum Tall Oregon Grape Mahonia aquifolium Forage Patches: Spring Bloom
  62. 62. Broad Leaf Lupine Lupinus latifolius Arrowleaf Balsamroot Balsamorhiza sagittata Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Forage Patches: Spring Bloom
  63. 63. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Choke Cherry Prunus virginiana Serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia Forage Patches: Spring Bloom
  64. 64. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Forage Patches: Spring Bloom Oregon Sunshine Eriophyllum lanatum Fine Tooth Penstemon Penstemon subserratus
  65. 65. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Forage Patches: Spring Bloom California Poppy Eschscholzia californica Nettle Leaf Horsemint Agastache urticifolia
  66. 66. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Forage Patches: Spring Bloom Deerbrush Ceanothus integerrimus Desert Yellow Daisy Erigeron linearis
  67. 67. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Forage Patches: Spring Early Summer Blue Elderberry Sambucus nigra Ocean Spray Holodiscus discolor
  68. 68. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Annual Sunflower Helianthus annuus Forage Patches: Summer Bloom Yellow Bee Plant Cleome lutea
  69. 69. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Showy Milkweed Asclepias speciosa Narrow Leaf Milkweed Asclepias fascicularis Forage Patches: Summer Bloom
  70. 70. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Forage Patches: Summer Bloom Fireweed Chamerion angustifolium Yarrow Achillea millefolium
  71. 71. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Forage Patches: Summer Bloom Blue Flax Linum lewisii Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus
  72. 72. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Hairy Gold Aster Heterotheca villosa Blanket Flower Gaillardia aristata Forage Patches: Late Summer to Fall
  73. 73. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Late Goldenrod Solidago gigantea Meadow Goldenrod Solidago canadensis v. salebrosa Forage Patches: Late Summer to Fall
  74. 74. Slide and photos courtesy of Humble Roots Nursery (Mosier, OR). www.humblerootsnursery.com Rabbitbrush Ericameria sp. Nuttall’s Sunflower Helianthus nuttallii Forage Patches: Late Summer to Fall
  75. 75. Photos: Matthew Shepherd Forage Patches: Garden Plants Photos: Matthew Shepherd
  76. 76. Photos: Matthew Shepherd Forage Patches: Lawns Photo: Matthew Shepherd
  77. 77. Forage Patches: Urban Meadows
  78. 78. Bring Back the Pollinators To bring back the pollinators, I will: •  Protect and provide bee nests. •  Grow a variety of pollinator- friendly flowers which bloom from spring through fall. •  Avoid using pesticides, especially insecticides. •  Talk to my neighbors about the importance of pollinators and their habitat!
  79. 79. Photo: The Oregonian Mass bumble bee kill in Oregon, June 2013
  80. 80. Mass bumble bee kill in Oregon, June 2013
  81. 81. Mass bumble bee kill in Oregon, June 2013
  82. 82. Mass bumble bee kill in Oregon, June 2013 Photo: Mace Vaughan (Xerces Society) Pesticides Kill Bees
  83. 83. Avoid using pesticides If you must use pesticides: • Minimize their use • Read guidance carefully But be warned: even when label instructions are followed there is limited protection for native bees. Pesticides Kill Bees Photo: Matthew Shepherd www.xerces.org/pesticides
  84. 84. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Photo: Regina Hirsch Neonicotinoid Systemic Insecticides: •  Increasingly used on crops •  Applied as sprays, soil treatments, trunk injections, or seed coatings •  Systemic mode of action •  Residues in pollen and nectar •  Toxic at VERY low levels •  Can be persistent over time in plants and soil
  85. 85. •  Also used on ornamental plants, and lawns •  Level of application is much greater than on crops (up to 120x), which increases the risk to pollinators •  Avoid use on pollinator-visited plants in yards, parks (e.g. maple trees, linden trees, roses, etc) •  Check with your nursery to make sure perennial plants you purchase have not been treated with neonicotinoids Photo: Matthew Shepherd Neonicotinoids for Ornamental plants
  86. 86. Organic-Approved Pesticides? •  Pyrethrins = Dangerous for Bees! •  Spinosad = Dangerous for Bees! •  Beauveria bassiana = Dangerous! Okay when not directly applied to bees (i.e. non-blooming crops or at night): •  Insecticidal soap •  Horticultural oil •  Neem Photo: NRCS/Toby Alexander Insecticides: Organic Approved
  87. 87. Bring Back the Pollinators To bring back the pollinators, I will: •  Protect and provide bee nests. •  Grow a variety of pollinator- friendly flowers which bloom from spring through fall. •  Avoid using pesticides, especially insecticides. •  Talk to my neighbors about the importance of pollinators and their habitat!
  88. 88. Get involved! www.bringbackthepollinators.org Bring Back the Pollinators
  89. 89. Bring Back the Pollinators Get involved! www.bringbackthepollinators.org
  90. 90. Bring Back the Pollinators Get involved! www.bringbackthepollinators.org
  91. 91. Bring Back the Pollinators Get involved! www.bringbackthepollinators.org
  92. 92. • Xerces Society publications Bring Back the Pollinators
  93. 93. “Attracting Native Pollinators belongs on the bookshelf of everyone who values the future of the natural world.” - Douglas W. Tallamy, researcher and author of Bringing Nature Home “Precise, elegant and thoughtful, the recommendations offered by the Xerces Society will become essential to advancing a healthy and diverse food production system.” - Gary Nabhan, author of The Forgotten Pollinators and Renewing America’s Food Traditions Attracting Native Pollinators
  94. 94. Gardens bring people together…
  95. 95. Thank You! Deschutes Land Trust and Sarah Mowry Major financial support from: §  Xerces Society Members §  USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service §  USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education program §  Disney Worldwide Conservation Fund §  Turner Foundation §  CS Fund §  The Ceres Foundation §  Sarah K. de Coizart Article TENTH Perpetual Charitable Trust. §  Whole Foods Markets and their venders §  Endangered Species Chocolate

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