TEACHINGTHE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH, ITALIAN,TEACHINGTHE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH, ITALIAN,
AND JUDEO-SPANISH LANGUAGESTO...
1. Introduction1. Introduction
 This study aims at introducing a new method of teaching the correct
pronunciation of Engl...
2. Methodology2. Methodology
2. 1. Data2. 1. Data
  We gathered our data from 20 university
students studying at differen...
2. 2. Statistical Technique2. 2. Statistical Technique
We confronted the performance of the
students in three languages w...
2. 3. Sydney Lamb and2. 3. Sydney Lamb and
ConnectionismConnectionism
 Concerning the hierarchical structure, these are t...
PerceptionPerception
Besides, in brain there are primary and secondary
areas; the latter ones are sometimes called
associ...
After Benson and Ardila (1995) we can recognize threeAfter Benson and Ardila (1995) we can recognize three
high-level asso...
C -conceptual
T -tactile (what a cat feels like to hand)
PR -phonological recognition (of the spoken word ‘cat’)
PP -phono...
09/15/13 Derya Agis 9
3. Pronunciation of English, Italian, and Judeo-Spanish from a3. Pronunciation of English, Italian, and Judeo-Spanish from...
Pronunciation of the Turkish language (from:Pronunciation of the Turkish language (from: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/t...
RULES OF PRONUNCIATIONRULES OF PRONUNCIATION
 Turkish words are pronounced in accordance with certain
rules. Regarding no...
VOWELSVOWELS
Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
High i ü ı u
Low e ö a o
09/15/13 Derya Agis 13
English PhonologyEnglish Phonology
 “/l/ is velarized in the syllable coda
 /p/ pit /b/ bit /t/ tin /d/ din /k/ cut / /ɡ...
Italian PhonologyItalian Phonology
 “In Italian there is no phonemic distinction between long and short vowels. However, ...
Judeo-Spanish PhonologyJudeo-Spanish Phonology
 The contemporary Judeo-Spanish journals Vidas Largas, Aki Yerushalayim, Ş...
DetailsDetails
 Moreover, the Judeo-Spanish affricates are the prepalatal affricates [ ] and [ ], as inʤ ʧ
‘djenero’ (‘ge...
Pasharo d’ErmozuraPasharo d’Ermozura
Por una kaza chika vide una ijika
De anyos era chika le deklari el amor
Sali delantr...
See the following website:See the following website: http://www.youtube.com/results?http://www.youtube.com/results?
search...
Recorded voices: wordsRecorded voices: words
pronounced correctly 100 wordspronounced correctly 100 words
Percentages  Dif...
4. Conclusion4. Conclusion
Our method of teaching is useful.
09/15/13 Derya Agis 21
BibliographyBibliography
 Harris, T. (1994). Death of a Language: The History of Judeo-Spanish. London & Toronto: Associa...
THANKYOU…THANKYOU…
E-mail: deryaagis@gmail.com
09/15/13 Derya Agis 23
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Agis, Derya. April 16 – 18, 2008. “Teaching the Pronunciation of English, Italian, and Judeo-Spanish Languages to Turkish University Students from a Connectionist Perspective.” Third International Educational Congress: Sustainable Quality and High

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Agis, Derya. April 16 – 18, 2008. “Teaching the Pronunciation of English, Italian, and Judeo-Spanish Languages to Turkish University Students from a Connectionist Perspective.” Third International Educational Congress: Sustainable Quality and Higher Education. Kyrenia, Girne American University, Turkish Republic of North Cyprus.

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Agis, Derya. April 16 – 18, 2008. “Teaching the Pronunciation of English, Italian, and Judeo-Spanish Languages to Turkish University Students from a Connectionist Perspective.” Third International Educational Congress: Sustainable Quality and High

  1. 1. TEACHINGTHE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH, ITALIAN,TEACHINGTHE PRONUNCIATION OF ENGLISH, ITALIAN, AND JUDEO-SPANISH LANGUAGESTOTURKISH UNIVERSITYAND JUDEO-SPANISH LANGUAGESTOTURKISH UNIVERSITY STUDENTS FROM A CONNECTIONIST PERSPECTIVESTUDENTS FROM A CONNECTIONIST PERSPECTIVE BY: SENIOR LECTURER DERYA AGIS GIRNE AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 09/15/13 1Derya Agis
  2. 2. 1. Introduction1. Introduction  This study aims at introducing a new method of teaching the correct pronunciation of English, Italian, and Judeo-Spanish words to Turkish native speakers who are university students. This new method is based on the connectionist language method of Sydney Lamb, depicted in his book entitled Pathways of the Brain, published in 1999.   Our method proposes new ways of stimulating the brain nerves of the university students by constructing linguistic connections between the words and their sounds. In this study, we chose three languages of study: English as the main language of instruction, Italian as a second language, and Judeo-Spanish as a foreign endangered language spoken by the Sephardic Jews in Turkey.  The students are stimulated by diverse cultural symbols, e.g. pictures and photos of cultural elements in order that they can associate the images with the sounds that form the words. Besides, we analyze how karaoke method of singing can be useful as a cognitive tool for the activation of the right brain part in perceiving and pronouncing the sounds. Additionally, we tested ten students by teaching the three languages at the same time with this method. Our study involves the statistical results of this test. 09/15/13 2Derya Agis
  3. 3. 2. Methodology2. Methodology 2. 1. Data2. 1. Data   We gathered our data from 20 university students studying at different universities in Turkey and North Cyprus. The students were first year students; The main language of instruction at their universities was English. We tried to teach them Italian and Judeo-Spanish at the same time. They had been taught elementary Italian and Judeo-Spanish two hours a week for a month. The students were between 18 and 30 years old. 09/15/13 3Derya Agis
  4. 4. 2. 2. Statistical Technique2. 2. Statistical Technique We confronted the performance of the students in three languages with a test of comparison of proportions with the statistical tool “MedCalc” available at the following web site: http://www.medcalc.be.  The statistical test significance test level is 5 percent in accordance with this tool. 09/15/13 Derya Agis 4
  5. 5. 2. 3. Sydney Lamb and2. 3. Sydney Lamb and ConnectionismConnectionism  Concerning the hierarchical structure, these are the hypotheses developed by Lamb:  1) The linguistic system as a whole has a hierarchical structure. This hypothesis has two parts:  A. intersystem hierarchy, and B. intrasystem hierarchy,   2) each development follows generally the same hierarchical organization: Learning is bottom-up, and  3) lower levels of the hierarchy have relatively smaller numbers of nections, and higher levels have larger numbers.   Hierarchical organization is quite widely accepted as a property of the cortical structure. Concerning the hierarchical organization and developmental sequence, different subsystems are hierarchically arranged relative to one another, for example, lexis is higher than phonological recognition, but lower than conceptual structure, and the subsystems have hierarchical organization within themselves, such as some different layers of phonological recognition are present for different sizes of phonological units. 09/15/13 Derya Agis 5
  6. 6. PerceptionPerception Besides, in brain there are primary and secondary areas; the latter ones are sometimes called association areas, but each of them is dedicated to one perceptual modality; these are UNIMODAL association areas. The brain has also higher levels: You can integrate the barking of a dog, its appearance, etc., for categorizing the concept of dog. By having this integration or convergence area to the linguistic system, you can explain what is happening, and then we arrive to the top of the hierarchy. 09/15/13 Derya Agis 6
  7. 7. After Benson and Ardila (1995) we can recognize threeAfter Benson and Ardila (1995) we can recognize three high-level association areas:high-level association areas: 1) The POSTERIOR HETEROMODAL ASSOCIATION AREA, in the posterior portion of the cortex, which integrates information from different senses, while providing connection to linguistic expression. 2) The ANTERIOR HETEROMODAL ASSOCIATION AREA, involved in maintaining sequential information for short periods, and 3) the SUPRAMODAL ASSOCIATION AREA, in the most anterior portion, which has access to just about everything else, both modal and perceptual. Lamb distinguished two different varieties : 1) A nection being recruited to integrate a combination of properties whose nections are within the same subsystem, thus, close to each other will tend to be in the same subsystem at the next higher level, or in an adjacent subsystem, but in any case maximally close to the nections for those properties, and 2) a nection being recruited to integrate a combination of properties whose nections aren’t close to each other will tend to be in an intermediate location between the nections for those properties. 09/15/13 Derya Agis 7
  8. 8. C -conceptual T -tactile (what a cat feels like to hand) PR -phonological recognition (of the spoken word ‘cat’) PP -phonological production (of the spoken word ‘cat’) A -recognition or auditory image of the cat’s ‘meow’ V -visual recognition or image 09/15/13 Derya Agis 8 (of a cat)
  9. 9. 09/15/13 Derya Agis 9
  10. 10. 3. Pronunciation of English, Italian, and Judeo-Spanish from a3. Pronunciation of English, Italian, and Judeo-Spanish from a Connectionist PerspectiveConnectionist Perspective 3. 1.3. 1. Pronunciation of TurkishPronunciation of Turkish There are 29 letters in the Turkish language. These are shown below with the corresponding IPA fonts. 09/15/13 Derya Agis 10
  11. 11. Pronunciation of the Turkish language (from:Pronunciation of the Turkish language (from: http://www.omniglot.com/writing/turkish.htmhttp://www.omniglot.com/writing/turkish.htm))    09/15/13 Derya Agis 11
  12. 12. RULES OF PRONUNCIATIONRULES OF PRONUNCIATION  Turkish words are pronounced in accordance with certain rules. Regarding nonsyllabics, “voiceless plosives in syllable- initial position are aspirated” (Kornfilt, 1997: 483). The plosives include the bilabials [b] and [p] (Kornfilt, 1997: 484), as in ‘bahar’ (‘spring’) and ‘kapı’ (‘door’) respectively; the Turkish plosive dental-alveolars are [d] and [t] (Kornfilt, 1997: 484), as in ‘ders’ (‘lesson’) and ‘tat’ (‘taste’). Kornfılt (1997: 484) cites that the plosive velars [g] and [k] appear as true velars, when they are employed with a tautosyllabic back vowel, as in ‘gaga’ (‘beck’) and ‘kale’ (‘chastle’). However, if they are employed with a tautosyllabic front vowel, they are palatized and appear as [ᶃ] and [ᶃ], as in ‘gezegen’ (‘planet’) and ‘kese’ (‘pouch’). In borrowings, they may occur with back vowels, as [ᶃj] and [ᶃj] as in ‘gâvur’ (‘infidel’) and ‘kâr’ (‘profit’) (Kornfilt, 1997: 484). 09/15/13 Derya Agis 12
  13. 13. VOWELSVOWELS Front Back Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded High i ü ı u Low e ö a o 09/15/13 Derya Agis 13
  14. 14. English PhonologyEnglish Phonology  “/l/ is velarized in the syllable coda  /p/ pit /b/ bit /t/ tin /d/ din /k/ cut / /ɡ gut /t /ʃ cheap /d /ʒ jeep /m/ map /n/ nap / / baŋ ng /f/ fat /v/ vat / /θ thin /ð/ then /s/ sap /z/ zap / /ʃ she / /ʒ measure /h/ ham /x/ loch / /ʍ whine (also transcribed /hw/) /w/ we / /ɹ run (also transcribed /r/ or / /) /l/ɻ left /j/ yes  [edit] Vowels  Monophthongs of Received Pronunciation[1] Front Central Back long short long short long short Close i uː ɪ ː ʊ Mid ɛ ɜː ə ɔː Open æ Theʌ ɑː ɒ monophthong phonemes of General American differ in a number of ways from Received Pronunciation:  Vowels are more equal in length, differing mainly in quality.  The central vowel of nurse is rhotic / / or a syllabic / /.ɝ ɹ̩  Speakers make a phonemic distinction between rhotic / / and non-ɚ rhotic / /ə  No distinction is made between / / and / /, nor for many people with / /.”ɒ ɑ ɔ  From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_phonology 09/15/13 Derya Agis 14
  15. 15. Italian PhonologyItalian Phonology  “In Italian there is no phonemic distinction between long and short vowels. However, vowels in stressed open syllables are long (except when word-final).  The pairs /e/~/ / and /o/~/ / only contrast in stressed syllables. In unstressed syllables only /e/ and /o/ are found.ɛ ɔ  Unstressed /u/ is never found as the last phoneme of a word.  When the last phoneme of a word is an unstressed vowel and the first phoneme of the following word is any vowel, the former vowel tends to become non-syllabic. In Italian this phenomenon is called sinalefe and should be taken in account when counting syllables e.g. in poetry.  [edit] Consonants  Between two vowels, or between a vowel and an approximant (/l/, /r/, /j/ or /w/), consonants can be both single or geminated. Geminated consonants belong to different syllables (this shortens the preceding vowel) and the first element is unreleased. For example, /fato/ [ fa .to] ~ /fatto/ [ fat.to]. However, / /, / /, / /, are always geminated, except when theyˈ ː ̪ ˈ ̪̚ ̪ ɲɲ ʃʃ ʎʎ are at the beginning of the word and when they follow a consonant.  /z/ and / / are the only consonants that cannot be geminated.ŋ  The trill /r/ is sometimes simplified to a flap [ ] when single.ɾ  Nasals assimilate to the point of articulation of whatever consonant they precede. For example, /ng/ is realized as [ g].ŋ  /s/ assimilates to the voicing of a consonant it precedes.”  From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_phonology 09/15/13 Derya Agis 15
  16. 16. Judeo-Spanish PhonologyJudeo-Spanish Phonology  The contemporary Judeo-Spanish journals Vidas Largas, Aki Yerushalayim, Şalom (it has some pages in Judeo-Spanish), and its monthly supplement El Amaneser use Latin characters. However, the phonemes /c/, /ç/, /ş/, and /x/ are written in different ways in these journals, as implied by Varol (2004: 21).    “Vidas Largas” “Aki Yerushalayim” “Şalom”  tch ch ç  ch sh ş  dj dj c  gz x gz  The representation of the phonemes of /c/, /ç/, /ş/, and /x/ in Judeo-Spanish (adapted from Varol, 2004: 21)  The Judeo-Spanish plosives include the labials [b] and [p], as in ‘balabay’ (‘servant’) and ‘pan’ (‘bread’), the dentals [d] and [t] that appear in words, such as ‘sivdad’ (‘city’) and ‘taván’ (‘ceiling’), and the velars [g] and [k], as in ‘gato’ (‘cat’) and ‘kama’ (‘bed’). 09/15/13 Derya Agis 16
  17. 17. DetailsDetails  Moreover, the Judeo-Spanish affricates are the prepalatal affricates [ ] and [ ], as inʤ ʧ ‘djenero’ (‘gender’) and ‘chilvane’ (‘hay loft’) respectively, and of the dental-affricate [ᶞ], as in the second ‘d’ of ‘dedo’ (‘finger’).  Judeo-Spanish fricatives involve the labials [f] and [v], as in ‘firida’ (‘wound’) and ‘vaka’ (‘cow’), and in the intervocalic position, the [v] appears as the glide [w], as in ‘agua’ (‘water’). The fricative dentals [s] and [z] are found in ‘sed’ (‘thirst’) and ‘zarzavatchi’ (‘seller of vegetables’), and the fricative prepalatals [ ] and [ ], appear in words as inʃ ʒ ‘mosho’ (‘wet’) and ‘jeraniom’ (‘geranium’). The fricative palatal [ ] is found in words likeʝ ‘yerva’ (‘grass’), and the glottal fricative [h] is present in words like ‘Hanuka’ (‘Hanuka’).  The Judeo-Spanish nasals include the bilabial nasal [m] in ‘menester’ (‘necessary’), the dental nasal [n], as in ‘nariz’ (‘nose’), and the prepalatal nasal [ ], as in ‘ɲ Espanya’ (‘Spain’). The lateral dental [l] is present in ‘lado’ (‘side’), and the trill dental [r] appears in words, as ‘raton’ (‘rat’). Varol (2004: 19) classifies the Judeo-Spanish sounds in this manner.  Furthermore, Judeo-Spanish displays the phonetic voicing of word-final intervocalic sibilants, as Penny’s (2000:182) example “dos o tres” (“two or three”) demonstrates (as cited in Bradley & Delforge, 2006: 76). 09/15/13 Derya Agis 17
  18. 18. Pasharo d’ErmozuraPasharo d’Ermozura Por una kaza chika vide una ijika De anyos era chika le deklari el amor Sali delantre de eya ermoza komo la 'streya Ya m'ensendio kon teya sin tener piadad Pasharo d'ermozura Linda la tu figura Aserkate al mio lado te oyere la boz El pasharo s'aserka,s'aserka del mio lado Enfin de dos minutos el pasharo bolo El pasharo bolando mi korason yorando El me desho asperando sin tener piadad 09/15/13 Derya Agis 18
  19. 19. See the following website:See the following website: http://www.youtube.com/results?http://www.youtube.com/results? search=Search&search_query=pasharo%20d'ermozurasearch=Search&search_query=pasharo%20d'ermozura http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=2Ptt6Qhw_Gw 09/15/13 Derya Agis 19
  20. 20. Recorded voices: wordsRecorded voices: words pronounced correctly 100 wordspronounced correctly 100 words Percentages  Difference 95% CI Chi-Square df p-value Language s taught Bein g taugh t with a tradit ional meth od Being taught with our connectioni st model English 15% 70% 60% 49.0 to 71.0 70.323 1 P < 0.0001 Italian 45% 90% 45% 33.6 to 56.4 44.125 1 P < 0.0001 Judeo- Spanish 90% 100% 10% 4.1 to 15.9 8.526 1 P = 0.0035 09/15/13 Derya Agis 20
  21. 21. 4. Conclusion4. Conclusion Our method of teaching is useful. 09/15/13 Derya Agis 21
  22. 22. BibliographyBibliography  Harris, T. (1994). Death of a Language: The History of Judeo-Spanish. London & Toronto: Associated University Presses.  Harris, T. (1996). Turkish Elements in Judeo-Spanish. In D. F. Altabe, E. Atay, I. J. Katz, R. Dalven, T. L. Ryan de Heredia, D. Sadaka - Braverman, et al. (Eds.). New York: Serper-Hermon Press, Inc.  Harris, T. (2005). What Language Did the Jews Speak in Pre-Expulsion Spain in Pre-Expulsion Spain? In Sephardic Identity: Essays on A Vanishing Jewish Culture (pp. 99 - 111). Jefferson, North Carolina & London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers.  Hasada, R. (2002). 'Body Part' Terms and Emotion in Japanese. Pragmatics & Cognition , 10 (1 / 2), 107 - 128.  Hengirmen, M. (1999). Dilbilgisi ve Dilbilim Terimleri Sözlü ü [Dictionary of Grammatical and Linguistic Terms].ğ Ankara: Engin.  Ibarretxe - Antuňano, I. (1997). Metaphorical Mappings in the Sense of Smell. In R. W. Gibbs, & G. J. Steen (Eds.). Amsterdam & Philadephia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.  Kidron, Yael & Kuzar, Ron. (2002). My Face Is Paling against My Will: Emotion and Control in English and Hebrew. Pragmatics & Cognition , 10 (1 / 2), 129–157.  Kocaman, A. (1994). Cumhuriyet, Dil Devrimi ve Ötesi [Republic, Language Revolution and Later]. Dilbilim Araştırmaları , 1 - 3.  Koen-Sarano, M. (2001). Ensenyando el Djudeo-Espanyol (Ladino) en la Universidad Ben-Gurion. Shofar , 19 (4), 53 - 57.  Kornfilt, J. (1997). Turkish. London & New York: Rotledge.  Kövecses, Z. (1990). Emotion Concepts. New York: Springer - Verlag.  Kövecses, Z. (1991). Happiness: A Definitional Effort. Metaphor and Symbolic Activity , 6, 29 - 46.  Kövecses, Z. (2000). Metaphor and Emotion: Language, Culture, and Body in Human Feeling. Paris: Cambridge University Press & Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme.  Kövecses, Z. (2005). Metaphor in Culture: Universality and Variation. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press.  Kövecses, Z. (2005). Metaphor in Culture: Universality and Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Kövecses, Z. (2006, conference date; forthcoming ). Metaphor, Culture, and Language Teaching. 24th AESLA Congress. Madrid.  Kövecses, Z. (1986). Metaphors of Anger, Pride, and Love: A Lexical Approach to the Structure of Concepts. Amsterdam & Philadephia: John Benjamins Publishers.  Kövecses, Z. (1995). The "Container" Metaphor of Anger in English, Chinese, Japanese, and Hungrian. In Z. Radman (Ed.), From A Metaphorical Point of View A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Cognitive Content of Metaphor (pp. 117 - 145). Berlin & New York: Walter de Gruyter.  Kövecses, Z. (1988). The Language of Love. Lewisburgh: Associated University Press.  Kövecses, Zoltan & Szabco, Peter. (1996). Idioms: A View From Cognitive Semantics. Applied Linguistics , 17 (3), 326 - 355.  Kurt, . (1991).İ Türk Atasözlerine Psikolojik Bir Yaklaşım [A Psychological Approach to the Turkish Proverbs]. Ankara: Ministry of Culture, Mas Press.  Ladino Language. (2006). 12 10, 2006 tarihinde Ladino Language: http://www.wikipedia.org/ladino_language adresinden alındı  Ladino Scriptures. (2000).  Lakoff, George & Johnson, Mark. (1980). Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 09/15/13 Derya Agis 22
  23. 23. THANKYOU…THANKYOU… E-mail: deryaagis@gmail.com 09/15/13 Derya Agis 23

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