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Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
Agis, Derya. 2007.  “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:  Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito
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Agis, Derya. 2007. “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey: Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; edito

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Agis, Derya. 2007. “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey: …

Agis, Derya. 2007. “A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey:
Description of Human Figures.” Aesthetics in Turkey: Turkish Congress of Aesthetics Proceedings, Middle East Technical University; Yalcin Press, Ankara, Turkey; editors:
Jale N. Erzen and Pelin Yoncaci, pp. 97 – 110.

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  • 1. Türkiye’de Söylenilen Sefarad Şarkılarına Bilişsel Şiirbilimsel Bir Yaklaşım: İnsan Figürlerinin Tasviri Derya Agiş Yüksek Lisans Öğrencisi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, İngiliz Dilbilimi Bölümü e-posta: deryaagis@gmail.com Özet Sefaradlar 1492 yılında İspanya kraliçesi tarafından oradan kovulduktan sonra Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’na göçen Yahudiler’dir. Kendilerine ait müzikleri ve çeşitli şarkıları vardır. Araştırmamda üç Sefarad şarkısındaki insan figürlerinin tasvirini bilişsel şiirbilimsel bir açıdan ele alıyorum. İsrailli filolog Reuven Tsur tarafından geliştirilen bilişsel şiirbilim kuramının insan beyninde bu şarkılardaki insan figürlerinin tasvirinin estetik yorumunda harekete geçen süreçleri gösterdiğini ileri sürüyorum. Bu kuram bağlamında aşağıda belirttiğim şarkılardaki Avraam Avinu, Esterina Sarfati ve Nazlı adlı insan figürleriyle bağlantısı olan estetik ve bilişsel değerlere değiniyorum: çağdaş bir Türk Sefarad pop grubu olan Sefarad’ın söylediği Avraam Avinu ve Esterina Sarfati şarkıları ile Hadass Pal-Yarden’in söylediği Ven Chika Nazlia (Gel Küçük Nazlı) şarkısı. Anahtar Kelimeler: Sefarad Yahudiler, Sefarad müziği, Türk Yahudi kültürü, bilişsel şiirbilim, şarkılardaki estetik değerler 1
  • 2. A Cognitive Poetic Approach to Sephardic Songs Sung in Turkey: Description of Human Figures By: Derya Agiş M.A. student, Hacettepe University, Department of English Linguistics e-mail: deryaagis@gmail.com Abstract Sepharads are the Jews who immigrated to the Ottoman Empire from Spain, after the Spanish queen had expelled them from there in 1492. They have their own music, and various songs. In my research, I investigate the description of human figures in three Sephardic songs from a cognitive poetic perspective. I suggest that the theory of cognitive poetics, developed by the Israeli philologist Reuven Tsur represents the processes activated in the human brain during the aesthetic interpretation of the description of human figures in these songs. Within the framework of this theory, I deal with the aesthetic and cognitive values associated with the human figures of Avraam Avinu, Esterina Sarfati, and Nazlı in the following Sephardic songs: Avram Avinu, and Esterina Sarfati, sung by the contemporary Turkish Sephardic pop group, Sefarad, and Ven Chika Nazlia (Come Little Nazlı), sung by Hadass Pal-Yarden. Key Words: Sephardic Jews, Sephardic music, Turkish Jewish culture, cognitive poetics, aesthetic values in songs 2
  • 3. 1. Introduction Cognitive Sciences aim at discovering what is happening in the human mind. Literary works are the productions of the mental processes of human beings. The Israeli philologist Reuven Tsur suggested that literary critics could refer to the theory of cognitive poetics for interpreting poems, which are the products of human cognitive processes. He laid the foundations of this theory in his book entitled Toward a Theory of Cognitive Poetics, published in 1992. Tsur (1992: 232) suggests that literal utterances depend on the SCRIPT or COGNITIVE SCHEMA that they instantiate. Therefore, each metaphorical description of objects is based on a script or a cognitive schema, a representation formulated in the human brain, recalling the characteristics of these objects. Tsur (2003) proposes that cognitive processes are involved in the comprehension of the semantic ambiguities, and cognitive obligations lead to the correct interpretation of the poems. Semantic representation and information processing are two key concepts in the interpretion of the poetry; for this reason, Tsur (1992: 207) proposes that a theory of metaphor must satisfy four requirements of adequacy, which are listed below: 1. to define metaphors structurally, 2. to explain how human beings understand metaphorical expressions, 3. to depict the relationship between this process and the process via which human beings produce and conceive literal discourse, 4. to describe the relationship between these processes and the perceived effects of metaphors. 3
  • 4. Therefore, the semantic information processing model consists of a hierarchical one of “meaning components”, “features”, or “semantic primitives” (Tsur, 1992: 207). These components can be defined through the processes of cancellation, indicated by a minus, multiplication, indicated by a plus, symbolization, abstraction, allusion, spatio- temporal continuity, richness of conceptual categories, the existences of a spiritual space, and ryhmes (Tsur, 1992). In this study, I examine the description of three human figures in three Sephardic songs through some cognitive poetic tools, or mental aesthetic principles, thus, cancellations, additions, spatio-temporal continuity, categorization of concepts, frames and spiritual spaces of songs, and the rhymes used in these songs. The rhyming words of each song are identified with letters next to them. These songs are Avraam Avinu and Esterina Sarfati, sung by the contemporary Turkish Sephardic pop group, Sefarad, and Ven Chika Nazlia (Come Little Nazlı), sung by Hadass Pal-Yarden. 2. Sephardim in Turkey Firstly, I wish to mention the history of the Sepharads of Turkey. In March 1492, the fall of Granada indicated the end of the Reconquista, and the Catholic monarchs of Spain, Isabella of Castilla, Ferdinand of Aragon and their prime minister Torquemada sent away from Spain the Jews, who refused to be converted into Christianity (Sarhon, n.d.). Until the end of the sixteenth century, Spanish Jews emigrated to Istanbul, Safed, Salonica, Jerusalem, and Cairo: the communities were divided into groups in 4
  • 5. accordance with their origins, as Cordova, Aragon, Leon etc. (Sarhon, n.d.). They took the name SEPHARAD, which means Spain in Hebrew; furthermore, they called themselves SEPHARDIM (Sepharads) (Sarhon, n.d.). The Ottoman Empire was more tolerant than the Christian countries toward them: they did not have to build walls around their villages, or separate themselves from the natives of the country (Sarhon, n.d.). This was also valid linguistically: the Iberian Jews who emigrated to North European countries did not continue to speak Judeo- Spanish, but those who settled in North Africa, and the Ottoman Empire continued to speak it; few additions and some structural readjustments were made to the language (Altabev, 2003: 62-63). “Minorities, such as Greeks, Italians, and Armenians, and Jews conducted their private and business lives in their own languages in the Ottoman Empire” (Altabev, 2003: 63). In the Ottoman Empire, the Jews, coming from Spain, were speaking Spanish, those from Portugal Portuguese, and some also Greek, as it used to be the language of Byzantines; besides, there were Venetians and Genovans, living in Turkey: they could speak Italian (Shaul, 1994: 12). The words of these languages together with those of Turkish and Hebrew, entered into the language of the Sephardim, called the Judeo-Spanish or Ladino language. Later l’Alliance Israelite Universelle (the Universal Israeli Alliance) was founded in Paris in 1860 for protecting the Jews all around the world; in 1865, it established its first school in Istanbul (Sephiha, 1977: 43). Consequently, French words entered into the language, as French became the language of education (Shaul, 1994: 13). Today few people speak Judeo-Spanish, but there are various efforts to preserve 5
  • 6. the language made by Sephardic communities around the world. Various Judeo- Spanish songs sung in Turkey today contribute to the preservation of this language. Avraam Avinu, Esterina Sarfati, and Ven Chika Nazlia (Come Little Nazlı) are examples to these songs. Their cognitive poetic analyses serve people from other cultures to understand the culture, the traditions, and the values of the Sepharads. The cognitive poetic aesthetic values that lead to the description of three human figures are going to be discussed in the next three sections. 3. Figure of Avraam Avinu The Sephardic song Avraam Avinu and its translation into English are given below. Avraam Avinu Kuando el Rey Nimrod al kampo saliya, a Mirava en el sielo la esteriya, a Vido luz santa en la Cuderiya, a Ke aviya de naser Avraam Avinu. b Avraam Avinu, b Padre kerido, c Padre bendicho, d Luz de Israel. e 6
  • 7. La mujer de Terah kedo prenyada, f De dia en dia el le preguntava, g “De ke tenesh la kara tan demudada?” f Eya ya saviya el bien ke teniya. h Avraam avinu, b Padre kerido, c Padre bendicho, d Luz de Israel. e (Translation) Avraam Avinu While King Nimrod was going out to the field, He was looking at the star in the sky, He saw the saint light in the Judaism, That revealed the birth of Avraam Avinu / and (he saw) that Avraam Avinu would be born. Avraam Avinu, Dear father, Blessed father, Light of Israel. The wife of Terah became pregnant, 7
  • 8. From day to day, he was asking her, “Why do you have a very pale face?” She was aware of the goodness she possessed. Avraam Avinu, Dear father, Blessed father, Light of Israel. This song depicts the sacred figure of Avraam Avinu, or Abraham, the father of Isaac and Ishmael. According to the Bible, Abraham (or Abram) was the father of the Hebrews. The Biblical account of the life of Abram is found in Gen. xi. 26 to xxv. 10. According to this narrative, he was the son of Terah and was born at Ur of the Chaldees. Terah, with Abram, Sarai [Sarah] (Abram's wife), and Lot (Abram's nephew), left Ur to go to the land of Canaan; but they tarried at Haran, where Terah died (Gen. xi. 26-32). There the Lord appeared to Abram in the first of a series of visions, and bade him leave the country with his family, promising to make of him a great nation (ib. xii. 1-3), a promise that was renewed on several occasions (Mendelsohn, Kohler, Gottheil, and Toy, 2002). Abraham was tested ten times: 1. King Nimrod put him in a hot furnace, 8
  • 9. 2. God wanted him to leave his country, 3. As there was famine, he emigrated again, 4. His wife was held in Egypt by the king, 5. He had to fight with four kingdoms to save Lot, 6. God envisaged him that the successive generations would be slaves in foreign lands, 7. The command of Berit Mila (circumcision) was given to him, 8. Sarah, his wife, was kept in a place by Avimeleh, 9. He had to chase Hagar and Ishmael, and 10. He was ordered to sacrifice his favorite son Isaac; as he passed all these tests, he is an example to all the Jews (ctd. in “Asara Nisyonot..... 10 Test,” 2005). The wife of Terah became pregnant to Avraam. Avinu means pure father in Hebrew. He is sacred, as he is the father of the Jews, and he led people to believe in only one God. King Nimrod was an idolater, and an astrologer. As depicted in the song, he knew from the stars that Avraam would be born, and would fight against idolatry. For this reason, he wanted to kill him, when he was a baby; but he did not manage it. He always tried to kill Abraham, and he put it in a hot furnace at a later time. Then he knew that Abraham was not injured in the hot furnace, and remitted his persecution; however, on the following night, in his dream, he saw that a man was coming out of the furnace with a sword directed against him; Nimrod escaped; though the man threw an egg which became a river where all of his troops drowned; then again the river turned into an egg, from which a fowl came forth and pecked out his eye (Hirsch, Seligsohn and Bacher (eds.), 2002). This dream was the indicator of the defeat of Nimrod by Abraham. King Nimrod understood that he could not defeat Abraham: he wanted to kill Abraham, when he was a baby, but he could not; he tried burning him, 9
  • 10. but he could not; he fought with him, but he could not defeat him. Therefore, also metaphorically, he saw the saint light of the Judaism and monotheism, as explained in the song. 3. 1. Feature Cancellations and Additions The features [+RULER] and [+ASTROLOGER] are added to describe King Nimrod, who can be depicted through these features: [+ NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE +ANIMATE +HUMAN +RULER +ASTROLOGER (# King Nimrod)]. Moreover, the star symbolizes the belief of Israeli people just in one God. Therefore, the features [+BRIGHT] and [+SAINT] are added to the concept of star. The stars are not big; though they are the sources of extensive light, which signifies the reality metaphorically. The concept of star is formulated via these features in this song: [+NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE -ANIMATE +HIGH IN THE SKY +BRIGHT + SAINT (# star)]. Finally, the figure of Abraham is represented via these features for his being the father of all the Jews, his sacredness and blissfulness as the father of Isaac, and being metaphorically the light of Israel for warning people about the existence of just one God: [+NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE +ANIMATE +DEAR +FATHER + BLESSED +LIGHT OF ISRAEL (#Abraham)]. 3. 2. Spatio-Temporal Continuity 10
  • 11. The spatio-temporal continuity of this song is realized through the employment of verbs conjugated in certain tenses. The past continuous tense is used in order to indicate the duration of time in which the verbs “saliya” (“he was going out”) and “mirava” (“he was looking”) are in the past continuous tense indicating the continuous erroneous belief of the pagans. Successively, the simple past tense “vido” (“he saw”) is used to imply the fact that King Nimrod conceived that somebody would say that there was only one God. The simple past tense used in the sentence “kedo prenyada” (“she became pregnant”) shows the sudden arrival of a saver, and the clause “De dia en dia le preguntava, ‘de ke tenesh kara demudada?’” (“From day to day, he was asking her: ‘Why do you have a very pale face?’”) implies that the mother of a monotheist child who would introduce Judaism and monotheism to the world must never be sad. The past continuous tense implies the pregnancy of the wife of Terah, which was a difficult period, but she did not have to be sad, as Abraham would be born. The present tense in the direct question indicates the unnecessary and needless worries, or pains of the wife of Terah reflected to her face during her pregnancy. The composer addresses Abraham directly without using the verb ‘ser’ (to be), as he is the father of the Jews, and s/he wants to underline this. 3. 3. Categorization of Concepts The metaphorical concepts are divided into certain categories: the sky is the place where God exists, and the star reminds the birth of Abraham, who teaches people that there is only one God; as a result of this, he is the light of Israel. The light symbolizes the prevalence of truth, thus, the existence of only one God. As the Jews descended from 11
  • 12. Abraham, he is the father of all the Jews, and monotheistic people. In the refrain of the song, Abraham is presented as the blessed and loved father of all the Jews; he is the one who broke all the statues, and introduced monotheism, and the celestial religion of Judaism. 3. 4. Frame and Spiritual Space of the Song The frame of the song consists of the happy news of the pregnancy of the wife of Terah, and the birth of Abraham, and the celebration of his birth by the Jews for centuries for his fight against idolaters, such as King Nimrod. Furthermore, the joy of Abraham’s birth and the description of the holiness of Abraham form the spiritual space of the song. 3. 5. Rhymes in the Song In the first verse, the verb phrase “saliya” (“he was going out”), “esteriya” (“star”) and “Cuderiya” (“Judaism”) are rhyming, leading to the reconciliation of two opposite facts: the verb ‘to go out’ alludes to the deviation of the king, but his vision of the light in the sky to the arrival of monotheism, thus, Judaism. In the second and fourth verses, thus in the refrain, there are not any rhymes, but this fact leads to the easy comprehension of the qualities of Abraham, which are holiness, tenderness, and the fatherhood of the Jews, being the guide of the Israeli people. In the third verse, we encounter the rhyming “prenyada” (“pregnant”) and 12
  • 13. “demudada” (“pale”); a pregnant woman can have a pale face. These rhyming words are associated with each other. These rhymes help the listener understand that Abraham is the father of Jews and monotheists, and nobody can be sad about his birth. 4. Figure of Esterina Sarfati Another human figure is a beautiful woman this time. This woman whose name is Esterina Sarfati is nasty and very sensual. Esterina Sarfati Esterina Sarfati l’amor esta aziendo, a Por Davitcho de Hekim, ya esta muriendo. a L’esta paresiendo ke no se va saver, b Se kito de la mujer b Pekado de su alma, c El uerko le yeve l’alma. c Al dere a kaminar a poko a poko, d La djilve ke le aze ya kita loko. d Ya lo kita loko. d De su meoyo. e Esto no lo kero yo, e Me topi solika, f 13
  • 14. L’asenti kantika. f (Translation) Esterina Sarfati Esterina Sarfati is making love, For Doctor David she is dying. It seems to her that no one will know it, He left his wife Sin of his soul, May the devil take his soul. To the lake to walk a bit, a bit, Her flirtatiousness toward him rendered him mad there. This rendered him mad there. This made him lose his mind. I do not like this, I found myself lonely, I composed a song for her. The detailed cognitive poetic analysis of the song makes us draw a picture of a sensual Esterina, who caused the separation of the lustful David from his wife, as explained in the following sections of this chapter. 4. 1. Feature Cancellations and Additions 14
  • 15. Several feature cancellations and additions help us understand the character of Esterina Sarfati, who is the prototype of a secret lover: [+NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE +ANIMATE +HUMAN +JOYFUL -MORAL +PASSIONATE +SENSUAL (#Esterina Sarfati)]. However, the most sinful character of the song is David, or Davitcho described via these features: [+NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE +ANIMATE +HUMAN +LUSTFUL +SEPARATED +SINFUL –GOOD (#Davitcho)]. The reason for which David commits the sin of leaving his moral wife is the flirtatiousness of Esterina Sarfati, which can be explained with the following features: [+NOUN –COUNT – CONCRETE –ANIMATE -HUMAN +RENDERING MAD (#flirtatiousness)]. 4. 2. Spatio-Temporal Continuity The present tense is used in the first verse for implying that these three events occur at the same time: “esta aziendo” (“she is making”), “esta muriendo” (“she is dying”), “l’esta paresiendo” (“it seems to her”). The future tense in the sentence “se va no saver” (“this will not be known”) indicates the hope of Esterina Sarfati. The simple past tense in the sentence “se kito de la mujer” (“he left his wife”) consists of the bad result of David’s relationship with Esterina, and shows the sudden termination of a long and blessed marriage because of this evil relationship. This bad relationship is expressed in the ironic sentence, where the verb is in the subjunctive: “el uerko le yeve l’alma” (“may the devil take his soul”). In the next verse, the infinitive “al dere a kaminar a poko a poko” (“to the lake 15
  • 16. to walk a bit, a bit”) that does not belong to a complete sentence demonstrates that Esterina has no aim in her life: she just walks and seduces men. The relative clause in the next sentence of the verse “la djilve ke le aze” (“the flirtatiousness that she makes him”; this is a literal translation) where the simple present tense is used is the subject of the sentence completed by the main clause “ya lo kita loko” (“rendered him mad there”). The ellipsis “ya lo kita…” (“rendered him…”) should be added before the prepositional phrase “de su meoyo” (“from his mind”) constructing a complete sentence meaning “ya lo kita de su meoyo” (“it made him lose his mind”) where the simple present tense is used again. The unfaithful behavior of David can be understood easily due to this elliptical construction. Additionally, in this case, the use of the simple present tense proves the temporal continuity of the seduction of the woman. The consequent use of the present tense in the sentence “esto no lo kero yo” (“I do not like this”) implies that the composer of this song can never accept such a bad behavior, leading to the divorce of a married couple. In the final part of the song, we understand that the composer of the song is a woman from the adjective ending with –a, “solika” (“lonely”) used together with the verb “toparse” (“to find oneself”) in the simple past tense, in the first person singular form “me topi” (“I found myself”). This sentence is the reason for which she composed this song, and revealed her morality by criticizing Esterina Sarfati, the cause of the divorce of a married man, as indicated in the last sentence of the song “l’asenti kantika” (“I composed a song for her”). The use of the simple past tense shows that she has already finished composing the song depicting Esterina, a bad seducer for her. 4. 3. Categorization of Concepts 16
  • 17. Several conceptual metaphorical keys are activated, categorizing several concepts: TO DIE IS TO MAKE LOVE IN AN APPASSSIONATE MANNER, and TO MAKE ONE MAD AND LOSE HIS MIND IS TO ENAMOR HIM. Besides, THE SIN OF THE SOUL IS MAKING LOVE WITH ANOTHER WOMAN THAT CAUSED ONE’S DIVORCE FROM HIS WIFE and TO SIN IS TO BE GUIDED BY THE DEVIL are other conceptual metaphorical keys that guide us to the category of a seducer to which Esterina belongs. She is much too flirtatious and evil to separate a man from his wife. One must not appreciate her behavior. 4. 4. Frame and Spiritual Space of the Song A bad behavior, separating a man from his wife is expressed in the frame of this song: Esterina and David are making love; David used to be married, but he is infatuated by the flirtatiousness of Esterina, and left his wife. At the spiritual space of this song, it is implied that it is bad to terminate a serious relationship for a passionate love affair, as there are moral rules to be obeyed. This thought of the composer of the song, accusing Esterina for her aimlessness in life and her way of seduction, and David for his separation from his wife, forms the spiritual space of the song. 4. 5. Rhymes in the Song In the first verse “aziendo” (“making”) and “muriendo” (“dying”) are rhyming, 17
  • 18. referring to a cause and effect relationship: Esterina is making love with David, as she loves him. This is the first particularity of Esterina. Then the verb “saver” (“to know”) and the noun “mujer” (“wife”) are rhyming; the verb saver (to know) implies that the wife is more aware of her own duties and responsibilities as a legal wife than Esterina. In the second verse “a poko” (a bit), and “loko” (mad) are rhyming, leading to the creation of the figure of Esterina that is a purposeless woman, just seducing David. As “meoyo” (“mind”) and “yo” (“I”) are rhyming, we understand that the composer is aware of the bad behavior of Esterina and David. Although David loses his consciousness, being in love with Esterina, the composer is aware of the badness of this situation. In the last two sentences of the song, “solika” (“lonely”) and “kantika” (“song”) are rhyming in order to suggest that the composer is a virtuous woman. When she was alone, she wanted to compose this song in order to explain that it is awful to seduce a married man. The flirtatious and mischievous figure of Esterina, who does not obey the Sephardic tradition of being a good legal wife, appears as the bad figure of a seducer, as adultery is forbidden in Judaism. 5. Figure of Nazlia, or Nazlı Another Sephardic song presents us a coquettish girl. Ven Chika Nazlia De ke me das rotas? a Tus ojos aboltas, a 18
  • 19. I me miras kon yelor, b De kolor te trokas. c Ven, ven! d Ven, si no muero, ainda! e Ven, yo te kero, linda. e Tus ojos luzeros, f Tus karas kondjeros, f Tus dos sejas arkol son, g Mi kore firyeron. g Ven, ven! d Ven en mis brasos, poza h Ven traye a masos rozas. i (Translation) Come My Little Tease (Come Little Nazlı) Why do you dash my hopes? You turn your eyes, And you shoot me a cold glance, Your face changes color. 19
  • 20. Come, come! Come on, if I have not died yet! Come, I love you, my beauty. Your eyes are sparkling stars, Your cheeks are rosebuds, And your eyebrows are rainbows, That wound my heart. Come, come! Come into my arms Come, with bouquets of roses. The song sung by Hadass Pal-Yarden depicts a figure of a coy and delicate little girl. The girl is not sure about her love, she teases her lover through her changing attitude toward him. Nazlı (coy) can be the name of the girl; the addition of –a at the end of this name forms a nominal adjective in the Judeo-Spanish language, meaning coquettish, and refers to the young age and the femininity of the girl, as the female nouns end with –a in Judeo-Spanish. A coquettish, or a coy girl glances at her lover in a cold manner; she changes her attitudes, as this can be understood from her face. This behavior is insupportable. The lover may die, running out of patience. But he cannot give up his love toward her, as she is very beautiful with her bright eyes, pink cheeks, and her eyebrows like rainbows. 20
  • 21. 5. 1. Feature Cancellations and Additions Some feature cancellations and additions are important in the interpretation of the qualities of Nazlı. The following features are assigned to her eyes: [+ NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE -ANIMATE -FRIENDLY –TURNED –INTERESTED +BELONGING TO NAZLI (#eyes)]. Moreover, her glance assumes these features: [+NOUN -COUNT –ANIMATE –CONCRETE +COLD –FRIENDLY +BELONGING TO NAZLI (#glance)]. Consequently, she can be depicted via these features: [+NOUN, +COUNT +CONCRETE +ANIMATE +COLD –HOT –FRIENDLY –RESPONSIVE +COQUETTISH (#Nazlia)]. Concerning her exterior appearance, her attitude changes from time to time, as indicated by the metaphor, TO CHANGE COLOR IS UNDECIDEDNESS. These features should be assigned to her face and facial organs: [+NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE –ANIMATE +COLORFUL (#face)], [+NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE -ANIMATE +SPARKLING +STARS (#eye)], [+NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE -ANIMATE +PINK +ROSEBUDS (#cheek)], and [+NOUN +COUNT +CONCRETE -ANIMATE +RAINBOWS (#eyebrow)]. Rosebud cheeks consist of a conceptual metaphor, explaining the pinkness of the cheeks. Rainbows are also conceptual metaphors related to the shape of her eyebrows. All of the characteristics of the girl who do not correspond to the love of the composer of the song, or the man, who loves her, hurt him. 5. 2. Spatio-Temporal Continuity 21
  • 22. In this song, the spatio-temporal continuity is provided by the use of diverse tenses. In the first verse, the present tense of the verbs conjugated in the second person singular is used in each sentence: “das” (“you give”), “aboltas” (“you turn”), “miras” (“you glance / look”), and “trokas” (“you change”). This use indicates the continuous behavior of a coy girl. In the second verse, “ven” (“come”), an imperative in the second person singular is used in order to show the strength of the desire of the composer to be with her. A conditional is used after this imperative, demonstrating the reason for which the singer is sad: Nazlı does not correspond to the love of the composer. Besides, “ainda” (“yet”) indicates a cause and effect relationship. Also, the sentence “Ven, yo te kero, linda” (“Come, I love you, my beauty”) implies that the singer loves the charming lady, and therefore, she should come, as indicated by the imperative, conjugated with the second person singular “ven” (“come”). In the third verse, a language interaction is recognized in the sentence “Tus ojos luzeros, tus karas kondjeros, tus dos sejas arkol son” (“Your eyes are sparkling stars, your cheeks are rosebuds, your eyebrows are rainbows”). ‘Son’ is the conjugation of the verb ‘ser’ (to be) in the simple present tense, third person plural form. In Turkish, ‘- dır’ is added to nouns in order to construct nominal verbs; the use of ‘son’ (‘are’) at the end of the sentence after the consequent subjects of the sentence is a result of the influence of Turkish on Judeo-Spanish. After the use of this verb in the simple present tense, a verb in the simple past tense appears: “firyeron” (“they hurt”), in the sentence “mi korason firyeron” (“they hurt my heart”). This tense choice shows the sudden love of the singer. The girl is 22
  • 23. always beautiful, but she hurt the heart, the store of emotions, of the composer in a short time. In the fourth verse, two imperatives in the second person singular, “ven, ven!” (“come, come!”) are used again, but this time a direction is indicated “en mis brasos” (“in my arms”). Another imperative “poza” (“stay”) is used in the second person in order to indicate a perpetual love. The composer wants to tell her, “Do not move, but just stay in my arms!” The imperative “ven” (“come”) is used consequently in order to provide the continuity of time by meaning ‘come with a bouquet of roses now, not later!’ This expresses that the composer wants an immediate response to his love from the one whom he loves, and who is a coy girl. 5. 3. Categorization of Concepts In this song, a coquettish girl is depicted via her facial body parts. The metonymies of brilliant eyes, the pink cheeks, and the eyebrows that look like rainbows are listed in the category of facial body parts. Additionally, roses are the symbols of love. 5. 4. Frame and the Spiritual Space of the Song In the frame of this song, an enamored man imploring a coquettish lady to correspond to his love appears. At the spiritual space of this song, a coquettish girl is not so sure about her love toward the singer; therefore, her face changes color. She is cold at the beginning; the singer tries to persuade her to love him, as he loves her, and repeats the imperative 23
  • 24. “ven!” (“come!”) several times. The singer is sure that she will love him and calls her. The metonymies of brilliant eyes, the pink cheeks, and the eyebrows that look like rainbows contribute to the unchangeable description of an ideal beautiful girl leading to the formation of the spiritual space of the song. 5. 5. Rhymes in the Song The noun “rotas” (“refutations”), and the conjugated verb “aboltas” (“you turn”) are rhyming in the first verse, “ainda” (“also”) and “linda” (beauty) in the second verse, “luzeros” (“sparkling stars”) and “kondjeros” (rosebuds) in the first part of the third verse, but “son” (“they are”) and “firyeron” (“they hurt”) in the second part of the third verse. All of these rhyming words are interrelated; in the first verse, the fact that the girl turns her eyes indicates that she refuses to love the composer; the word ‘beauty’ summarizes all the qualities associated with the lady. Sparkling eyes and rosebud cheeks are two of her characteristics. The first verbal phrase ‘they are’ appears as the reason why they hurt (“firyeron”) the composer. All of these cognitive aesthetic clues make the listener understand the song and conceive the pain of the composer, or the singer via the description of Nazlia (Nazlı). 6. Conclusion The three songs, Avraam Avinu, Esterina Sarfati, and Ven Chika Nazlia (Come Little Nazlı) are full of cognitive elements, including feature cancellations and additions, as cognitive keys to depict the characters of the songs. Spatio-temporal continuity is 24
  • 25. realized through the employment of certain tenses. Some concepts are categorized for the easy perception of the qualities associated with good and bad characters or figures. The figures’ good or bad behavior is expressed in the frames, and its reasons are underlined in the spiritual spaces of the songs. Moreover, the rhymes help us understand the good or bad values associated with the characters. The songs present and draw the picture of three different people, or figures: Abraham is a religious figure, as he is regarded as the father of the Jews, Esterina is a mischievous, charming, and purposeless woman, and Nazlı is a girl who does not correspond to one’s love easily. We owe a great deal of thanks to Reuven Tsur for developing a theory based on cognitive systems, leading to the formation of metaphors in one’s mind for the correct interpretation of the songs, as we see that each song activates certain brain cells. 7. References Altabev, Marie. (2003). Judeo-Spanish in the Turkish Social Context: Language Death, Swan Song, Revival or New Arrival? Istanbul: Isis. “Asara Nisyonot..... 10 Test.” (2005). Available at: http://www.sevivon.com/yasamvedeger/pirkeavot/yorum5_04.asp Hirsch, Emil, Seligsohn, M. & Bacher, Wilhelm (eds.). “Nimrod.” (2002). Available at: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp? artid=295&letter=N&search=nim rod 25
  • 26. Mendelsohn, Charles, Kohler, Kaufmann, Gottheil, Richard, Toy, Howell, Crawford. (2002). “Abraham.” Available at: http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=360&letter=A&search=abrah am Pal-Yarden, Hadass. [recorder]. (2003). Ven Chika Nazlia. On Yahudice (Yahudije). [CD]. Istanbul: Kalan Music Productions. Sarhon, Karen. (n.d.). “Judeo-Spanish Language and Culture.” Available at: http://www.istanbulsephardiccenter.com/index.php?contentId=41&mid=31 Sefarad. [recorder]. (2003). Avraam Avinu. On Sefarad, Volume 1. [CD]. Istanbul: Doğan Music Company. Sefarad. [recorder]. (2005). Esterina Sarfati. On Sefarad, Volume 2. [CD]. Istanbul: Doğan Music Company. Sephiha, Vital, Haim, (1977). L’agonie des judeo-espagnols. Paris: Editions Entente. Shaul, Elie. (1994). Folklor de los Judios de Turkiya (Folklore of the Turkish Jews). Istanbul: Isis. Tsur, Reuven. (1992). Toward A Theory of Cognıtıve Poetics. Amsterdam, Londra, 26
  • 27. New York, Tokyo: North Holland. Tsur, Reuven. (2003). Aspects of Cognitive Poetics. Semino, Elena and Calpeper, Jonathan (Eds.). Cognitive Stylistics—Language and Cognition in Text Analysis. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, pp. 279-318. 27

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