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Agis, Derya. August 18 – 22, 2008.  “A Cognitive Approach to the Characters of Women in Sephardic Idioms, Proverbs, and Anecdotes.”  The Seventh International Conference: Social and Cultural History of the Jews on the Eastern Adriatic Coast: “Jewi
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Agis, Derya. August 18 – 22, 2008. “A Cognitive Approach to the Characters of Women in Sephardic Idioms, Proverbs, and Anecdotes.” The Seventh International Conference: Social and Cultural History of the Jews on the Eastern Adriatic Coast: “Jewi

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Agis, Derya. August 18 – 22, 2008. “A Cognitive Approach to the Characters of Women in Sephardic Idioms, Proverbs, and Anecdotes.” The Seventh International Conference: Social and Cultural History …

Agis, Derya. August 18 – 22, 2008. “A Cognitive Approach to the Characters of Women in Sephardic Idioms, Proverbs, and Anecdotes.” The Seventh International Conference: Social and Cultural History of the Jews on the Eastern Adriatic Coast: “Jewish Women,” The Center for Mediterranean Studies in the University of Zagreb and Moshe David Gaon Center, Ben-Gurion University, Israel; Dubrovnik, Croatia, INVITED SPEAKER.

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  • 1. A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO THE CHARACTER OF WOMAN IN SEPHARDIC IDIOMS, PROVERBS, AND ANECDOTES   BY: DERYA F. AGIS 09/16/13DeryaAgis 1
  • 2. 1. INTRODUCTION  In this study, I intend to examine the characters of mother, daughter, mother-in-law, and daughter-in-law in different Judeo-Spanish idioms, proverbs, and anecdotes from the perspective of the Cognitive Metaphor Theory developed by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in 1980.  This study consists of the analyses of diverse cultural elements belonging to different lands of the Ottoman Empire where Sephardim came after their expulsion from Spain in 1492.   09/16/13 2 DeryaAgis
  • 3. 1. 1. EMOTIONS   According to Oatley and Jenkins (1996), emotions can be defined in three ways:   An emotion is usually caused by a person consciously or unconsciously evaluating an event as relevant to a concern (a goal) that is important; the emotion is felt as positive when a concern is advanced and negative when a concern is impeded.  The core of an emotion is readiness to act and the prompting of plans; an emotion gives priority for one or a few kinds of action to which it gives a sense of urgency – so it can interrupt, or compete with, alternative mental processes or actions. Different types of readiness create different outline relationships with others.   An emotion is usually experienced as a distinctive type of mental state, sometimes accompanied or followed by bodily changes, expressions, actions (p. 96).  In this study, we have chosen the emotions of love and hate for investigating the degree of relationship between the mothers, daughters, mothers-in-law, and daughters-in-law. 09/16/13 3 DeryaAgis
  • 4. 1. 2. COGNITIVE PRAGMATICS AND RECENT RESEARCHES ON EMOTIONS, BODY, AND LINGUISTICS  Several studies have been conducted on the linguistic expression of emotions via different body parts.  Most of them examine the conceptual metaphors and metonymies underlying the proverbs and idioms in some world languages.   Kövecses & Szabcó (1996) suggest that most idioms are based on conceptual metonymies and metaphors. They argue that first, ‘source domains’ determine the meanings of idioms, referring to a ‘target domain,’ second, ‘ontological meaning’ provides more specific aspects of the idiomatic meanings, and third, ‘epistemic correspondences’ can describe connotative aspects of idiomatic meanings.  Alexander and Hasan-Rokem (1988) found that “the dominant identity expressed in the key-informant’s proverb-repertoire is the feminine role-complex.” 09/16/13 4 DeryaAgis
  • 5. 1. 3. AIM AND SCOPE OF THIS STUDY   The aim of this study is showing that the conceptual and linguistic (ontological and orientational) metaphors that are based on socio-cultural beliefs present in some Judeo- Spanish idioms and proverbs underlie also some Sephardic anecdotes.  Moreover, this study indicates that more linguistic (ontological and orientational) metaphors are employed in order to express the positive emotion of love between the mothers and the daughters, whereas more conceptual metaphors are used to express the negative emotion of hate between the mothers-in- law and daughters-in-law. 09/16/13DeryaAgis 5
  • 6. 2. METHODOLOGY 2. 1. DATA   The Judeo-Spanish data of idioms and proverbs were gathered from the following book: De Punta Pie a Kavesa: Trezoro Sefaradi [From the Tip of Foot to the Head: Sephardic Treasure] (2006) of Bardavid and Ender.  ANECDOTES:  Koen-Sarano, M. (compiler). (1986). Kuentos del Folklor de la Famiya Djudeo-Espanyola. Jerusalem: Kana,  Koen-Sarano, M. (compiler). (1991). Djoha Ke Dize?: Kuentos Populares Djudeo-Espanyoles. Jerusalem: Kana.  Koen-Sarano, M. (compiler). (2005). Kuentos del Bel para Abasho. Istanbul: Gozlem.  Shaul, E. (1994). Folklor de los Judios de Turkiya. Istanbul: Isis. 09/16/13 6 DeryaAgis
  • 7. 2. 2. HYPOTHESES  More linguistic (ontological and orientational) metaphors are employed in order to express the positive emotion of love between the mothers and the daughters, whereas more conceptual metaphors are used to express the negative emotion of hate between the mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law.  More Judeo-Spanish idioms and proverbs imply love, referring to the mother and daughter, whereas more Judeo-Spanish idioms and proverbs express hate, referring to the mother-in- law and daughter-in-law. 09/16/13 7 DeryaAgis
  • 8. 3.CONCEPTUAL(STRUCTURAL)METAPHORS Conceptual metaphors are known as cognitive metaphors; they have two parts: a target domain and a source domain. The target domain’s meaning is understood via the source domain, as in LOVE IS A NUTRIENT. The relation between the target and the source domain(s) is called mapping (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 7).   09/16/13 8 DeryaAgis
  • 9. 4. METONYMY  Radden and Kövecses (1999) suggest the following definition for metonymy: “Metonymy is a cognitive process in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle [also often called the ‘source’, …], provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same cognitive model” (p. 21). 09/16/13 9 DeryaAgis
  • 10. 5. ONTOLOGIGAL AND ORIENTATIONAL METAPHORS (LINGUISTIC METAPHORS)  The orientations of up-down, in-out, front-back, on-off, deep-shallow, and central-peripheral form these metaphors (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980: 14); for example,    HAPPY IS UP; SAD IS DOWN  I’m feeling up. That boosted my spirits. My spirits rose. You are in high spirits. Thinking about her always gives me a lift. I am feeling down. I’m depressed. He’s low these days. I fell into a depression. My spirit sank (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980: 15).  Ontological metaphors serve many purposes. The list and the examples provided by Lakoff and Johnson (1980: 26 – 27) explain these purposes:  1. Referring  The middle class is a powerful silent force in American politics.  2. Quantificational  There is so much hatred in the world.  3.Identifying Aspects  The brutality of war dehumanizes us all.  4. Identifying Causes  The pressure of his responsibilities caused his breakdown.  5. Setting Goals and Motivating Actions  I’m changing my way of life so that I can find true happiness. 5. 1. ONTOLOGICAL METAPHORS 5. 2. ORIENTATIONAL METAPHORS 09/16/13DeryaAgis 10
  • 11. 6. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE   For testing the hypotheses, we used the statistical tool “MedCalc” available at the following web site: http://www.medcalc.be.   The statistical test significance level is 5 percent in accordance with this tool in the test of comparison of proportions. 09/16/13 11 DeryaAgis
  • 12. 7. RESULTS Emotions Mothers Mothers- in-law Difference 95% CI Chi- Square df p-value Love / affection 60% 0% 60% 42.5% to 70.3% 24.902 1 P < 0.0001 Hate 40% 100% 60% 42.5% to 70.3% 24.902 1 P < 0.0001 09/16/13 12 DeryaAgis EMOTIONS INDICATED WITH THE MOTHERS AND MOTHERS-IN-LAW
  • 13. 09/16/13DeryaAgis 13 Emotions Daughters Daughters -in-law Difference 95% CI Chi- Square df p-value Love / affection 48% 0% 48% 30.6% to 58% 16.001 1 P = 0.0001 Hate 52% 100% 48% 30.6% to 58% 16.001 1 P = 0.0001 EMOTIONS INDICATED WITH THE DAUGHTERS AND DAUGTERS-IN-LAW
  • 14. 09/16/13 14 DeryaAgis Metaphors Linguistic Metaphors Conceptual Metaphors Difference 95% CI Chi-Square df p-value Mothers - love 87% 13% 74% 67% to 79,3% 248.945 1 P < 0.0001 Mothers- hate 55% 45% 10% -32% to 22.7% 1.818 1 P = 0.1775 Daughters - love 93% 7% 86% 79.9% to 89.9% 299.806 1 P < 0.0001 Daughters - hate 59% 41% 18% -1.7% to 35.9% 2.496 1 P = 0.1141 Mothers- in-law - love 0% 0% - - - - - Mothers- in-law - hate 14% 86% 72% 50.7% to 83.2% 33.465 1 P < 0.0001 Daughters- in-law - love 0% 0% - - - - - Daughters- in-law – hate 41% 59% 18% -5.5% to 38.9% 1.542 1 P = 0.2143 DISTRIBUTION OF THE METAPHOR TYPES
  • 15. NUMBERS OF METAPHORS 09/16/13 15 DeryaAgis METAPHORS LINGUISTIC METAPHORS CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS TOTAL MOTHERS - LOVE 200 30 230 MOTHERS - HATE 60 50 110 MOTHERS-IN- LAW - HATE 5 30 35 DAUGHTERS - LOVE 191 14 205 DAUGHTERS - HATE 29 20 49 DAUGHTERS- IN-LAW - HATE 14 20 34
  • 16. NUMBERS OF IDIOMS AND PROVERBS INDICATING EMOTIONS 09/16/13 16 DeryaAgis EMOTIONS HATE LOVE TOTAL MOTHERS 30 45 75 MOTHERS-IN- LAW 25 0 25 DAUGHTERS 49 45 94 DAUGHTERS- IN-LAW 23 0 23
  • 17. 8. DATA ANALYSES 8. 1. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS WITH THE MOTHER 09/16/13 17 DeryaAgis (1) La madre i la ija, komo piedra en aniyo, la ija kon la madre komo unya en karne. Mother and daughter resemble the stone on a ring, daughter and mother nail in the flesh. (2) La madre piadoza, kita a la ija mokoza / tinyoza The daughter of a charitable mother becomes snotty / bald. (3) La madre haragana, kita la ija galana / nikochera A lazy mother produces a hardworking housewife. (4) La madre del mudo, entiende al mudo. The mother of the dumb, understands the dumb. (5) No ay en el mundo, amiga komo la madre. In the whole world there is no friend like a mother. Being next to each other is love / affection. The ring has a stone on it; the mother is as precious as the ring that has a stone on it. The stone stands for closeness. The flesh of the finger holds the nail; the nail stands for closeness. BEING ON IS BEING LOVED. A family is being in the same shelter. The mother and the daughter are in the same shelter, when they love each other. Seeing poor people out of this shelter is being an indifferent mother. The housework stands for hard work. Doing too much housework is being hardworking for a daughter. LOVE IS BEING INSIDE. HATE IS BEING OUTSIDE. The mother and the daughter are the storages of extreme pain or other emotions. The pressure in a storage make them share the emotions in this storage. THE EXTREMITY OF PAIN / AN EMOTION MAKE A DAUGHTER EXPLODE / CONSULT HER MOTHER. THE MOTHER’S WOMB IS A SHELTER FOR MANKIND. BEING OUT OF THE WOMB IS NOT GOOD FOR AN EXTREMELY BAD PERSON.
  • 18. AN ANECDOTE?!  Amor Platonik -Mama, mi novyo dicho ke kere azer amor platonik, kualo es esto? - La madre: Amor de avlastinas i bavajadas. Platonic love - Mommy, my husband said that he wanted to make platonic love; which one is this? - The mother: a love based on gibberish. (from: Shaul, Eli, 1994)  A REAL MOTHER IS CLOSE TO HER DAUGHTER.  THE EXTREME AFFECTION BETWEEN THE MOTHER AND THE DAUGHTER MAKES THEM SHARE SECRETS.  SECRETS STAND FOR CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS.  THE MOTHER IS A CONTAINER FOR SECRETS / EMOTIONS / KNOWLEDGE. 09/16/13DeryaAgis 18
  • 19. 8. 2. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS WITH THE MOTHER-IN-LAW 09/16/13 19 DeryaAgis (7) Amistad entre esfuegra i ermuera no ay. There is no love between the mother-in-law and the daughter-in-law. (8) Amor de esfuegra kon ermuera, de los dientes para afuera. The love between the mother and the daughter-in-law, from the teeth to the outside. (9) De la tizna a la karvonera, es esfuegra i ermuera. What ember is to coal, mother-in-law is to daughter. (10) Para ken es esta paparrona? Para eya sinyora esfuegra! – Para mi esta paparrika?! For whom is this big dinner? – For you esteemed mother-in-law! – For me this small dinner?!
  • 20. Palavrikas de amor Una vez Djoha le disho a la madre ke se kere despozar, i la madre le topo’ una novia buena. Kuando Djoha fue and’eya, la novia no le sta avlando nada. Le disho la madre: “Mira, tu, kuando vas a ir ande la novia tuya, dizile palavras dulses!’ Djoha se hue ande la novia i le disho: “Halva!... Baklava!... Tishpishti!...”, este modo de palavras. La novia no avlo’ nada, ni meneyo’ afilu una seja. Se hue Djoha ande la madre, le disho: “Mama’, ya le dishi todo lo ke me dishites, ma… nada! Ni a, ni bu, ni kukurikuku’!” Asta ke la madre le disho: “Mira,. Djoha, kuando vas a ir otra vez, dizile palavras… huertes… ansina…, ke lo token al korason! Palavras huiertes le vas a dizir!” Se hue Djoha ande la novia, le disho palavras huertes. La novia, tanto se spanto’ de estas palavras, ke se tapo’ la kavesa kon la sharpa i se fuyo. Le disho la madre, kuando torno’: “Ke, ijo? Ke hue, Djoha?” “Ke ke te diga, madre? le disho Djoha, “Yo le dishi las palavras huertes, ma eya… se fuyo’ d’onde mi!” “I kualo le dishites?” le demando’ la madre. Le dishi: “Klavos!... Pirones!... Kuchiyos!...” disho Djoha. “E!” disho la madre, “Siguro ke se va fuyir!!” Ansi Djoha se kedo’ sin la novia. Narrated by Valentina Tsoref – 1987 (Koen-Sarano, Matilda, 1991) AN ANECDOTE?!  The mother of Djoha finds the bride. She wants him to say her nice words; he says wrong words.  LOVE OF THE SON IS FINDING THE RIGHT BRIDE FOR THE SON.  SAYING NICE WORDS STANDS FOR LOVE.  SAYING HARD WORDS STANDS FOR HATE.  LOVE IS BEING IN THE SAME CIRCLE. HATE IS BEING OUT OF THIS CIRCLE. = THE BRIDE HAS TO BE CHOSEN BY THE MOTHER-IN-LAW.  SWEETS STANDS FOR NOTHING. NAILS, FORKS, AND KNIVES STAND FOR VIOLENCE.  SWEETNESS IS A FORCE THAT MAKES ONE STAY IN THE CIRCLE. BITTERNESS IS 09/16/13DeryaAgis 20
  • 21. 8. 3. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS WITH THE DAUGHTER 09/16/13 21 DeryaAgis (11) Siempre kon la ija, de la fasha asta la mortaja. Always with the daughter, from the cradle to the shroud (mother and daughter never stay apart) (12) Tala madre, tala ija. So is the mother, so is the daughter. (13) Las ijas tienen el mazal detras de la oreja. The girls have their marriage opportunities behind their ears. (14) La mujer ke es parida de ija, no echa kortinas i no aze rijos. The woman who gives birth to a girl does not make any preparations. (15) Mas vale ija kon maniya, ke ijo por la marina. Better to have a daughter with a bracelet than a son at sea. (16) Ken alava su ija la tinyoza? Su madre la mokoza. Who praises her bald daughter? Her snotty mother.   CLOSENESS / BEING IN THE SAME SHELTER / IN THE SAME PLACE / BEING INSIDE IS LOVE. THE CRADLE STANDS FOR BIRTH; THE SHROUD STANDS FOR DEATH. THE MOTHER AND THE DAUGHTER ARE CONTAINERS FOR THE SAME QUALITIES; THEY CAN EXPLODE / BURN OR JUMP DUE TO THE LEVEL OF THESE QUALITIES / EMOTIONS. LOVE IS CLOSE TO THE GIRLS. BEING BEHIND ONE’S EARS STANDS FOR BEING CLOSE. NOT MAKING ANY PREPARATIONS FOR A FEAST IS FOR EXTREME SADNESS. A BRACELET STANDS FOR A JOB. HAVING SOMETHING ON ONE’S ARM IS BEING EMPLOYED. BEING AT SEA IS BEING FAR. DISTANCE STANDS FOR INDIFFERENCE. EXTREME HAIR LOSS STANDS FOR UGLINESS. BEING EXTREMELY SNOTTY IS UGLINESS. MATERNAL LOVE IS BEING VERY INDIFFERENT TO UGLINESS.
  • 22. AN ANECDOTE?! THE MOUTH IS A CONTAINER. THE WORDS ARE SOLID MATERIALS THAT CAN MAKE A PERSON ESCAPE. (PRONUNCIATION ERROR OF THE GIRLS WHO WERE NOT UGLY) Las ijas sin kazar And’avia de ser de un marido i de una mujer, ke tinian dos ijas no feas, ma un poko atavanadas, ke tinian i un defekto de pronunsiasion. Ma kualo ivan azer estos djenitores? Sus mas grande dezeo era de verlas kazadas, proprio komo dezeevan de kazarsen las mismas ijas. I ansi eyos les ivan prezentado kada nada mansevos por medio del kazamentero, kon la esperansa de toparles maridos. Ma apenas eyas avrian la boka delantre de los pretendientes, estos se fuian. Una vez,…doz,… tres la madre vido esto i dechizo’ ke kuando iva vinir el kazamentero a trayer un mansevo, kalia ke las dos ijas se asentaran klaon los ojos bashos i la boka serrada. Kuando vino el dia diado, i el kazamentero estava paratrayerles el dichoso mansevo, la madre yamo’ a las ijas i les enkomendo’: “Por sedaka! No dogash ni una palavra delantre de los musafires!” Kuando ya vino el kazamentero kon el mansevo, la una de las dos ijas se asento’ en el kanape’ kon los ojos bashos i la boka serrada, i la otra entro’ de la puerta kon la tavla del dulse. Ma la ija estava tanto emosionada, ke se le dio el braso en la chercheve, I el platiko del dulse se kayo’ I se rimpio’. La ermana, viendo esto, no pudo dentenerse, salto’ I disho: “A Dio! Patiko umpo’.” Le respondio’ la otra kon despasensia: “Umpo’? Umpo’!” a esto eksklamo’ la ermana: “No disho la mama’ ni tuji, ni muji?” Sintiendo estas palavras, el mansevo tomo’ la puerta i se fuyo’! Narrated by Diana Sarano, - 1982 (Koen-Sarano, Matilda, 1986) 09/16/13 22 DeryaAgis
  • 23. ANOTHER ANECDOTE?!  La Chika Diferensia  Avia un chelebi ke no tuvo mazal kon su mujer. Todo le paria ijas, ijas, ijas, ijas… Otr’una vez kedo’ prenyada i al kavo fue ke le pario’ otra ija. Komo va resivir este otr’una ija? Ya tiene siete… benot het, komo se dize. Los amigos, los ermanos d’el kualo izieron? El dia ke kalia ke le izieran el brit-mila, la taparon bien bien a la ijika I la yevaron al kal. Trusheron al moel, i el padre esta enshashado de l’aligria. Sof sof udjila tiene un ijiko! Kuando ya la deskuvrieron delantre del moel, el ke mira: “Addio!” dizi, “Aki no ay kualo kitar! Ay kualo miter!” Narrated by: Pinhas Tokatli - 1989 (Matilda Koen-Sarano, Matilda, 2004)  HAVING TOO MANY DAUGHTERS IS A SHAME.  A man made his daughter wear clothes for boys, and celebrated the Brit- Mila of the child. However, people discovered that she was not a boy. 09/16/13DeryaAgis 23
  • 24. A DIFFERENT ANECDOTE?! El ermaniko Un amigo de Djoha supo ke la madre le pario un ermaniko muevo. Le dize: “Stas kontente ke tu mama’ te merko’ un ermaniko?” Dize Djoha: “No! Porke’ yo kiria una ermanika, no un ermaniko!” Le dize el amigo: “I porke no demandas a tu madre de trokarlo?” “Ma no puedamos!” le dize Djoha, “Agora ya lo kulaneimos kuatro dias!” Narrated by: Maria de Benedetti – 1987 (Koen-Sarrano, Matilda, 1991)  Here only Djoha preferred to have a sister, not a brother.  His friend asks him if he is happy that his mother bought him a brother. Djoha answers that he was waiting for a sister. His friends tells him to ask her mother to change him with the sister. Djoha says that they cannot, as they can use it for four days  THEREFORE,  HAVING A SON IS BETTER THAN HAVING A DAUGHTER.  IN A JOKING MANNER,  BUYING IS MAKING ONE COME TO THE EARTH 09/16/13DeryaAgis 24
  • 25. 8. 4. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS WITH THE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 09/16/13 25 DeryaAgis (17) Bueno mi ermuera giza, kon la alkuza yena. My daughter-in-law cooks well if the bottle of oil is full (if she spends too much money) (18) Ermuera, ni de asukar, ni de barro es buena. Even if made of sugar / of clay a daughter-in-law is not good. (19) Esfuegra i ermuera en una kaza, komo diez gatos en un sako. Mother-in-law and daughter-in-law in a house are like ten cats in the same sack. (20) Ermuera, kulevra kon kemenche. The daughter-in-law is like a rattlesnake. THE BRAIN OF THE DAUGHTER-IN- LAW IS A CONTAINER. MONEY IS A LIQUID. FOOD IS A CONTAINER FOR OIL. OIL STANDS FOR MONEY. TASTE IS A BOTTLE. THE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW IS A BUILDING OF SUGAR / CLAY. SUGAR / CLAY STANDS FOR BEAUTY. HATE IS A FORCE THAT CAN DESTROY THE BEAUTY. CATS STAND FOR FIGHT. THE HOUSE / THE SACK IS A CONTAINER FOR HATE. A RATTLESNAKE IS A CONTAINER FOR HATE. ITS VOICE STANDS FOR FIGHT. A WORD IS POISON; THE WORDS OF THE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW POISON THE MOTHER-IN-LAW. BEATING IS POISONING. THE BRAIN OF THE DAUGHTER-IN- LAW IS A CONTAINER. MONEY IS A LIQUID. FOOD IS A CONTAINER FOR OIL. OIL STANDS FOR MONEY. TASTE IS A BOTTLE. THE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW IS A BUILDING OF SUGAR / CLAY. SUGAR / CLAY STANDS FOR BEAUTY. HATE IS A FORCE THAT CAN DESTROY THE BEAUTY. CATS STAND FOR FIGHT. THE HOUSE / THE SACK IS A CONTAINER FOR HATE. A RATTLESNAKE IS A CONTAINER FOR HATE. ITS VOICE STANDS FOR FIGHT. A WORD IS POISON; THE WORDS OF THE DAUGHTER-IN-LAW POISON THE MOTHER-IN-LAW. BEATING IS POISONING.
  • 26. 9. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION  More linguistic (ontological and orientational) metaphors are employed in order to express the positive emotion of love between the mothers and the daughters, whereas more conceptual metaphors are used to express the negative emotion of hate between the mothers-in-law and daughters-in-law.  More Judeo-Spanish idioms and proverbs imply love, referring to the mother and daughter.  However, more Judeo-Spanish idioms and proverbs express hate, referring to the mother-in- law and daughter-in-law. 09/16/13 26 DeryaAgis
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  • 31. THANKYOU QUESTIONS???QUESTIONS??? 09/16/13 31 DeryaAgis DERYA AGIS E-MAIL: deryaagis@gmail.com