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Agis, Derya. February 20 – 22, 2008.  “A Comparative Cognitive Pragmatic Approach to the Judeo-Spanish and Turkish Proverbs and Idioms that Express Emotions via the Uses of Conceptualizations Related to the Heart and the Brain.”  Third International
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Agis, Derya. February 20 – 22, 2008. “A Comparative Cognitive Pragmatic Approach to the Judeo-Spanish and Turkish Proverbs and Idioms that Express Emotions via the Uses of Conceptualizations Related to the Heart and the Brain.” Third International


Agis, Derya. February 20 – 22, 2008. “A Comparative Cognitive Pragmatic Approach to the Judeo-Spanish and Turkish Proverbs and Idioms that Express Emotions via the Uses of Conceptualizations Related …

Agis, Derya. February 20 – 22, 2008. “A Comparative Cognitive Pragmatic Approach to the Judeo-Spanish and Turkish Proverbs and Idioms that Express Emotions via the Uses of Conceptualizations Related to the Heart and the Brain.” Third International Symposium on Intercultural, Cognitive, and Social Pragmatics. [EPICS III], University of Pablo de Olavide, Seville, Spain.

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  • 2. 1. INTRODUCTION  This study intends to discover whether the same or a different organ is used in Judeo-Spanish and Turkish proverbs and idioms in order to express a certain emotion from a cognitive pragmatic perspective. Several proverbs and idioms chosen from various proverb and idiom dictionaries express negative and positive emotions via the uses of the vital human organs of heart and brain. Judeo-Spanish is chosen in this study as the language spoken by the Spanish Jews who immigrated to the Ottoman Empire, after they had been expelled from Spain in 1492, and still live in the Republic of Turkey. Turkish is chosen as an official language of a country where the Judeo-Spanish language is spoken by a minority group. The proverbs and idioms of the two languages are compared and analyzed from a cognitive pragmatic view in order to identify their similar and different uses that are based on social and cultural beliefs or appeared as a result of social interaction.    A statistical test of proportions was conducted in this study in order to identify whether the heart or the brain is used most in order to express positive and negative emotions. Statistical analyses reveal that more Judeo-Spanish proverbs and idioms employ the heart in order to express disgust / hate and love, but more Turkish proverbs and idioms express disgust / hate with the brain for some socio-cultural reasons. For identifying these socio-cultural reasons, this study refers to the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) developed by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in 1980. 09/15/13 2 DeryaAgis
  • 3. 1. 1. EMOTIONS   According to Oatley and Jenkins (1996), emotions can be defined in three ways:   An emotion is usually caused by a person consciously or unconsciously evaluating an event as relevant to a concern (a goal) that is important; the emotion is felt as positive when a concern is advanced and negative when a concern is impeded.  The core of an emotion is readiness to act and the prompting of plans; an emotion gives priority for one or a few kinds of action to which it gives a sense of urgency – so it can interrupt, or compete with, alternative mental processes or actions. Different types of readiness create different outline relationships with others.   An emotion is usually experienced as a distinctive type of mental state, sometimes accompanied or followed by bodily changes, expressions, actions (p. 96).  Language is used to express certain emotions. In expressing emotions, we may need to describe the intensity of the negative or positive emotion, our actions, our attitudes towards others, and our bodily experiences, as our emotive impulses can be expressed “in some special mode of bodily adjustments facilitating and supporting that mode of bodily activity” (McDougall, 1968, p. 63). Besides, emotions are understood from the actions of people (Oatley & Jenkins, 1996, p. 114) and reflex patterns of the face, voice, etc. (Oatley & Jenkins, 1996, p. 66).   09/15/13 3 DeryaAgis
  • 4. 1. 2. HISTORY OF THE SEPHARDIM  Spanish Jews began to immigrate into the Ottoman Empire, as in 1492, the Catholic monarchs of Spain, Queen Isabella of Castile, King Ferdinand of Aragon, and their Prime Minister Torquemada expelled from Spain the Jews, who had rejected to be converted into Catholicism (Gerson - Şarhon, n. d., para. 1).  These Jews settled in Istanbul, Safed, Salonika, Jerusalem, and Cairo: the communities were divided into groups in accordance with their origins, as Cordova, Aragon, Leon, etc. (Gerson - Şarhon, n. d., para. 3).  They assumed the name ‘SEPHARAD’, which means Spain in Hebrew, and they called themselves ‘SEPHARDIM’ (‘Sepharads’) (Gerson - Şarhon, n. d., para. 4), thus, ‘those from Spain.’ 09/15/13 4 DeryaAgis
  • 5. 1. 3. JUDEO-SPANISH LANGUAGE AND TURKISH  The Judeo-Spanish language has various other names, including Ladino, Sefardi, Dzhudezmo, Judezmo, and Spanyol (“Ladino Language,” 2007, Name of Language, para. 1).  Regarding the origins of Judeo-Spanish that is a Romance language, Kahane (1973), Perles (1925), Révah (1964, 1970), Lazar (1972), Sephiha (1971, 1973), and Malinowski (1979) argue that the Spanish language spoken by the Jews before their expulsion from Spain in 1492 was the same as that spoken by the Christians of Spain; however, Wagner (1930), Blondheim (1925), Benardete (1982), and Marcus (1962) defend that “the language of the Jews in Spain was already different in certain aspects of its lexicon, morphology, and phonology from that of the Christians by the Middle Ages” (as cited in Harris, 2005, p. 99).  In this period, Medieval Castilian was spoken in Spain with dialectal variations; Judeo-Spanish was based on the grammar of Medieval Spanish; however, some Hebrew words were found in it. Hebrew influenced “Ladino or Judezmo (Judeo-Spanish)” (Berdichevsky, 2000, para. 26). Wexler (1977) posits that the speakers of Judeo-Spanish tended to use Arabic and Hebrew expressions rather than the Latin ones, and this fact shows that there was a ‘Jewish variant of Spanish’ before the expulsion of 1492 (as cited in Avcıkurt, 1993, p. 45).  The Jews who were expelled from Portugal in 1497 and from Navarra in 1498 (Gilmer, 1986, p. 16) joined to Sephardim. The Jews, who were living in the Eastern Byzantium, were called the Romaniot Jews; therefore, the Jews, living in Edirne, Tekirdag, and Izmit were speaking Greek (Besasel, 1999, p. 151). Besides, there were Venetians and Genovans, living in Turkey: they could speak Italian (Shaul, 1994, p. 12). Moreover, the Jews who were expelled from the Apulia region of Italy in 1290 were living in Valona in Albania; the Ottomans took the city of Valona in 1417 where many Jews settled after the expulsions of the Jews from Spain and Portugal (Arbell, 2002, p. 13). Also, the Balkanic languages spoken in Ottoman lands where Sephardim settled influenced the Judeo-Spanish language.  Moreover, the schools of l’Alliance Israélite Universelle play a  Turkish is an Altaic language,  Contemporary Turkish derives from Ottoman. JUDEO-SPANISH TURKISH 09/15/13 5 DeryaAgis
  • 6. 1. 4. COGNITIVE PRAGMATICS AND RECENT RESEARCHES ON EMOTIONS, BODY, AND LINGUISTICS  Several studies have been conducted on the linguistic expression of emotions via different body parts. Most of them examine the conceptual metaphors and metonymies underlying the proverbs and idioms in some world languages.   Kövecses & Szabcó (1996) suggest that most idioms are based on conceptual metonymies and metaphors. They argue that first, ‘source domains’ determine the meanings of idioms, referring to a ‘target domain,’ second, ‘ontological meaning’ provides more specific aspects of the idiomatic meanings, and third, ‘epistemic correspondences’ can describe connotative aspects of idiomatic meanings. They also demonstrate that foreign language learners can learn idioms more easily via the help of cognitive semantics.   Concerning the proverbs, Lawal, Ajayi, and Raji (1997) identify the illocutionary acts performed through the use of twelve Yoruba proverbs, and analyze the pragmatic contexts in the proverbs.   Ibarretxe – Antuňano (1997) suggests that the metaphorical extensions of the sense of smell include ‘indication and detection of dislikable characteristics,’ ‘the act of guessing,’ ‘suspicion,’ and ‘investigation.’ According to the researcher, these extensions are cross- linguistic.   Yu (2000) examines the Chinese body - part terms with the fingers and the palms. The finger indicates intention, aim, guidance, and direction, while the palm power and control. The related metaphoric and metonymic expressions depend on the common acts of pointing with the index finger and holding in the palm. The author compares the Chinese data to the English data, and discovers two differences: 1) the conceptual metaphor “CONTROL IS HOLDING IN THE PALM OF THE HAND” is manifested richly in Chinese, whereas in English it does not, and 2) the other conceptual metaphor “THE FINGER IS THE DOER” is present in English, but absent in Chinese. These two results are based on cultural preferences. 09/15/13 6 DeryaAgis
  • 7. 1. 5. AIM AND SCOPE OF THIS STUDY   The aim of this study is to find out whether the Turkish Jews and the Turkish people use the same bodily expressions, or different ones in depicting positive and negative emotions in Judeo-Spanish and Turkish proverbs and idioms within the framework of cognitive pragmatics and linguistics.  HEART and BRAIN 09/15/13 7 DeryaAgis
  • 8. 2. METHODOLOGY 2. 1. DATA   The Judeo-Spanish data were gathered from the following book: De Punta Pie a Kavesa: Trezoro Sefaradi [From the Tip of Foot to the Head: Sephardic Treasure] (2006) of Bardavid and Ender.  The Turkish data of proverbs and idioms were gathered from the following Turkish dictionaries of proverbs and idioms: Atasözleri ve Deyimler Sözlüğü – 1, 2 [Dictionary of Proverbs and Idioms - 1, 2] (1988), compiled by Aksoy. 09/15/13 8 DeryaAgis
  • 9. 2. 2. HYPOTHESES  Judeo-Spanish speakers employ the organ of heart for indicating love more than the Turkish people.  Turkish speakers employ the brain for indicating disgust / hate more than the Judeo-Spanish speakers.  Judeo-Spanish and Turkish speakers usually employ different organs for alluding to the same emotion. 09/15/13 9 DeryaAgis
  • 10. 3. SELECTION OF THE EMOTION THEORY: LAZARUS (1991) ON EMOTIONS  In this study, I intend to analyze the Judeo-Spanish and Turkish metaphorical and metonymic proverbs and idioms that involve the negative and positive emotions classified by Lazarus (1991); however, in my analyses, I intend to show the influence of culture in the proverbs and idioms that describe certain emotions psychophysiologically, as there can be ethnic differences in psychophysiological responses to emotions (Lazarus, 1991, p. 361).  Lazarus (1991) suggests that goal congruence, or incongruence and goal relevance are present in the formation of both negative and positive emotions.  Concerning the distinction between the positive and negative emotions, the classification of Lazarus (1991) is used.  The negative emotions include the following: 1) disgust / hate, 2) fright / anxiety, 3) shame / guilt, 4) sadness, 5) jealousy / envy, and 6) anger, whereas the positive emotions the following: 1) happiness / joy, 2) relief, 3) pride, and 4) love / affection.  DIFFERENT EMOTIONS WITH ICONS 09/15/13 10 DeryaAgis
  • 11. 4.CONCEPTUAL(STRUCTURAL)METAPHORS Conceptual metaphors are known as cognitive metaphors; they have two parts: a target domain and a source domain. The target domain’s meaning is understood via the source domain, as in LOVE IS A NUTRIENT. The relation between the target and the source domain(s) is called mapping (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, p. 7).   These metaphors define a concept with another one, as Lakoff & Johnson (1980) propose “One concept is metaphorically structured in terms of another” (p. 14). 09/15/13 11 DeryaAgis
  • 12. 5. METONYMY  Lakoff and Johnson (1980) and Langacker (1993) emphasize the conceptual nature of metonymy.  Radden and Kövecses (1999) suggest the following definition for metonymy: “Metonymy is a cognitive process in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle [also often called the ‘source’, …], provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same cognitive model” (p. 21). 09/15/13 12 DeryaAgis
  • 13. 6. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE   For testing the hypotheses, the percentages of the proverbs and idioms that include the same body parts in both languages were calculated and confronted with a test of comparison of proportions with the statistical tool “MedCalc” available at the following web site: http://www.medcalc.be.   The statistical test significance level is 5 percent in accordance with this tool. 09/15/13 13 DeryaAgis
  • 14. POSITIVEEMOTIONS? 74% of the Judeo- Spanish proverbs and idioms depict love / affection, whereas 30% of the Turkish ones indicate the same emotion. However, more Turkish proverbs and idioms (40%) indicate happiness / joy than those Turkish ones. 7. RESULTS 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 HEART - TURKISH BRAIN - TURKISH HEART - JUDEO- SPANISH BRAIN - JUDEO- SPANISH LOVE 30 30 74 13 HAPPINESS / JOY 40 0 8 5 Percentagesof Positive Emotions 09/15/13 14 DeryaAgis
  • 15. Emoti ons Judeo- Spanish Turkish D i f f e r e n c e 9 5 % C I Chi- Squa re df p-value Positive Emotions Love / affection 74% 30% 4 4 % 14.0 to 74.0 6 . 0 7 9 1 P = 0.0137 Happine ss / Joy 8% 40% 3 2 % 1.0 to 63.0 5 . 9 5 8 1 P = 0.0146 Relief - - - - - - Pride - - - - - - Negative Emotions Disgust / hate 23% 5% 1 8 % 7.6 to 28.4 4 . 8 6 4 1 P = 0.0274 Fright / anxiety 1% 11% 1 0 % 3.5 to 16.5 2 . 4 1 5 1 P = 0.1202 Shame / guilt - - - - - - Sadness 27% 62% 3 5 % 17.4 to 52.6 1 3 . 5 2 4 1 P = 0.0002 Jealousy / Envy 0% 2% 2 % -0.5 to 4.5 0 . 0 0 9 1 P = 0.9249 Anger 0% 5% 5 % -2.0 to 12.0 2 . 4 3 1 1 P = 0.1189 EMOTIONS INDICATED WITH THE HEART 09/15/13 15 DeryaAgis
  • 16. Emotions Judeo- Spanish Tur kish Differ ence 9 5 % C I Chi- Squar e df p-value Positive Emotions Love / affection 13% 30% 17% -12.4 to 46.4 0. 89 7 1 P = 0.3437 Happines s / Joy 5% 0% 5% 0.1 to 9.9 0. 00 9 1 P = 0.9252 Relief - - - - - - Pride - - - - - - Negative Emotions Disgust / hate 27% 0% 27% 18.9 to 35.1 10 .9 58 1 P = 0.0009 Fright / anxiety - - - - - - - Shame / guilt - - - - - - Sadness 21% 14% 13% -0.8 to 26.8 1. 94 3 1 P = 0.1633 Jealousy / Envy - - - - - - - Anger 0% 3% 3% -2.5 to 8.5 0. 57 7 1 P = 0.4473 EMOTIONS INDICATED WITH THE BRAIN 09/15/13 16 DeryaAgis
  • 17. NEGATIVE EMOTIONS 09/15/13 17 DeryaAgis
  • 19. NUMBERS DISGUST SADNESS FEAR JE A L O U S Y A N G E R T O T A L HEART - TURKISH 2 23 4 0 2 31 BRAIN - TURKISH 0 5 0 0 1 6 HEART – JUDEO- SPANISH 26 31 1 2 0 60 BRAIN – JUDEO- SPANISH 31 25 0 0 0 56 09/15/13 19 DeryaAgis
  • 20. 8. DATA ANALYSES 8. 1. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS THAT EXPRESS LOVE WITH THE HEART   Regarding the positive emotion of love, there are more proverbs and idioms in Judeo-Spanish than in Turkish. In Judeo-Spanish, more metaphors are present than in Turkish, depicting the heart of a sweet and tender person who loves people and gets pity of them easily. (1) Korason de melon / de pichon / de Salonika Heart of melon / of pigeon / of Salonika   In (1), we encounter the following conceptualizations: “BEING OF MELON IS GOODNESS,” “PIGEON STANDS FOR GOODNESS,” “SALONIKA STANDS FOR GOOD,” “BEING FROM SALONIKA IS BEING GOOD.” Melon is a Mediterranean fruit and it is soft, pigeon is a bird that does not hurt anybody, and Salonika has been a city full of Jews since the Ottoman period. In Turkish, “BEING OF PASTRY IS BEING GOOD,” as Turkish sweets include pastry, such as baklava, etc. However, in (2a) the conceptualizations “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER FOR EMOTIONS” and “HATE IS A SUBSTANCE IN THE HEART,” and “ACCIDENTS STAND FOR DISGUST / HATE” are present. (2) a. kalbinde alası kazası bulunmamak Not to have an accident in her / his heart b. yufka yürekli Heart of pastry Another Judeo-Spanish idiom suggests that a person whose heart is of honey or gold is good. (3) Korason de miel / de oro Heart of honey / of gold 09/15/13 20 DeryaAgis
  • 21. CONTINUED  The conceptualizations “HONEY STANDS FOR LOVE / AFFECTION, ” “GOLD STANDS FOR LOVE / AFFECTION” underlie (3), however, in Turkish the conceptual metonymy “GOLD STANDS FOR LOVE / AFFECTION” underlies (4). Gold is the most previous element in the Turkish culture. In the Sephardic culture, honey can be regarded as precious as gold: for celebrating the arrival of the feast of Sukkot each year Jewish people eat honey and apples. (4) Altın kalpli Gold-hearted 09/15/13 21 DeryaAgis
  • 22. CONTINUED  Besides, in (5) we see the importance of giving gifts. “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER FOR LOVE,” “LOVE IS A SOLID MATERIAL,” and “GIFTS AND GOOD SPEECH ARE SOFTENERS FOR LOVE” are the active conceptualizations in (5). As this is valid in each culture, Judeo-Spanish as a foreign language learners might not have any difficulty. (5) Regalos i buenas razones ablandan los korasones. Gifts and good speeches soften the hearts. Moreover, in the Turkish idiom in (6) these conceptualizations are present: “THE HEART IS A GIFT” and “THE HEART STANDS FOR LOVE.”   (6) Kalbini vermek to give her / his heart to another   09/15/13 22 DeryaAgis
  • 23. 8. 2. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS THAT EXPRESS HAPPINESS WITH THE HEART  In every culture, bread and water bring happiness, as one cannot live without eating and drinking water: “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER FOR HAPPINESS” and “BREAD AND WATER STAND FOR WELFARE AND HAPPINESS.”   (7) pan i agua i alegria en el korason Bread and water and joy in the heart    However, in Turkish fresh water appears as a means of feeling cool suffering from hot weather. The Turkish idiom in (8) depicts another scene where water is necessary. One needs water for washing herself / himself, as the weather is extremely hot. The following conceptualizations are active in (8): “TROUBLE IS HEAT,”“COLD WATER STANDS FOR HAPPINESS” and “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER FOR HAPPINESS / TROUBLE(S).”   (8) yüreğine soğuk su serpilmek Cold water drops onto one’s heart 09/15/13 23 DeryaAgis
  • 24. 8. 3. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS THAT EXPRESS LOVE WITH THE BRAIN  In the Sephardic culture, the conceptual metaphor “THE BRAIN IS AN ASSISTANT FOR THE EYES TO FIND THE RIGHT LOVE” underlies the proverb in (9): (9) los ojos no ven nada, kuando el meoyo no esta kon eyos. The eyes do not see anything, when the mind is not with them.    However, in Turkish “THE BRAIN IS A CONTAINER FOR THE LOVED” and “THE LOVED IS AN OBJECT IN THE BRAIN,” as in (10):   (10) beynine girmek To enter one’s brain   09/15/13 24 DeryaAgis
  • 25. 8. 4. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS THAT EXPRESS HAPPINESS WITH THE BRAIN  Regarding a happy marriage, a woman should be intelligent in the Sephardic culture. Therefore, the following conceptualizations underlie (11): “BRAIN STANDS FOR INTELLIGENCE,” “AN INTELLIGENT WOMAN STANDS FOR HAPPINESS” (11) mujer kon meoyo, mazal i reposo wife with a brain, luck and break - rest “THE MIND IS A CONTAINER FOR PEACE AND KNOWLEDGE” and “THE BRAIN / THE MIND STANDS FOR THE HARD-WORKING PERSON” appear in (12) and (13):   (12) aresentar / arepozar el meoyo To make have a rest one’s brain (13) kafasını dinlemek  To make have a rest one’s brain 09/15/13 25 DeryaAgis
  • 26. 8. 5. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS THAT EXPRESS NEGATIVE EMOTIONS WITH THE HEART  “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER FOR DISGUST / HATE” and “FIRE STANDS FOR VENGEANCE” are present in (14). Regarding the negative emotions with the heart, more Judeo-Spanish proverbs and idioms express disgust / hate with the heart than those Turkish ones.   (14) Ken su korason kijo vengar, su kaza vido kemar. Who has left her / his heart burning, saw her / his house burning.     In (15) we see the influence of the following conceptualizations: “BREAKING STANDS FOR OFFENDING” and “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER FOR LOVE” not only in Turkish, but also in Judeo-Spanish: (15) kalbini kırmak To break one’s heart (16) romper el korason To break one’s heart    Concerning sadness, the conceptualizations “DARKNESS STANDS FOR SADNESS” “LIGHT STANDS FOR HAPPINESS,” and “LIPS STAND FOR SPEECH” appear in the Judeo-Spanish idiom in (17). Besides, “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER”: (17) klaros estan los mushos, eskuro el korason. Lips are light, but the heart is dark. Moreover, the conceptualizations “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER FOR SADNESS” and “SADNESS IS A FORCE” underlie (18). (18) yürek oynatması Forced movement of the heart 09/15/13 26 DeryaAgis
  • 27. CONTINUED  FEAR is explained in the following manner:   “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER,” “FRIGHT IS A FORCE THAT CAN MOVE IT,” “THE MOUTH IS A CONTAINER underlie the idioms in (19) and (20): (19) vinirle el korason a la boka One’s heart comes into her / his mouth (20) yüreği ağzına gelmek One’s heart comes into her / his mouth  Besides, a similar idiom to the Judeo-Spanish one that expresses love / affection occurs in (21) where “BEING FROM SALONIKA STANDS FOR FRIGHT.” The stereotype of a Jewish person is very timid and fearful. As the Ottoman city of Salonika was full of Jews, the idiom had been begun to be used. For this reason, this idiom is used depicting a fearful person. (21) yürek Selanik Heart of Salonika    Concerning the emotion of jealousy, “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER” and “JEALOUSY IS A MOTH OF BONES” underlie (22): (22) Korason sin selo es bueno para su puerpo, el selo siendo la puliya de los guesos. A heart without jealousy is god for the body, because jealousy is like moths that eat the bones. Regarding anger, “ANGER IS A FORCE” and “THE HEART IS A CONTAINER.” We have to take into consideration the contexts where the idiom is used for distinguishing its meaning. (23) yürek oynatması The forced movement of the heart   09/15/13 27 DeryaAgis
  • 28. 8. 6. PROVERBS AND IDIOMS THAT EXPRESS NEGATIVE EMOTIONS WITH THE BRAIN Regarding the negative emotions with the brain, we find these economic conceptualizations: “MONEY IS LOVE ” and “BEING POOR IS BEING STUPID,” regarding disgust / hate: (24) prove de paras i prove de meoyo Poor in money and poor in brains On sadness,    “THE MIND STANDS FOR THE PERSON” and “THE HURT BRAIN STANDS FOR SADNESS” (25) erguelir el meoyo To have a brain ache (26) beyninden vurulmuşa dönmek To be shot from her / his brain    About anger,   “THE BRAIN STANDS FOR THE PERSON,” “THE BODY IS A CONTAINER FOR THE BRAIN,” and “GOING OUT OF ITS PLACE STANDS FOR ANGER” (27) beyni atmak One’s brain jumps   09/15/13 28 DeryaAgis
  • 29. 9. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION  The Turkish native speaker learners of Judeo- Spanish must activate the conceptualizations related to the organs of heart and brain for depicting a certain emotion in order not to be misunderstood.  For this reason, one needs a cognitive method of language teaching which leads the students to behave as if they were the members of the cultural group by which the target language is spoken.  Therefore, the holidays, the feasts, the attitudes, the traditions, etc. of the native speakers of the target language must be taught to the students who can activate the correct conceptualizations 09/15/13 29 DeryaAgis
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  • 36. THANKYOU QUESTIONS??? 09/15/13 36 DeryaAgis DERYA AGIS E-MAIL: deryaagis@gmail.com