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ETAS_14 plants creatures ETAS_14 plants creatures Document Transcript

  • 14  Plants and Creatures ofDermatologic Significance Jennifer B. Perone, MDC o n t e n t s14.1 Plant Dermatoses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46114.2 Dermatologic Diseases Caused by Creatures . . . 46614.3 Lice, Spiders, Bugs, and Other Creatures . . . . . . . 46914.4 Ticks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47514.5 Mites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47614.6 Exotic Pets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47814.7 Skin Eruptions Caused by Marine Life . . . . . . . . . . 47914.8 Medications Derived from Plants and Creatures . . . 481 Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  459
  • Committed to Your Future For practice exam questions and interactive study tools, visit the Dermatology In-Review Online Practice Exam and Study System at DermatologyInReview.com/GaldermaSponsored by
  • 14.1  PLANT DERMATOSESContact Urticaria Contact urticaria occurs after direct contact, and can be immunologic (IgE) or non-immuno-logic (toxin-mediated).1 It is a transient eruption characterized by wheals, erythema, and prurituswith burning or stinging caused by direct contact with proteins. Type I hypersensitivity, or IgE mediated reactions, require previ- u TIPous sensitization. Vasoactive mediators are released and lead to local, a topics and food-handlers are A often susceptible to contactor systemic (called “contact urticaria syndrome”) involvement usu- urticaria 2ally within 30 minutes. Urticants include vegetables, fruits, and manyother plants. Celery (Apium graveolens) is more likely than othercauses to lead to a systemic reaction or anaphylaxis.3Frequent causes of immunologic eruptions such as uTIPlatex proteins (Hevea brasiliensis) may cross react ammunologic (IgE mediated) requires prior sensitization Iwith other plants.4 Processing or cooking of foods aNonimmunologic occurs without prior exposurereduces their allergenicity.5 Nonimmunologic urticaria occurs without previous sensitization in any host. Plants such asstinging nettles (Urtica dioica, Urticaceae family) lead to the release of histamine from mastcells. Toxin urticaria is usually short-lived.6 Sharp hairs on the plants contain toxins (histamine,serotonin and acetylcholine), which are released into the skin causing rapid edema, pruritus andburning.7 One human (and many equine) deaths have been reported from Australian sting-ing nettles (Dendrocnide spp.).8 Other common causes are Euphorbiaceas (spurge nettle) andHydrophyllaceae (water-leaf family) found in the tropical Americas.Irritant Dermatitis Irritant dermatitis can be caused by several mechanisms including mechanical and chemi-cal factors. There is a direct toxic effect of the irritant on the skin without involvement of animmune response. Environmental factors such as humidity and temperature, and host factorssuch as atopy, fissures, sweating and dryness impact the severity of the irritant effect. Clinically,the response is varied ranging from erythema to bullae and even necrosis. Pathologic appearanceparallels the clinical appearance from spongiosis, vesicles and karyorrexis or necrosis.9 Mechanical irritant dermatitis can be caused by direct effects of thorns and barbs. Small glo-chids (barbed hairs or bristles) or large thorns (on cacti for example) can become imbedded intothe skin causing injury and resultant dermatitis. Secondary infection can be caused by microor-ganism inoculation (see Table 14-1). Table 14-1. Microorganism Inoculation (adapted from 8 ) Vector Organism Spines Clostridium tetani Blackthorns Staphylococcus aureus Grasses, sphagnum moss, rose thorns Sporothrix schenckii Blackberries Mycobacterium kansasii Cactus spines M. marinum Spiky tropical vegetation M. ulcerans Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  461
  •  Many plant families contain chemicals that cause chemical irritant dermatitis. One of the most common irritants is calcium oxalate; however, a wide range of chemicals exist within plants.10 Calcium oxalate itself is an irritant, and is synergistic with other chemicals, thereby increasing their irritancy. Pineapples contain bromelin, a proteolytic enzyme, which is granted access to dermal vessels by calcium oxalate induced fissures.11 The most common cause of irritant dermatitis in florists is from oxalate alkaloids in the sap of daffodils (Narcissus spp.) present in the stems and bulbs leading to “daffodil itch.”12 (Figure 14-1) Other plants such as hyacinth and tulips can cause a similar dermatitis, usually manifested by xerosis, erythema and fissures on the fingertips, hands and arms. Patients may try an at-home remedy for onychomycosis by applying garlic cloves to the nails but this may cause irritant dermatitis from thiocyanates in the garlic. (Figure 14-2, 14-3, Table 2) Figure 14-1. Narcissus Spp. Photo courtesy of Britton, NL and Brown A 1913 USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database Figure 14-2. Buttercup (Ranunculaceae) Figure 14-3. Pointsettia (Euphorbiaceae) Photo courtesy of Jennifer Anderson USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 462  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • Table 14-2. Causes of Plant Irritant Dermatitis (adapted from ) 7 Family or Binomial Name Common Name Irritant Euphorbiaceae Spurges, crotons, poinsettas, Phorbol esters, latex machineel tree Ranunculaceae Buttercup Ranunculin Solanaceae Chili pepper Capsaicin Opuntia vulgaris Prickly pear Alliaceae Garlic Thiocyanates Narcissus spp. Daffodil Calcium oxalate Brassicaceae Mustard, radish Thiocyanates Ananas comosus Pineapple Bromelin, calcium oxalate Lilaceae Hyacinth Calcium oxalateAllergic Contact Dermatitis When the skin mounts a specific immune response to an u TIPallergen, the result is an allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). aSkin mounts specific immune response to an allergenLangerhans cells in the epidermis present the antigen to primed aType IV cell-mediated delayed CD4+ T lymphocytes and there is a resultant local dermati- hypersensitivitytis or a type IV, cell-mediated delayed hypersensitivity reac-tion. Histopathologically, an acute spongiotic dermatitis that may have vesicles containingLangerhans cells and a predominantly lymphohistiocytic infiltrate is seen.13 A variable number ofeosinophils may be seen. Many plants are causes of allergic contact dermatitis. Some of the most common include car-riers of the rhus antigen pentadecacatechol (found in poison ivy, oak and sumac) and sesquiter-pene lactones in the Compositae family.14 (Figures 14-4, 14-5, 14-6; Table 3) Rhus antigen causesan acute, often streaky or linear reaction with an erythematous and edematous possibly vesiculardermatitis. In contrast, tuliposide A (in Alstroemeria) causes a hyperkeratotic or lichenified plaquein the area of contact, usually the finger. (Figure 14-7) Sensitization to sesquiterpene lactones mayoccur after use of compositae-containing products and cosmetics such as tea-tree oil.15 (Figures14-8, 14-9) Figure 14-4. Poison Ivy Figure 14-5. Poison Oak Photo courtesy of Robert H. Mohlenbrock Photo courtesy of Robert H. Mohlenbrock USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA SCS. 1991 USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA SCS. 1991 Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  463
  • Figure 14-6. Poison Sumac Figure 14-7. Alstromeria Photo courtesy of Robert H. Mohlenbrock USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA SCS. 1991 Figure 14-8. Primrose Figure 14-9. Ragweed Photo courtesy of Bob Moseley Photo courtesy of Robert H. Mohlenbrock USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA NRCS USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1989 Table 14-3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Family Sensitizer Sources Cross Reactions Anacardiacea Pentadecylcatechol in Poison ivy, oak and Mango (peel), cashew, (Toxicodendron genus) oleoresin (urushiol) sumac gingko, Japanese lacquer tree, Brazilian pepper tree Alstroemeriaceae and Tuliposide A Peruvian lily Liliaceae (a glycoside) (Alstromeria) Balsam of Peru Myroxylon balsamum Turpentine, colophony, benzoin, wood tars, spices (cinnamon, clove, vanilla, curry) Colophony Pinus palustris tree Rosin, medications, mascara, adhesives, bandages, varnish, wax, paper products, dental cement Ginkgo fruit pulp Ginkgo Rhus, cashew464  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • Table 14-3. Allergic Contact Dermatitis (cont.) Family Sensitizer Sources Cross Reactions Asteraceae Sesquiterpene lactones Ragweed, pyrethrum, (Compositae) chrysanthemum, weeds, feverfew, artichoke Alliaceae Diallyl disulfide (also Onions, garlic, chive allylpropyl disulfide, allicin) Primulaceae Primin Primrose (Primula obconica)Phytophotodermatitis Many plants containing furocoumarins with a combi- u TIPnation of indirect damage by photons cause phototoxic   emember: Unlike photoallergic reactions, aReruptions, or phytophotodermatitis. Photoallergic reactions which involve the immune ystem (type IV s or delayed hypersensitivity), phytophoto-are more frequently caused by other, non-plant sources. dermatitis is non-immunologicFurocoumarins, such as 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) or8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), cause a phototoxic reaction after contact with the skin, followed byexposure to ultraviolet light in the UVA range (320 to 400 nm).16 The photoactive psoralens canbe exploited by dermatologists when treating patients with PUVA phototherapy. Clinically, phytophotodermatitis presents itself with acute erythema and/or vesiculation fol-lowed by delayed hyperpigmentation (up to weeks later). The eruption is usually painful, andnon-pruritic. The diagnosis can be recognized by peculiar formations to the pigment, such asfrom drips of lime juice, or sharp linear and angular streaks of pigment in sun exposed areas.17(Figure 14-10, 14-11) Use of a weed-whacker may result in a spray of weeds (such as cow parsley,wild chervil, hogweed) leading to “strimmer dermatitis” on exposed areas such as the chest andarms. Vitiligo patients have been known to exploit the hyperpigmentation in an effort to reducethe appearance of their disease; in India Psoralea corylifolia is the most commonly used. TheApiaceae family causes the majority of phytophotodermatitis. (see Table 4) Berloque dermatitis is caused by the phototoxic compound bergamot oil from the rind of asmall orange citrus bergamia. It was used in cologne and artificial tanning applications and led tohyperpigmentation in the neck area.18 Currently, an artificial oil of bergamot is used. Figure 14-10. Hyperpigmentation Seen in Figure 14-11. Phytophotodermatitis Phytophotodermatitis from Lime Juice Photo courtesy of John C. Murray, Duke University on Bottleneck of a Beer Bottle Photo courtesy of John C. Murray, Duke University Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  465
  • Table 14-4. Causes of Phytophotodermatitis Family Pertinent Members Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) Parsley, celery, parsnip, hogweed, fennel Rutaceae Lime, rue, burning bush, bergamot orange, Hawaiian lei flowers Moraceae Fig tree (Ficus carica) Fabaceae (Leguminosae) Bavachee or scurf-pea Occupational Plant Dermatitis Obviously, those occupations that expose workers to plants have a higher incidence of plant dermatoses. Grocery workers handling parsley and celery, and bartenders squeezing limes may be at higher risk of phytophotodermatitis. Outdoor workers increase the likelihood of exposure to toxicodendron. Florists and floral designers may have reactions to primin, sesquiterpene lactones and tuliposide A in flowers and their bulbs. One of the most common causes of irritant dermatitis in florists is from the stems of daffodils (Narcissus spp).19 Nursery workers in Angers, France (a center for plant and flower cultivation) have been shown to have allergic contact dermatitis to hydrangea.20 14.2  DERMATOLOGIC DISEASES CAUSED BY CREATURES Orf Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or infectious pustular u TIP dermatitis, is transmitted to humans by a parapoxvirus in sheep, goats arf: O and reindeer. The virus is very sturdy and survives many months in cold Animal and meat handlers weather. Clinically, a nodule develops with possible crusting, pustule develop lesions on their fingers formation, or localized lymphadenopathy. This is a self-limited condition The animals often have with an excellent prognosis lasting approximately 6 weeks. Lesion mor- perioral lesions, or second- phology changes through a series of six stages: papular (red, elevated) ary lesions on udders from → target (nodule with red center, white middle ring, red periphery) → nursing their young acute (red, weeping) → regenerative (thin, dry crust overlying lesion) → papillomatous → regressive. Milkers’ Nodule Milkers’ nodule is caused by the paravaccinia virus (a parapoxvirus, and related to the orf virus), which infects cows and can be transmitted to dairy workers and others who work with cattle or meat. It is also known as pseudocowpox. These are often targetoid lesions on the hands or distal upper extremities. Crusting or central ulceration often is a hallmark; local lymphadenopa- thy can be seen. This is a self-limited condition lasting approximately 6 weeks. Lesions progress through a similar morphology as the orf lesion. Butcher’s Warts Meat (as well as fish and poultry) handlers often suffer with hand and finger verruca. These are usually caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) 2 and 7. 466  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • Erysipeloid (of Rosenbach) This should not be confused with erysipelas. Erysipeloid is an u TIP infection with Erysipelothrix insidiosa or Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a armers, meat handlers, fish F handlers and veterinarians are a gram-positive rod that can colonize many animals, most com- most frequently afflicted monly causing disease in pigs. A distinctive feature is sharply mar- ginated and polygonal patches of bluish erythema. Edema often accompanies the cutaneous changes. Usually patients develop a solitary violaceous and tender nodule that may vesicu- late. Systemic antibiotics are required as occasional septicemia and endocarditis may result. Treat with erythromycin or penicillin. Cutaneous Anthrax Humans may acquire this disease from handling animal carcasses and animal products leading to the form called “woolsorter’s disease.” Bacillus anthracis (rod-shaped, gram positive) has been used as an agent of bioterrorism and may cause three other types of infection: pulmonary, gas- trointestinal (acquired by ingestion of spores) and oropharyngeal. The majority (95%) of naturally occurring cases are the cutaneous form, from direct contact with the carcasses of dead sheep, cows, goats and horses. The so-called “malignant pustule” (which, in fact, is not a pustule) begins as a vesicular lesion and formation of a central eschar ensues. There is frequently surrounding edema. After notifying the local health department, cultures (with Dacron or rayon swabs, not cotton tips), punch biopsy and other appropriate diag- u TIP nostic tests should be performed. amportantly, this lesion is painless; but patients I Virulence Factors: 1.) polyglutamate capsule that may develop painful regional lymphadenopa- inhibits phagocytosis; 2.) edema toxin, comprised of thy.21 In inhalational anthrax – acquired by the edema factor and protective factor; 3.) lethal toxin, inhalation of anthrax spores – a helpful clue on chest x-ray is a widened mediastinum and comprised of lethal factor and protective factor. hemorrhagic lymph nodes on chest CT22 Untreated, 20% of cutaneous cases are fatal. Treat with a“Malignant pustule” is actually painless, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, or penicillin. vesicul with central eschar; lymphadenopathy can be painful Cat-Scratch Disease This is an infection caused by the gram-negative rod Bartonella hensalae. Approximately 90% of patients can recall a preceding cat bite or scratch.23 Afipia felis causes a small number of cases. A small papule will occur at the site of inoculation after 3 to 5 days. Regional lymph- adenopathy with swelling of the overlying skin develops. The primary lesion is usually a papule. Most commonly, this is a self-limited, local infection, usually resolving with several weeks to months. Less commonly, systemic manifestations may occur including encephalopathy, osteo- lytic lesions, and thrombocytopenic purpura.24 The oculoglandular syndrome of Parinaud is the combination of granulomatous conjunctivitis and preauricular lymphadenopathy. Other cutane- ous manifestations include a morbilliform eruption, erythema nodosum, erythema marginatum, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and erythema multiforme.25,26 Bacillary Angiomatosis Bacillary angiomatosis, while also caused by Bartonella hensalae, is less commonly associated with contact with cats (approximately 20% of cases) and occurs in patients with AIDS (often with CD4 < 50). Clinically, smooth papules or nodules, occasionally with a collarette of scale, occur. Vascular proliferation is seen on biopsy and it may be confused with pyogenic granuloma in the case of a single lesion or Kaposi’s sarcoma with multiple lesions. Visceral lesions may occur in any organ.27 Hepatic lesions are seen in peliosis hepatitis. Treat with a macrolide antibiotic or doxycy- cline. A Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction may ensue after initiating treatment. Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  467
  • Brucellosis Also known as Malta fever, this infection is caused by ingesting raw goat milk and unpasteur-ized goat cheese infected with Brucellae (gram-negative rod). It is infrequent in the U.S., occur-ring mainly in veterinarians and farmers. Acute brucellosis has very nonspecific features andpresents as a flu-like illness. Skin lesions are infrequent (20% of cases) but are usually violaceouspapulonodules on the trunk and lower extremities.28 Treatment is with doxycycline or rifampin.Glanders/Farcy The gram-negative rod Pseudomonas mallei most frequently infects horses, donkeys andmules. Occasionally, humans can also be infected. At the inoculation site, an edematous nodule,pustule or vesicle can be seen. Nodules are often present along the lymphatic drainage routecalled “farcy buds.” Importantly, nasal ulceration and septum perforation can be caused by glan-ders. A chronic form leads to deep, painful abscesses. Treat with surgical excision of the lesionfollowed by streptomycin combined with tetracycline.Dermatophytes u TIP Many forms of dermatophytosis are zoophilic. a onsider any pets and ask about C (Figure 14-12, 14-13, 14-14, 14-15) hobbies and occupations as a possible source of pathogen Figure 14-12. Canine M. Canis Figure 14-13. Feline M. Felis Photo courtesy of D. Morris, University of Pennsylvania Cats are the Usual Reservoir Host, USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/USDA SCS. 1991 Rather Than Dogs Photo courtesy of D. Morris, University of Pennsylvania Figure 14-14. Bovine Ringworm Figure 14-15. Veterinarian Student with Photo courtesy of P. Habecker, Tinea Corporis from Bovine Source University of Pennsylvania Photo courtesy of P. Habecker, University of Pennsylvania468  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • Dog, Cat, and Human Bites In areas where vaccination is not uniform, rabies can be a concern following bites from dogs and cats. Indeed, even in the United States, many owners do not vaccinate their pets. Local infection and cellulitis, however, is a more common concern following routine domes- ticated animal bites, such as from a family pet. Cat bites most frequently result in Pasteurella multocida while dog bites result in Pasteurella canis; however, most bites are polymicrobial with mixed aerobes and anaerobes. Infrequently systemic infections may result in brain or lung abscess, endocarditis or sepsis.29,30,31 Sepsis is more frequent in an immunocompromised victim and may be due to Capnocytophaga or Pasteurella.32 Antibiotic coverage is usually employed in all but the most minor wounds. Any wound to the hand, or penetrating bone or tendon should be empirically treated. An antibiotic such as amoxi- cilin with a beta-lactamase inhibitor (Augmentin) is the first line treatment. Human bites result in infection with Eikenella corrodens, a gram-negative bacillus that is part of the normal flora of the human mouth. This infection can also follow fist fights with blows to the mouth. Snake Bites Symptoms of snake bites are dependent on the species and venom dosage injected. Two main snake families are Crotalidae (including rattlesnakes, and copperheads) and Elapidae (including coral snakes). Pain and edema are immediate responses, while necrosis and hemor- rhage commonly follow. Systemic symptoms such as hypotension, respiratory distress, and neu- romuscular blockade may occur. Observation of the victim is crucial as the syndrome may prog- ress despite an apparently minor initial reaction. Even delayed antivenin administration, derived from horse antibody, can be of benefit. 14.3  LICE, SPIDERS, BUGS, AND OTHER CREATURES Spiders The ability to identify spiders from their photographs is important for the kodachrome section of the board exam. (Figure 14-16; Table 5) Black Widow Lactrodectus mactans, the most common black widow, is a large, uTIP black, shiny spider with an hourglass shaped white marking on the alack widow spider bites, in B distinction with brown recluse abdomen. (Figure 14-17) Bites are acutely painful, and may swell but and hobo spider bites, do not do not cause necrosis; the venom contains neurotoxins. Within hours: cause necrosis chills, vomiting, violent cramps, paralysis, spasms, and abdominal rigidity; symptoms mimicking an acute abdomen. Antivenin may be helpful up to 90 hours after the bite.33 Figure 14-16. Spider Bite Figure 14-17. Black Widow Spider Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Photo courtesy of Clyde S. Gorsuch, Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  469
  • Table 14-5. Spiders and Active Venom Components Common Name Scientific Name Venom Contents Black widow Lactrodectus Alpha lactrotoxin Brown recluse Loxosceles Sphingomyelinase-D Wolf spider Lycosidae Histamine Jumping spider Hidippus Hyaluronidase Sac spider Chiracanthium Lipase Brown Recluse Loxosceles reclusa is a tan spider, with a violin-shaped marking uTIP on the abdomen. (Figure 14-18) Necrotic lesions involve extensive gan- ahe bite may be painless, how- T ever the patient may develop grene. Systemic reactions (viscerocutaneous loxoscelism) may occur erythema, a vesicle and even- and can be severe in children: fever, chills, vomiting, joint pain, hema- tual necrosis. This may result in the “red, white and blue sign” turia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, with possible shock and or erythema, ischemia and death. The venom contains several toxins, however sphingomyelinase thrombosis34 D seems to be causative of the necrosis and hemolysis. Ice, rather than heat, should be immediately applied. Treatments have been disappointing; dapsone, steroids, aspirin and anti-venom therapies have had variable results. Surgery should be avoided. Hobo Spider Tegenaria agrestis is the leading cause of necrotic arachnidism in several states of the Pacific Northwest.35 (Figure 14-19) These spiders are relatively large, with a herringbone-striped pattern on the abdomen. Spider bites may be painless with fast-onset induration, erythema and numbness. A necrotic eschar will often form with slowed healing. Systemic reactions can con- sist of headache, with visual disturbances; hemodynamic changes can also occur as well. Figure 14-18. Male and Female Figure 14-19. Necrotic Spider Bite Brown Recluse Spiders Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Wolf Spider The Lycosidae family (or wolf spiders) consist of three genera: Lycosa, Pardosa, and Arctosa. (Figure 14-20) Bites can be exceedingly painful and may lead to lymphangitis or eschar. Green Lynx Spider Peucetia viridans is common in the southern United States. This spider is bright green with red spots; the legs have black spines. (Figure 14-21) The bite is painful, with tenderness and pruritus. 470  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • Figure 14-20. Wolf Spider Figure 14-21. Lynx Spider Photo courtesy of R. Bessin Photo courtesy of Alden M. Johnson University of Kentucky Department of Entomology © California Academy of Sciences Figure 14-22. Jumping Spider Photo courtesy of R. Bessin University of Kentucky Department of Entomology Jumping Spider Phidippus formosus is an aggressive spider with dark body hairs and various white pat-terns depending on the species. (Figure 14-22) They are the most common biting spiders in theUnited States and are found mainly in the south. No systemic symptoms are known, but the biteis particularly painful with toxic venom. Tarantulas Theraphosidae are large, brown to black, hairy spiders frequently found in the southwest.They are of dermatologic importance due to the urticating hairs. Tarantula bites generally donot produce any systemic toxicity. The spider releases hairs in the direction of the perceivedattacker; hairs can penetrate the skin as deeply as the reticular dermis.36 If they injure the cor-nea, they can cause a chronic granulomatous reaction (ophthalmia nodosa) and loss of vision.37Other Creatures Scorpions Scorpion stings can produce cardiovascular complications. Centruroides sculpturatus and C. gertschi are the primary species in U.S. The injected venom acts as a neurotoxin. Scorpion stings produce both local and systemic effects: sensation of sharp burning pain atsite, associated with numbness beyond site. Regional swelling may occur. Sometimes ecchymo-sis and lymphangitis may accompany. Neurologic sequelae include convulsions, coma, hemiple-gia, hyper/hypothermia, tremor, restlessness, and irritability. Cardiopulmonary sequelae includearrhythmias, pulmonary edema, and hypertension. Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  471
  • Therapy for stings is local wound care, ice packs, and antihistamines; local injections of anes-thetics may relieve pain, and systemic antihypertensives and anticonvulsants address systemiccomplications. The antivenom is only available in Arizona, and has questionable efficacy. Caterpillars (Lepidoptera) The ability to identify caterpillars from their photographs u TIPis also important for the kodachrome section of the board a aterpillar photos worth recognizing C would be the brown-tail moth, pussexam. Clinical reactions are similar, usually causing urticaria caterpillar, and saddleback caterpillarafter contact with hairs on the caterpillar body. Erythematouspapules, hemorrhage or purpura (in a classic “tram-track” pattern) and pruritus are frequent fea-tures following contact with the pests. If hairs get into the patient’s eye, a similar response to thatof a tarantula hair is seen. One of the most widespread causes of caterpillar dermatitis is fromMegalopyge opercularis (puss caterpillar), which can cause immediate pain.38 Two excellent web-sites are referenced with photos to study.39,40 (Figures 14-23 through 14-27) Figure 14-23. Io Caterpillar Figure 14-24. Hag Moth Caterpillar Photo courtesy of R. Bessin Photo © 1998-2003 Troy Bartlett University of Kentucky Department of Entomology Figure 14-25. Puss Caterpillar Figure 14-26. Saddleback Caterpillar Photo © 1998-2003 Troy Bartlett Photo © 1998-2003 Troy Bartlett Figure 14-27. Woolybear Caterpillar Photo courtesy of R. Bessin University of Kentucky Department of Entomology Hymenoptera (Bees, Wasps, Hornets and Ants) The honeybee leaves a barbed ovipositor and paired venom sacs impaled into victim; themethod of removal is less important than speed of removal. The honeybee dies after stinging,but other hymenoptera do not. A minority of those stung (0.5 %) have severe systemic reactions:472  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • angioedema or generalized urticaria, respiratory insufficiency, or shock. The venom from honey- bee contains phospholipase A. Cutaneous reactions may be managed by ice and local injection of lidocaine. Systemic reactions require epinephrine. Fire Ants Solenopsis inject a venom that contains a hemolytic factor, solenopsin D, a piperidine derivative, that causes a release of histamine and other vasoactive amines from mast cell; the bite becomes a sterile pustule. Imported fire ants (S. invicta) attack in groups; there is no spe- cific therapy for ant stings, and bites should be treated symptomatically. Flies Black flies are also blood suckers. The initial bite is painless, but later becomes extremely painful with itching, pruritus, edema, and erythema. Black flies are vectors for onchocerciasis and tularemia. Sand flies transmit Dipetalonema perstans; bites produce immediate pain and erythema and 2-3 mm papulovesicles, followed by indurated nodules lasting many months. The tabandae family includes ferocious blood suckers, such as horseflies, deerflies, clegs, breeze flies, greenheads, and mango flies, which transmit loiasis and tularemia. Bites are painful and may bleed vigorously, and are a particular problem to campers in the spring and summer. Mosquitoes Anopheles causes malaria. Aedes causes yellow fever and dengue. The cutaneous reaction is due to the female inserting her blood tube, injecting irritating salivary secretions that anticoagu- late blood, and subsequently cause edema, pruritus, and papules. Mosquitoes prefer black skin, young skin, warm to cool skin, and scented skin. They also prefer bright colors and elevated car- bon dioxide concentrations. Bedbugs Cimicidae are flat with broad bodies. Their bites are asymptomatic, initially. Bedbugs are noc- turnal feeders and travel great distances. Their bites form linear purpuric macules. Fleas Flea bites are most frequent on the lower legs, and present as extremely pruritic erythema- tous papules, often with superficial erosions secondary to excoriation. (Figure 14-28) The human flea, Pulex irritans, can also be seen on dogs. More frequent infestations on domestic animals are by Ctenocephalides felis and canis (on cats and dogs respectively). Fleas can be vectors of many diseases from typhus to plague. Reduviid bugs Also known as “kissing” or “assassin” bugs, these are members of the Triatoma species and are “true bugs” of the order Hemiptera. Posterior to the head, where the wings join together, the characteristic triangular shape can be seen. They are bloodsuckers, and importantly, they transmit Chagas’ disease by carrying Trypanosoma cruzi. Romana’s sign is unilateral eyelid swelling at the site of the bite of the assassin bug. Beetles Lytta vesicatoria, or the spanish fly is a blister beetle from which cantharadin is derived. This is further discussed in the Medications Derived from Plants and Creatures secion. The beetles do not sting, or bite however cantharidin produces vesicles after contact with the skin. The larvae of carpet beetles (Attagenus megatoma and Anthrenus scrophulariae) can cause an allergic contact dermatitis after contact. Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  473
  • Figure 14-28. An Unusual Distribution of Flea Bites Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Myiasis Botfly larvae penetrate into the skin to cause cutaneous myiasis. Callitroga americana is the most important in the U.S. Dermatobia hominis causes pyogenic furuncle, but will not respond to antibiotics. Phlebotomid sandflies transmit Leishmanial parasites like L. donovani and L. trop- ica. Glossina, the tsetse fly, produces minimal cutaneous disease but transmits trypanosomes and sleeping sickness. Centipedes and Millipedes Chilopoda: Centipedes. These are nocturnal carnivores that produce painful wounds by dis- charging venom. The wound is accompanied by severe pain, localized sweating, edema, second- ary infection, and ulceration. Scolopendra is a species found in Hawaii. Diplopoda: Millipedes. These are harmless vegetarians. When disturbed or threatened they emit a toxic substance that may produce burning, blistering, and pigmentation of the skin, and severe inflammation of the eye. Head Lice Head lice are frequently found on children in school outbreaks, however adults can be infest- ed as well. Direct contact and fomites cause spread from person to person. Pediculus capitis is visible with the naked eye, as are their nits (eggs) and infestation is usually limited to the scalp. It has six legs, and a long narrow body as compared with the body louse. The louse lives for approximately one month, feeding every few hours, and lays eggs daily. Differential diagnosis includes white piedra and hair casts. Treatment recommendations include two applications of a pediculicide, one week apart. Resistance patterns have led to decreased efficacy of permethrin 5% cream, pyrethrins, and lindane. Malathion 0.5% continues to be effective. Pubic (Crab) Lice Pthirus pubis (crab lice) are shorter and squatter than either the head or body louse. (Figure 14-29) Infestation is usually in the pubic area where hairs are farther apart than on the scalp, thereby matching the arm-span of the louse. (Figure 14-30) Lice and eggs can be seen on the host, sometimes with perifollicular erythema. (Figure 14-31) In advanced infestations, lice can be seen on the trunk and in the eyelashes. Maculae cerulea can be seen in severe cases. Pruritus is the prevailing symptom. Patients should be counseled and tested for other sexually transmitted diseases as appropriate. 474  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • Figure 14-29. Pthirus Pubis Figure 14-30. Crab Lice and Eggs Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University in Pubic Area of the Host Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Figure 14-31. Eyelash Involvement in an Extensive Case of Pediculosis Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Body Lice Pediculus humanus var. corporis, or body lice, live in the folds of clothing, not directly on thehost. Therefore, papules with crust and excoriations are often found at the waist, on the back andshoulders. They can be vectors of diseases; treatment involves decontamination or disposal of theclothing and avoiding potential infested upholstered furniture and sheets.14.4  TICKS Ticks are divided into Argasidae (soft tick) and Ixodidae (hard tick) families, with Ixodidaeresponsible for most diseases. Ticks tear open the epidermis and insert the barbed hypostome;during insertion a cement-like substance is secreted which hardens, firmly anchoring the hypo-stome to the skin. Ticks feed for 7 days, then fall off to continue their life cycle. Bites occur in spring and summer. All stages of the life cycle—egg, larva, nymph, and adult—require a blood meal.United States Ticks • Ixodes scapularis (same as I. dammini) • I. Pacificus • Amblyomma americanum • Dermacentor andersoni • Dermacentor variabilis Tick bites may or may not be painful, and only a red papule may be left, which may prog-ress to local swelling, erythema, blistering, pruritus, and ecchymosis, necrosis, and ulceration.Persistent papules respond to IL steroids. Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  475
  • Lyme Disease: Caused by the spirochete Borrelia bergdorferi, via the Ixodes ticks, andnamed after Lyme, Connecticut where a group of children developed arthritis in 1977. Mostcases in the U.S. are in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States although it has occurred elsewhere.Approximately 7 to 14 days incubation occur prior to the onset of the classic erythema migranseruption. Early disseminated infection (involving nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiovascularsystems) occurs shortly thereafter (days to weeks). Late disseminated disease occurs weeks tomonths subsequent to initial exposure. Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness: Associated with the bite of the lone-star tick,Amblyomma americanum, patients residing in or traveling through southeastern and south-central states develop a rash similar to that of Lyme disease. A candidate spirochete has beendetected by DNA analysis and has been named Borrelia lonestari. Tick Paralysis: Believed to be caused by a toxin secreted in the saliva of ticks; most commonly,caused by Dermacentor; lower motor neuron paralysis occurring 4–7 days after attachment, andremoving tick causes rapid disappearance of symptoms; treatment may require respiratory support. Babesiosis: Caused by intracellular RBC parasite, Babesia microti; transmitted by larvae of I. dammini. This disease is endemic in eastern Long Island, Martha’s Vineyard, and Nantucket, andcarries an increased risk in those with T-cell depression or after splenectomy. The condition isassociated with fever, drenching sweats, myalgia, hemolytic anemia. Ehrlichiosis: Comes in two forms: monocytic, caused by E. chaffeensis, which invades mono-nuclear WBCs, and granulocytic, which is caused by organisms related to E. phagocytophila andE. equi. Peripheral PMNs show intracytoplasmic inclusions. Patients present with fever, chills, HA,myalgias, along with leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. I. scapularis appears to be avector for HE. Treat with doxycycline or tetracycline. Table 14-6. Summary of Tick-Borne Diseases Disease Pathogenic Organism Vector Lyme Borreliosis Borrelia burgdorferi I xodes dammini, I. pacificus, Amblyomma americanum Relapsing Fever Borrelia duttonii, B. hermsii, B. Ornithodoros moubata turicatae Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rickettsia rickettsii Dermacentor andersoni, D. variabilis, A. americanum Babesiosis Babesia microti I. dammini Tularemia Francisella tularensis Dermacentor andersoni, D. variabilis Ehrlichiosis Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sennetsu14.5 MITESScabies Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis can complete its entire 30-day life cycle on the human host,therefore it is not a self-limited disease and must be treated. The female mite has eight short legsand an ovoid, flat body, laying up to 100 eggs. (Figure 14-32)476  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • The adult mite burrows within the stratum corneum resting in the upper granular layer.(Figure 14-33) Clinically, erythematous papules and burrows are seen in finger and toe web-spaces, nipples, axilla, male genitalia and the umbilicus. (Figure 14-34) They are intensely pruriticleading to many linear erosions due to excoriation. Skin scrapings with mineral oil preparation candemonstrate mites, eggs or feces. (Figure 14-35) Crusted scabies (or Norwegian scabies) is seen in immuno-compromised hosts (the elderly,HIV or transplant patients). (Figure 14-37) While regular scabies involves only a few mites (usuallyless than 100), crusted scabies patients are infested with innumerable mites. Mites can survive upto a week off the patient, leading to easy transmission of the infestation, particularly in areas ofovercrowding. Treatment includes permethrin (Elimite), lindane (Kwell), crotamiton (Eurax) and precipitatedsulfur in petrolatum. Lindane has become unavailable due to concerns regarding neurotoxic-ity, particularly in pediatric populations, as well as increasing resistance patterns. Permethrin iscurrently the recommended first-line agent; with two applications one week apart. Crotamitonrequires daily use for approximately five days, and may cause irritation. Malathion, or a singledose of oral ivermectin can be given as well. Figure 14-32. Scabies Mite Figure 14-33. Histopathologic Section Photo courtesy of A. Kaplan, Duke University Highlighting Stratum Corneum Location of Scabies Mite Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University F igure 14-34. Finger Web Spaces are a Common Figure 14-35. Scabies Egg Casings Area of Involvement in Scabies Infestation from a Skin Scraping Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Photo courtesy of A. Kaplan, Duke University Figure 14-36. Demodex Folliculorum Figure 14-37. Crusted Scabies from a Mineral Oil Preparation Slide Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Photo courtesy of N. Sidhu-Malik, Duke University Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  477
  • Other Mites Demodex folliculorum is a mite that can live within the sebaceous glands of hair follicles. Itmay be important in some subsets of patients with acne rosacea, as well as patients with HIVinfection and folliculitis. A glass slide preparation with mineral oil can easily demonstrate thesemites on infected patients. (Figure 14-36) Treatment of the mites with permethrin has led to vary-ing clinical responses. Food mites infest foodstuffs. Examples include the grain mite, Acarus, cheese mite,Glyciphagus, and grocery mite, Tyrophagus. These creatures produce papular urticaria or vesico-papular eruptions. Fowl mites bother office workers, homemakers, and bird fanciers affected by mites that infestbirds. Dermanyssus is the most common class. Ornithonyssus sylviarum can induce human skinlesions and Western equine encephalomyelitis virus. Grain mites: Pyemotes, the straw itch mite—a parasite of insect larvae that feed on grain; dis-tribution worldwide. The mites infest both animals and humans. Affected patients have systemicsymptoms such as fever, diarrhea, anorexia, and malaise. Harvest mites: Also known as the chigger, of the class Trombicula. Contact occurs duringsummer and fall. Frequently, the only sign of exposure is intense pruritus on ankles, legs, or beltline. In sensitized individuals, papular urticaria, vesiculation, or a granulomatous reaction with feverand lymphadenopathy may occur. Animal mites: Two important species: Ornithonyssus bacoti (tropical rat mite), andAllodermanyssus sanguineus (housemouse mite), the vector of rickettsial pox. O. bacoti, a vector of murine typhus, travels widely to get blood meal; affects persons work-ing where rats live. Cheyletiellid mites harbored by dogs and cats; pet is asymptomatic, but per-son holding pet experiences marked pruritus when mites feed on skin. Diagnosed by microscopicexamination of cellophane tape applied to pet’s skin. The pet must be treated by a veterinarian. Table 14-7. Summary of Mite-Induced Diseases (adapted from 58) Mite Disease Acarus (grain mite) Baker’s itch Allodermanyssus sanguineus (house mouse mite) Rickettsial pox Cheyletiella Walking dandruff in dogs, cats Demodex Rosacea (controversial) Dermanyssus (fowl mite) Equine encephalitis Dermatophagoides (dust mite) Allergic reactions Glyciphagus (cheese mite) Grocer’s itch Ornithonyssus (fowl mite) Western equine encephalitis Trombicula alfreddugesi (Chigger mite) Dermatitis; carry scrub typhus in some areas Trombicula Scrub typhus14.6 EXOTIC PETS Some exotic pets can cause unique dermatoses. Hedgehogs, particularly the African pygmy hedgehog, are a popular pet. Quills on the ani-mal may lead to Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection in the form of tinea corporis or capitis.41Urticaria may result from contact with the saliva. Also, humans who have contact with the Africanpygmy hedgehog have been known to contract salmonella via an unclear mechanism; this is par-478  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • ticularly important for immunocompromised pet owners. European hedgehogs may transmit M. marinum or M. avium-intracellulare. The flying squirrel, while thought of as a friendly pet, can be a carrier of many infectionsincluding Toxoplasma gondii, Staphylococcus sp., and Rickettsia prowazekii (via the body louse,causing epidemic typhus).42 An iguana is an inexpensive and easily contained pet when young. However, it can grow tovery large sizes, up to 6 feet in length. (Figure 14-38) Many potential pathogens have been cul-tured from various species of iguana; one case of Serratia marcescens led to cellulitis with severesystemic manifestations.43 It may also be a potential carrier of a herpes-type virus and may alsocause a human allergic reaction. The iguana is another transmitter of salmonella to pet ownersusually resulting in gastrointestinal manifestations (diarrhea) and a few cases of meningitis. Ageneralized papular exanthem may be seen as well. Figure 14-38. Iguana Figure 14-39. Sea Urchin Photo © 1998-2003 Troy Bartlett Photo courtesy of Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences A chinchilla is a small, furry pet. Their fur and skin are frequently colonized with Trychophytonmentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum, which may lead to owner dermatophytosis.Immunocompromised people should be aware that they may also contract gram-negative infec-tions such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from these pets.44 Beautiful birds are also coveted pets, and the cockatoo is one of the most popular.Cryptococcus neoformans can be transmitted by the cockatoo and the pigeon, a less likelypet choice. The bird does not appear ill but transmits the fungus in its feces, leading to air-borne pathogen. This is critical information for immunosuppressed hosts, as at least one caseof an organ transplant patient contracting Cryptococcus has been reported in the literature.45Avian mites can also be carried by the cockatoo, but this is not unique to the species as themites can be found in most bird types. Avian mite infestation is self-limited in bird ownersbecause their life cycle cannot be completed in the human host.14.7  SKIN ERUPTIONS CAUSED BY MARINE LIFE Many different eruptions including swimming pool granuloma, clam digger’s itch, and sea-bather’s eruption may result following exposure to water. Additionally, many marine creaturescan lead to dermatologic manifestations.Fishtank Granuloma Also called swimming pool granuloma, this is a centrally ulcerated nodule or papule, whichmay result from contact with infected fish or fishtank water. This can become chronic and appearmore verrucous with hyperkeratosis. The infection is caused by Mycobacterium marinum andshould be treated with systemic antibiotics such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clarithromy-cin or doxycycline. Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  479
  • Leeches Leeches can be exploited for medical use, such as coaxing survival of skin flaps, due to par-ticular features of their bites. They prevent coagulation partly due to the presence of inhibitors ofplatelet aggregation in their saliva.46Sea Urchin Spines on the sea urchin easily break off once they have penetrated the skin – frequentlyafter a diver inadvertently steps on the creature. (Figure 14-39) Only a small fraction of sea urchinspecies have spines with venom toxic to humans.47 However, the spines themselves can cause aforeign body reaction if not completely removed. Most frequent areas of involvement are the feetand ankles and result in pink papules. Immersion in hot water with vinegar can provide instantpain relief as well as inactivating any toxins present.Sea Cucumber Sea cucumbers are cucumber-shaped bottom-dwellers that can cause conjunctivitis due torelease of a toxin called holothurin to which nearby swimmers can be exposed. Vigorous cleans-ing of exposed eyes is important as well as ophthalmologic consultation.48Seabather’s Eruption Seabather’s eruption (or sea lice) can be either sporadic, or part of an outbreak. Clinically, itappears as dermatitis beneath areas covered by swim suits. The geographic distribution is mostfrequent from the Caribbean to Bermuda, however there have been three outbreaks at LongIsland, NY beaches.49 A variety of cnidarian larvae can cause this eruption including thimble jellyfish (Linuche unguiculata) and sea anemone (Edwardsiella lineate).50 Quick removal of bathingsuits and rinsing can help with prevention. Symptom relief is the mainstay of therapy.Swimmer’s Itch In contrast to seabather’s eruption, swimmer’s itch (or cercarial dermatitis) is more frequentlyseen in fresh and brackish water bathers and is caused by avian schistosomes (usually ducks andother waterfowl are the hosts). This is a self-limited eruption that will clear without treatmentwithin several weeks. Figure 14-40. Jellyfish Figure 14-41. Hookworm Infection in a Patient Photo courtesy of Gerald and Buff Corsi Who Just Returned from a Vacation in Jamaica © California Academy of SciencesCnidarians Cnidarians are aquatic organisms and include the jellyfish, Portuguese man of war, sea anem-ones, coral and hydroids.51 Jellyfish (scyphozoan) are translucent, bell-shaped marine creatureswith stingers (nematocysts) capable of breaking the skin surface causing immediate pain andpossible further symptoms. (Figure 14-40)480  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • Stings from Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) are extremely toxic and stings may lead to shockparticularly in small adults and children. Death may occur within only a few minutes. Portuguese man of war (hydrozoa) are common in the southern Atlantic Ocean and the stingis more painful than that of a typical jellyfish. Stings may result in hemorrhagic lesions with vesicu-lation; rarely systemic manifestations occur. Sea anemone stings can be highly variable. Erythematous wheals may vesiculate and ulcerate.Sponge diver dermatitis is actually caused by sea anemones that are attached to sea spongesand can lead to headache, nausea, vomiting, fever and chills.52 The nematocysts contain a toxin that can lead to systemic symptoms.53 The toxin acts directlyon many different tissues including myocardium, nervous tissues and renal and hepatic struc-tures. Erythematous wheals will frequently develop locally in the shape of the stingers. Treatmentinvolves irrigation, immobilization and removal of stingers. If systemic symptoms are severe,including nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, shortness of breath and unresponsiveness, cardiopulmo-nary resuscitation may be necessary. Importantly, the nematocysts continue to contain toxin andare active even after washing up on shore. Pouring vinegar on jellyfish and Portuguese man ofwar will fix the nematocysts and prevent further firing and toxin release.Cutaneous Larvae Migrans While not caused directly by marine life, this infestation is usually acquired on sandy beaches.These hookworms can penetrate human skin, usually through the foot, when the larvae aredeposited by dogs (Ancylostoma caninum) and cats (A. braziliense) via feces on the beach.54 Aserpiginous inflammatory reaction can be seen highlighting the burrow of the larvae in the skin.(Figure 14-41) This is a self-limited reaction, however pruritus can be significant, therefore oraltreatment with thiabendazole or ivermectin is often given. Topical application of 10% thiabenda-zole also is effective.14.8  MEDICATIONS DERIVED FROM PLANTS AND CREATURES Anthralin: Derived from Goa powder, extracted from the Vouacopoua araroba tree. It is usedto stimulate an inflammatory response for treatment of psoriasis and off-label treatment of alo-pecia areata. Side effects include purple staining and irritancy. Antimalarials: Originals were derived from Cinchona officinalis in Lojan rainforests. The barkwas dried and had a bitter taste. Quinine was determined to be the active substance in the barkof Cinchona species. Modern antimalarials are synthetically derived. Cantharadin: Derived from Lytta vesicatoria (blister beetle).55 The blister beetle is often foundin alfalfa fields, and in the southern United States in flower beds. Application of the agent is donepainlessly, and as the name implies, leads to vesiculation, or blistering within 1 to 2 days due todisruption of desmosomal plaques.56 It is used in physicians offices for treatment of verruca vul-garis without risk of scarring. Capsaicin: Agent responsible for the “hot and spicy” flavor of chili pepper (the Solanaceaefamily).57 Capsaicin is formulated as a topical agent that is utilized as an anesthetic and analge-sic. It causes the release of substance P. Substance P release causes unmyelinated C-fibers to beexcited, which leads to the pain response. With repeated application, substance P is depleted andthe pain response is reduced. FDA-approved uses include postherpetic neuralgia and diabeticneuropathy. Pyrethrin: Derived from the chrysanthemum flower (Compositae family). Patients who havea chrysanthemum or ragweed allergy may experience allergic symptoms including respiratorywheezing, and rhinitis. This drug is now synthetically produced. Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  481
  • MORE FIGURES Alstroemeria (1) Acarus Ω Amblyomma Americanum Female Aedes (1) Alstroemeria (2) Anopheles (1) Anopheles (2) Aedes (2) Amblyomma Americanum Male Dermacentor Variabilis Male Black Widow (1) Cimex (bedbug) (1) Fire Ant (1) Black Widow (2) Cimex (bedbug) (2)482  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • Fire Ant (2) Brown Recluse (1) Cimex (bedbug) (2) Glossina Copperhead Brown Recluse (2) Browntailed Caterpillar Coral Snake Hagmoth Caterpillar Io Caterpillar Ixodes Scapularus EngorgedDermacentor Variabilis Female Pediculosus Humans Capitus Ornithonyssus Pulex Flea Rattlesnake (1) Pediculus Humans 1 Ixodes Scapularus Female Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  483
  • Ixodes Scapularus Male Phthirus Pubis Rattlesnake (2) Leptotrombidium (chigger) Reduvid (1) Primrose (1) Lutzomyia Primrose (2) Reduviid (2) Simulium (1) Sea Urchin Xenopsylla Tabanid Simulium (2) Wolf Spider484  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
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  • 31. Grangoen V, Lelievre H, Celard M, et al. Pasteurella multocida lung abscess. Study of a case with demonstra- tion of cat as a vector. Rev Mal Respir. 2000; 17: 693-6.32. Aslam A. Life-threatening Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection after dog bite. J R Soc Med. 1999; 92: 140-1.33. O’Malley GF, Dart RC, Kuffner EF. Successful treatment of latrodectism with antivenin after 90 hours. N Engl J Med 1999; 340(8): 657.34. Sams HH et al., Necrotic arachnidism. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001; 44: 561-73.35. Sams HH et al., 2001.36. Elston DM. What’s eating you? Tarantulas (Theraphosidae). Cutis 2002; 70: 162-163.37. Elston DM. What’s eating you? (Lice, mites, bugs and bites). Handout, 2003.38. Severs GA, Elston DM. What’s eating you? Megalopyge opercularis. Cutis 2003; 71: 445-448.39. Referenced January 3, 2004. http: //www.ent.iastate.edu/imagegallery/40. Referenced January 3, 2004. http: //www.uky.edu/Agriculture/Entomology/enthp.htm41. Rosen T, Jablon J. Infectious threats from exotic pets: dermatological implications. Dermatol Clin 2003; 21: 229-236.42. Rosen and Jablon, 2003.43. Rosen and Jablon, 2003.44. Rosen and Jablon, 2003.45. Nosanchuk JD, Shoham S, Fries BC, et al. Evidence of zoonotic transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans from a pet cockatoo to an immunocompromised patient. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 205-8.46. Rigbi M, Orevi M, Eldor A. Platelet aggregation and coagulation inhibitors in leech saliva and their roles in leech therapy. Semin Thromb Hemost. 1996; 22(3): 273-8.47. Smith ML. Skin problems from marine echinoderms. Dermatologic Therapy 2002; 15: 30-33.48. Smith ML, 2002.49. Freudenthal AR, Joseph PR. Seabather’s eruption. NEJM 1993; 329(8): 542-544.50. Burke WA, Tester PA. Skin problems related to noninfectious coastal microorganisms. Dermatologic Therapy 2002; 15: 10-17.51. Burke WA. Cnidarians and human skin. Dermatologic Therapy 2002; 15: 18-25.52. Burke WA. 2002.53. Plantz SH. Jellyfish sting. eMedicine, http: //www.emedicine.com/WILD/topic33.htm; accessed Jan 4, 2004.54. Smith M. Cutaneous problems related to coastal and marine worms. Dermatologic Therapy 2002; 15; 34-37.55. Baumbach JL, Sheth PB. Topical and intralesional antiviral agents. In S Wolverton, Ed. Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy. W.B. Saunders, 2001; 524-536.56. Moed L, Shwayder TA, Chang MW. Cantharidin revisited. A blistering defense of an ancient medicine. Arch Dermatol. 2001; 137: 1357-1360.57. Brodland DG, Huether MJ. Local Anesthetics. In S Wolverton, Ed. Comprehensive Dermatologic Drug Therapy. W.B. Saunders Company, 2001; 736-766.58. Elston DM. Bites and Stings. In J Bolognia, JL Jorrizzo, RP Rapini, Eds. Dermatology, Mosby-Elsevier Limited, 2003; 1333-1349.486  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future
  • NOTES Plants and Creatures of Dermatologic Significance  487
  • NOTES488  2011/2012 Dermatology In-Review l Committed to Your Future