Improving Ocean Literacy  By Teaching the  Geology of the Great Lakes David P. Lusch ,  Ph.D., GISP Dept. of Geography Mic...
<ul><li>OCEAN LITERACY -  ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth has one big ocean with many features </li><...
<ul><li>OCEAN LITERACY –  FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS   </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ocean and life in the ocean shape the features o...
20% of all the freshwater on Earth! Largest: 209,800 km 2 Deepest: 406 m max, 147 m avg Smallest: 82,990 km 2 depth: 244 m...
Everything yellow, brown, red or black  is below sea level!  (except in Lake Erie)
191 years 2.6 years Retention Times 6 years 99 years 22 years
 
<ul><li>Origin of the Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Distal causes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For Lake Superior - plate tect...
Rock Types in the Great Lakes Region Michigan Sedimentary Basin Canadian  Shield Mid-continent rift
<ul><li>Extends > 2000 km; trough >150 km wide   </li></ul><ul><li>Rift occurred about 1.1 Ga (billion years ago). The rif...
The Mid-continent Rift of North America
Lower Great Lake Basins
Great Lakes Structural Geology
Great Lakes Structural Geology
Great Lakes Structural Geology Wisconsin Dome Thornton, IL Marblehead Freemont Kelleys Is Pelee Is Toledo
Michigan Structural Basin <ul><li>Michigan Basin was inundated numerous times by  oceans during the Paleozoic Period, whic...
Michigan Structural Basin <ul><li>Younger rocks  (542 – 145 million years old) </li></ul><ul><li>All sedimentary  (mostly ...
Cambrian 500 Ma Equator N X
What a difference 20 million years makes! Mississippian  345 Ma Equator N Mississippian  325 Ma Equator N
<ul><li>Facies Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral variations in the lithologic characteristics  of a volume of sediment...
<ul><li>Michigan Sedimentary Basin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural basin – like nested bowls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O...
<ul><li>Differential erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rock types are of unequal  resistance to physical erosion: ...
Michigan Sedimentary Basin
<ul><li>Niagaran Escarpment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The major resistant-rock (dolomite) landform in the  Michigan Structural...
Niagaran Escarpment Rock Island , Wisconsin
Niagaran Escarpment Fayette State Park, Michigan
Niagaran Escarpment Bruce Peninsula, Ontario N Dip slope Scarp slope
Niagaran Escarpment Hwy 401 Kelso & Hilton Falls Conservation Areas,  Ontario
Niagaran Escarpment Hwy 401 Niagara Falls Lewiston, NY
Bathymetry of the  Lake Huron Basin
<ul><li>The whole of the Great Lakes Watershed was  covered by continental glaciers as recently as  17,800 years ago. </li...
<ul><li>Beginning about 14,300 years ago, the  melting Ice Sheet began uncovering portions of  the Great Lakes Basin that ...
<ul><li>The earliest proglacial lakes to form were  Glacial Lake  Chicago  (Lake Michigan basin) and  Glacial Lake Maumee ...
Glacial Lake Stages
Glacial Lake Stages Maumee Arkona Ypsilanti Low-Water Phase Whittlesey Warren Grassmere Lundy (Elkton) Early Algonquin Kir...
ISOSTATIC REBOUND <ul><li>With glacial melting, the tremendous weight of the ice  was lifted from the North American Plate...
Isostatic rebound evidence Nipissing wave cliff Algonquin  11,000 C 14  yrs 184.4 m  Nipissing  4500 C 14  yrs 184.4 m   5...
The  End http://www.rsgis.msu.edu/
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Improving Ocean Literacy by Teaching the Geology of the Great Lakes

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Online Workshop through the College of Exploration, January-February, 2008

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Transcript of "Improving Ocean Literacy by Teaching the Geology of the Great Lakes"

  1. 1. Improving Ocean Literacy By Teaching the Geology of the Great Lakes David P. Lusch , Ph.D., GISP Dept. of Geography Michigan State University Online Workshop through the College of Exploration January-February, 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>OCEAN LITERACY - ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Earth has one big ocean with many features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ocean and life in the ocean shape the features of the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ocean is a major influence on weather and climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ocean makes Earth habitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ocean supports a great diversity of life and ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ocean and humans are inextricably interconnected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ocean is largely unexplored </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>OCEAN LITERACY – FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ocean and life in the ocean shape the features of the earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1 Some landforms we see today were once underwater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2.1.1 Forces underneath landmasses and the sea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>floor (tectonics) can change the shape of the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.2 Changes in sea level shape the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.1.3 Some rocks found on land were formed in the ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.2 Movement of water erodes and deposits materials (sediments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.2.1 Rivers carry sediments downstream to the oceans (clastic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sediments) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.2.2 The facies concept explains lateral variations in the </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lithologic characteristics of sediments of the same geological age </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 20% of all the freshwater on Earth! Largest: 209,800 km 2 Deepest: 406 m max, 147 m avg Smallest: 82,990 km 2 depth: 244 m max, 86 m avg area: 103,700 km 2 Shallowest: 64 m max, 19 m avg area: 175,800 km 2 depth: 282 m max, 85 m avg area: 193,700 km 2 depth: 229 m max, 59 m avg One lake, surface elev: 176 m
  5. 5. Everything yellow, brown, red or black is below sea level! (except in Lake Erie)
  6. 6. 191 years 2.6 years Retention Times 6 years 99 years 22 years
  7. 8. <ul><li>Origin of the Great Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>Distal causes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For Lake Superior - plate tectonics and rifting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For the lower Great Lakes - development of the Michigan sedimentary basin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximal causes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glacial sculpting of bedrock, mediated by differences in resistance to erosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isostatic uplift of the region shifting the watershed outlet </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Rock Types in the Great Lakes Region Michigan Sedimentary Basin Canadian Shield Mid-continent rift
  9. 10. <ul><li>Extends > 2000 km; trough >150 km wide </li></ul><ul><li>Rift occurred about 1.1 Ga (billion years ago). The rift filled with lavas which became basalts </li></ul><ul><li>Along the rift edges, non-volcanic sediments were deposited, perhaps by rivers flowing into the rift </li></ul><ul><li>Likely cause of the rift was a geophysical hot spot that domed the crust and cracked it </li></ul><ul><li>A &quot;triple junction&quot; plate break occurred under what is now Lake Superior </li></ul>The Mid-continent Rift of North America
  10. 11. The Mid-continent Rift of North America
  11. 12. Lower Great Lake Basins
  12. 13. Great Lakes Structural Geology
  13. 14. Great Lakes Structural Geology
  14. 15. Great Lakes Structural Geology Wisconsin Dome Thornton, IL Marblehead Freemont Kelleys Is Pelee Is Toledo
  15. 16. Michigan Structural Basin <ul><li>Michigan Basin was inundated numerous times by oceans during the Paleozoic Period, which eventually filled it with thick sedimentary deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>Four general sedimentary rock types fill the Michigan Basin: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sandstones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbonates (limestone and dolostone) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporites (halite and gypsum) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Michigan Structural Basin <ul><li>Younger rocks (542 – 145 million years old) </li></ul><ul><li>All sedimentary (mostly marine deposits) </li></ul><ul><li>Variably resistant to physical erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sandstone and carbonates resist physical erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shale is soft, thinly bedded and easily eroded </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Cambrian 500 Ma Equator N X
  18. 19. What a difference 20 million years makes! Mississippian 345 Ma Equator N Mississippian 325 Ma Equator N
  19. 20. <ul><li>Facies Concept </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral variations in the lithologic characteristics of a volume of sediments of the same geologic age </li></ul></ul>Off-shore non-clastic zone Near-shore zone Off-shore clastic zone Wave energy keeps fine clastic sediments in suspension No wave energy - fine clastic sediments settle out No wave energy - no clastics non-clastic sediments settle out Becomes sandstone Becomes shale Becomes limestone/ dolostone
  20. 21. <ul><li>Michigan Sedimentary Basin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural basin – like nested bowls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oldest rocks at the bottom, youngest at the top </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Differential erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentary rock types are of unequal resistance to physical erosion: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sandstones and Carbonates are stronger and tend to support highlands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shales are weaker and tend to underlie lowlands </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Michigan Sedimentary Basin
  23. 24. <ul><li>Niagaran Escarpment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The major resistant-rock (dolomite) landform in the Michigan Structural Basin </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Niagaran Escarpment Rock Island , Wisconsin
  25. 26. Niagaran Escarpment Fayette State Park, Michigan
  26. 27. Niagaran Escarpment Bruce Peninsula, Ontario N Dip slope Scarp slope
  27. 28. Niagaran Escarpment Hwy 401 Kelso & Hilton Falls Conservation Areas, Ontario
  28. 29. Niagaran Escarpment Hwy 401 Niagara Falls Lewiston, NY
  29. 30. Bathymetry of the Lake Huron Basin
  30. 31. <ul><li>The whole of the Great Lakes Watershed was covered by continental glaciers as recently as 17,800 years ago. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Beginning about 14,300 years ago, the melting Ice Sheet began uncovering portions of the Great Lakes Basin that sloped toward the ice margins. </li></ul><ul><li>Trapped between the glacier and the higher deglaciated terrain, meltwaters formed a series of proglacial lakes that occupied parts of the basins of every Great Lake. </li></ul>The Glacial Great Lakes Proglacial Lake Ice Sheet
  32. 33. <ul><li>The earliest proglacial lakes to form were Glacial Lake Chicago (Lake Michigan basin) and Glacial Lake Maumee (Lake Erie basin). </li></ul><ul><li>Over the next 4,300 years, glacial lake levels in the Great Lakes Basin progressively fell as the ice margin waxed and waned and as new drainage outlets were uncovered and down-cut by flowing water. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, the water levels in the Michigan - Huron Basin reached their lowest elevation when drainage shifted to the final outlet at North Bay, Ontario, which flowed eastward along the Ottawa River Valley. </li></ul>The Glacial Great Lakes
  33. 34. Glacial Lake Stages
  34. 35. Glacial Lake Stages Maumee Arkona Ypsilanti Low-Water Phase Whittlesey Warren Grassmere Lundy (Elkton) Early Algonquin Kirkfield Low-Water Phase Main Algonquin Post-Algonquin Stanley and Hough Nippissing Algoma Modern Greatlakean Stade Mackinaw Interstade Twocreekan Interstade Port Bruce Stade Port Huron Stade Glacial Lakes in the Huron and Erie Basins
  35. 36. ISOSTATIC REBOUND <ul><li>With glacial melting, the tremendous weight of the ice was lifted from the North American Plate and the land surface, noticeably depressed during the glacial maximum, begins to rebound upward. This process continues today at a rate of about 7.5 cm per century . </li></ul>
  36. 37. Isostatic rebound evidence Nipissing wave cliff Algonquin 11,000 C 14 yrs 184.4 m Nipissing 4500 C 14 yrs 184.4 m 51.8 m rise in 6500 yrs. Nipissing wave cliff Algonquin wave cliffs
  37. 38. The End http://www.rsgis.msu.edu/
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