Ground Source Heat Pumps in low-income housingPresented by Denys StephensSustainability Manager, Penwith Housing Associati...
Penwith Housing Association    A member of the Devon & Cornwall Housing Group�   Manages 6000 homes throughout Cornwall�  ...
Ground Source Heat Pump Heating�   Uses closed loop ground source heat pump    technology to access mainly solar energy�  ...
Why use Ground Source Heat Pumps?�   Many rural areas are off the gas network�   Difficult to achieve Affordable Warmth wi...
Grid electricity as a heating fuel�   It has a carbon consequence (0.517 kg/kW hr), BUT�   GSHPs reduce that by 60 – 75%� ...
Effect of Fuel Price Increases 2005 - 2009100m2 house annual heating costs                                Effect of Fuel P...
Features of a GSHP System                            Hot water cylinder                            Heat distribution syste...
Ground source heat pump systemwith horizontal ground loop
Ground source heat pump systemwith vertical ground loop
Specifying GSHPs – key issues�   Engage the interest & support of tenants�   Pick dwellings that are (or can be) well insu...
Design Issues - Drilling Work�   Need to avoid underground services�   Location as close as possible to dwelling�   Need t...
Design Issues – location of heat pump�   Preferably close to ground loop�   Internal or external?�   Ground loop condensat...
Design Issues – heat distribution�   Underfloor - very difficult in retrofit�   Warm air - availability? Popularity?�   Ra...
Design Issues - controls    Room thermostat Programmer   Heat Pump Control�   Diverter valve or dual pump?�   Conventional...
4 Bungalows at Bodinnar Close NewbridgeGrant Aided by the Low Carbon Buildings Programme & Cornwall CCPenwith HA’s Fourth ...
Project Details�   4 bungalows fitted with 3.5 kW systems�   Retrofitted to existing buildings�   Bungalows already fitted...
Drilling rig in action
Protecting garden areas
Inserting the ground loop
Installed ground source heat pump                                    Flow & return to                                    h...
Plumbing Completed
GSHP performancePHA GSHP heated property – performance 28th – 30th November 2010                                          ...
GSHP performancePHA GSHP heated property – March 2010 – February 2011                                                     ...
Annual fuel costs and CO2 Emissions    comparison with other systems    2 bedroom 3 person house (60 m2)�   GSHP - £ 307  ...
HeatPod Project    Penwith HA’s Retrofit for the Future Project – 2 bed end of terrace house    Project partners John Park...
HeatPod Project - Plans                   High performance                   External doors                    100 mm exte...
HeatPod Vertical Section                           Exhaust air heat pump system augmenting                           GSHP ...
HeatPod Project – CO2 emissions                     Comparison of HeatPod Annual CO2 Emissions - [kgCO2/m2 p.a.]     150.0...
AcknowledgementsThanks to the following for making this work possible:The Technology Strategy BoardThe Low Carbon Building...
11128 Denys Stephens Penwith Ha Gshps In Low Income Housing Final
11128 Denys Stephens Penwith Ha Gshps In Low Income Housing Final
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11128 Denys Stephens Penwith Ha Gshps In Low Income Housing Final

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11128 Denys Stephens Penwith Ha Gshps In Low Income Housing Final

  1. 1. Ground Source Heat Pumps in low-income housingPresented by Denys StephensSustainability Manager, Penwith Housing AssociationA member of the Devon & Cornwall Housing Group
  2. 2. Penwith Housing Association A member of the Devon & Cornwall Housing Group� Manages 6000 homes throughout Cornwall� Has pursued best practice in energy efficiency since stock transfer in 1994� First RSL to install GSHP in newbuild 1998� First RSL to retro-fit multiple GSHPs in 2004 retro-
  3. 3. Ground Source Heat Pump Heating� Uses closed loop ground source heat pump technology to access mainly solar energy� The ground absorbs solar heat and maintains a relatively constant temperature� Usable almost anywhere in the U.K.� Very low CO2 emissions� Backup heating is not necessary if you choose a well designed system� Runs on electricity� 1 kW electricity generates about 3.2 kW heat (Coefficient of performance 3.2 – radiator system)
  4. 4. Why use Ground Source Heat Pumps?� Many rural areas are off the gas network� Difficult to achieve Affordable Warmth with conventional electrical heating� Cost & unsustainability of oil & LPG fired central heating.� GSHPs provide affordable heating with very low CO2 emissions & low maintenance� Currently one of the most accessible renewable heat technologies� Will benefit from Renewable Heat Incentive in 2011
  5. 5. Grid electricity as a heating fuel� It has a carbon consequence (0.517 kg/kW hr), BUT� GSHPs reduce that by 60 – 75%� CO2 content of the grid will reduce� GSHPs zero carbon when run on green electricity� Insufficient supplies of biomass fuel for general use� Gas supplies are depleting and reliance on foreign supply is increasing – the carbon footprint of gas increases when it’s shipped further� Electricity available almost everywhere, hence importance of heat pumps in off gas areas
  6. 6. Effect of Fuel Price Increases 2005 - 2009100m2 house annual heating costs Effect of Fuel Price Increases on Annual Heating & HWS Costs for 100m2 L.A. House [2005 - 2009] 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 GSHP Cost (£) 1100 1000 Gas Annual Fuel C 900 Oil 800 Electricity l 700 Coal 600 Lpg 500 400 300 200 100 0 01/01/05 01/01/06 01/01/07 01/01/08 31/12/08 31/12/09
  7. 7. Features of a GSHP System Hot water cylinder Heat distribution system – radiators or under-floor Heat pump & circulating pump – can be inside or in external enclosure Ground loop – (not to scale) can be vertical or horizontal
  8. 8. Ground source heat pump systemwith horizontal ground loop
  9. 9. Ground source heat pump systemwith vertical ground loop
  10. 10. Specifying GSHPs – key issues� Engage the interest & support of tenants� Pick dwellings that are (or can be) well insulated� Choose a reliable GSHP that can comfortably meet the heat loss levels of the dwellings.� An expert installer is needed, particularly to correctly design the ground loop.� Pay attention to design for noise reduction� M&E contractor who installs heat distribution system must understand GSHPs.
  11. 11. Design Issues - Drilling Work� Need to avoid underground services� Location as close as possible to dwelling� Need to avoid damage to gardens� Disposal of any ground water
  12. 12. Design Issues – location of heat pump� Preferably close to ground loop� Internal or external?� Ground loop condensation� Sound insulation� Connection of flow & return to plumbing� Connection of electricity supply
  13. 13. Design Issues – heat distribution� Underfloor - very difficult in retrofit� Warm air - availability? Popularity?� Radiators - can be retrofitted� Radiator sizes need not be excessive� High water content radiators for thermal storage� TRV’s in bedroom/s & kitchen only� Hot water storage – simultaneous space & hw heating not possible
  14. 14. Design Issues - controls Room thermostat Programmer Heat Pump Control� Diverter valve or dual pump?� Conventional 2 channel programmer� Conventional room thermostat� Probe thermostat in h/w tank
  15. 15. 4 Bungalows at Bodinnar Close NewbridgeGrant Aided by the Low Carbon Buildings Programme & Cornwall CCPenwith HA’s Fourth GSHP retrofit project – April 2008An E.ON HeatPlant Project – GSHP Installer EarthEnergy
  16. 16. Project Details� 4 bungalows fitted with 3.5 kW systems� Retrofitted to existing buildings� Bungalows already fitted with cavity fill, double glazing & loft insulation� GSHP installer EarthEnergy� Plumbing systems by local contractor MV Clatworthy
  17. 17. Drilling rig in action
  18. 18. Protecting garden areas
  19. 19. Inserting the ground loop
  20. 20. Installed ground source heat pump Flow & return to heating system Ground loop circulating pump Heat pump Ground loop pipes Pre-formed enclosure
  21. 21. Plumbing Completed
  22. 22. GSHP performancePHA GSHP heated property – performance 28th – 30th November 2010 Hot water temperature Internal air temperature External air temperature
  23. 23. GSHP performancePHA GSHP heated property – March 2010 – February 2011 Hot water temperature Internal air temperature External air temperature
  24. 24. Annual fuel costs and CO2 Emissions comparison with other systems 2 bedroom 3 person house (60 m2)� GSHP - £ 307 1.1 tonnes CO2/yr� ASHP - £ 412 1.5 tonnes CO2/yr� HE Gas boiler - £ 442 2.0 tonnes CO2/yr� LPG boiler £ 884 (47 kG bottle) 2.4 tonnes CO2/yr� Oil boiler £ 442 (28 sec, 899 litre drop) 2.7 tonnes CO2/yr� Electricity £ 728 (storage heaters) 3.4 tonnes CO2/yr� Smokeless coal £ 1056 (back boiler) 6.4 tonnes CO2/yr GSHP data based on 5 years monitored performance in HA homes Fuel costs November 2009. Dwelling heat loss 2.1 kW
  25. 25. HeatPod Project Penwith HA’s Retrofit for the Future Project – 2 bed end of terrace house Project partners John Parker Consulting & EarthEnergy� ‘Passivhaus’ approach not suitable for all housing, e.g. for Passivhaus’ vulnerable, elderly & special needs groups needing greater warmth� HeatPod offers a dynamic solution – very good fabric standard coupled with an innovative GSHP system – a Ground / Air / Solar Source Heat Pump coupled with an air handling unit� Energy from exhaust air & HeatPod solar gain reduces GSHP ground loop size (and cost) and enhances system performance� System designed to utilise thermal storage capacity of the ground
  26. 26. HeatPod Project - Plans High performance External doors 100 mm external Wall insulation Softwood triple glazing Wood pellet stove
  27. 27. HeatPod Vertical Section Exhaust air heat pump system augmenting GSHP performance Pressurised hot water cylinder Ground source heat pump Ground loop circulating pump
  28. 28. HeatPod Project – CO2 emissions Comparison of HeatPod Annual CO2 Emissions - [kgCO2/m2 p.a.] 150.0 140.0 130.0 120.0 1 0.0 1 100.0 Co o king 90.0 A ppliances 80.0 Lighting 70.0 Fans & P umps 60.0 Hws Heating 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0 Existing (co al) Sto rage heaters Std. gshp Enhanced gshp HeatP o dData modelling by John Parker Consulting
  29. 29. AcknowledgementsThanks to the following for making this work possible:The Technology Strategy BoardThe Low Carbon Buildings ProgrammeCornwall CouncilJohn Parker, John Parker ConsultingDr Robin Curtis, EarthEnergy Ltd.Mike Newell, E.ONCalorex Heat Pumps

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