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Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s
Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s
Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s
Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s
Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s
Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s
Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s
Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s
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Other histories of CALL, the 40s and the 50s

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An account of the technological breakthroughs that influenced what we now know as CALL

An account of the technological breakthroughs that influenced what we now know as CALL

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  • 1. History of CALL: Other histories of CALL The 40s: The war years- Vannevar Bush and Memex The 50s: Preparing the ground Rocío Bolado September 30, 2008
  • 2. Other histories of CALL <ul><li>Two categories </li></ul><ul><li>Properly researched, objective historical accounts. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretative; more subjective conclusions about advances and trends in the field. </li></ul>
  • 3. Other histories of CALL <ul><li>Kurshid Ahmad et al.(1985) – category 1; early history of the field. </li></ul><ul><li>John R. Russell (1995) – category 1; history of CALL in North America. </li></ul><ul><li>Warschauer (LLT Journal, Hawaii) – category 2; evolution of CALL, three trends </li></ul><ul><li>Mike Levy (2000) – category 1; review of 40 years in the field </li></ul>
  • 4. Other histories of CALL <ul><li>History of CALL  series of phases led by technological considerations </li></ul><ul><li>linguists </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> never –really– in control </li></ul>
  • 5. The 40s: The war years- Vannevar Bush and Memex <ul><li>1st demonstration of communication data at distance (NY – Hannover) – January, 1940 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Memoranding regarding Memex” published by Bush – March, 1941 </li></ul>
  • 6. The 40s: The war years- Vannevar Bush and Memex <ul><li>The bases of the computer are established, “First draft of a report on the EDVAC” by Von Neumann – June 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of the Mark 1 –first main-frame computer by Max Newman – 1948; Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Top US scientist foresees a possible future in which man-made machines will start to think” by Bush – November 1945 </li></ul>
  • 7. The 50s: Preparing the ground <ul><li>The magnetic band of the BINAC – 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Development of SAGE, military network </li></ul><ul><li>Development of UNIVAC (fast printer) – 1951 </li></ul><ul><li>IBM 650, first computer sold on large scale – 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>SABRE, commercial network and database by IBM – 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>RAMAC 305, first magnetic disk by IBM – 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>FORTRAN, 1st universal computer language – 1957 </li></ul>
  • 8. The 50s: Preparing the ground <ul><li>ARPA, development for the Internet and processing standard, USA – 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>First integrated circuit by J. Kilby – 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of the notions of interactivity, interface and the mouse by Douglas Engelbart at the SRI – 1958-1962 </li></ul><ul><li>LISP, 1st language for AI by John McCarthy, MIT – 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>Alleged appearance of the first CALL program – 1959 </li></ul>

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