The following is a mini-tutorial on the use of the Subjunctive. After you have studied
the tutorial, complete the associated exercises. If you already know how to use this
verb form, you can skip the explanation and go directly to the exercises.
Use the simple form of the verb. The simple form is the infinitive without the "to." The
simple form of the verb "to go" is "go." The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain
forms and tenses.
The Subjunctive is used to emphasize urgency or importance. It is used after certain
expressions (see below).
I suggest that he study.
Is it essential that we be there?
Don recommended that you join the committee.
The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. In the examples
below, the Subjunctive is not noticeable in the you-form of the verb, but it is
noticeable in the he-form of the verb.
You try to study often. YOU-FORM OF "TRY"
It is important that you try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF "TRY" LOOKS THE
He tries to study often. HE-FORM OF "TRY"
It is important that he try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF "TRY" IS NOTICEABLE
Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive
The Subjunctive is used after the following verbs:
to advise (that)
to ask (that)
to command (that)
to demand (that)
to desire (that)
to insist (that)
to propose (that)
to recommend (that)
to request (that)
to suggest (that)
to urge (that)
Dr. Smith asked that Mark submit his research paper before the end of the
Donna requested Frank come to the party.
The teacher insists that her students be on time.
Expressions Followed by the Subjunctive
The Subjunctive is used after the following expressions:
It is best (that)
It is crucial (that)
It is desirable (that)
It is essential (that)
It is imperative (that)
It is important (that)
It is recommended (that)
It is urgent (that)
It is vital (that)
It is a good idea (that)
It is a bad idea (that)
It is crucial that you be there before Tom arrives.
It is important she attend the meeting.
It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if he wants to
hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon.
Negative, Continuous and Passive Forms of
The Subjunctive can be used in negative, continuous and passive forms.
The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting.
The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during
I suggest that you not take the job without renegotiating the salary.
Jake recommended that Susan be hired immediately.
Christine demanded that I be allowed to take part in the negotiations.
We suggested that you be admitted to the organization.
It is important that you be standing there when he gets off the plane.
It is crucial that a car be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over.
I propose that we all be waiting in Tim's apartment when he gets home.
Should as Subjunctive
After many of the above expressions, the word "should" is sometimes used to
express the idea of subjunctiveness. This form is used more frequently in British
English and is most common after the verbs "suggest," "recommend" and "insist."
The doctor recommended that she should see a specialist about the
Professor William suggested that Wilma should study harder for the final
EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS:
Subjunctive Exercise 1
Subjunctive adalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Namun topik Subjunctive ini berbeda
dengan Conditional. Conditional adalah kalimat pengandaian juga namun perbedaannya
adalah Conditional dilengkapi dengan syarat-syarat tertentu untuk mengandai-andai.
Misalnya "Aku akan mengundanya jika aku jadi kamu.". Berikut ini adalah penjelasan
he, she, it were
he, she, it be
Kata kerja lain (past & present)
he, she, it work
Kita menggunakan subjunctives ketika kita berbicara tentang suatu kegiatan yang sebenarnya
tidak akan terjadi. Kita menggunakan subjunctive ketika berbicara tentang kegiatan yang
Inginkan agar terjadi
Harapkan akan terjadi
Membayangkan akan terjadi
The President requests that you be present at the meeting.
It is vital that you be present at the meeting.
If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.
Subjunctive biasanya menggunakan kedua struktur berikut:
Kata Kerja: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest +
Ekspresi: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that
The manager insists that the car park be locked at night.
The board of directors recommended that he join the company.
It is essential that we vote as soon as possible.
It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend.
Perhatikan bahwa struktur berikut ini, subjunctive-nya sama. Tidak masalah kalimat itu
tenses-nya past atau present. Contoh:
Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation.
Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation.
Present: It is essential that she be present.
Past: It was essential that she be present.
Kita selalu menggunakan were sebagai pengganti "was" setelah if (dan kata lainnya yang
memiliki arti yang sama). Contoh:
If I were you, I would ask her.
Suppose she were here. What would you say?
Mengapa kita menggunakan "I were", "he were"?
Kita sering mendengar orang berkata "if I were you, I would go" atau "if he were here, he
would tell you". Memang normalnya adalah: I was, he was. Tetapi struktur if I were you tidak
melihat Past Tense". Struktur tersebut hanya mengenal past subjunctive untuk "to be" nya.
Perhatikan contoh kata-kata/frase di bawah ini untuk struktur di atas:
If I were younger, I would go. (FORMAL)
If I was younger, I would go. (INFORMAL)
If he weren't so mean, he would buy one for me.(FORMAL)
If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one for me. (INFORMAL)
I wish I weren't so slow! (FORMAL)
I wish I wasn't so slow! (INFORMAL)
I wish it were longer. (FORMAL)
I wish it was longer. (INFORMAL)
It's not as if I were ugly. (FORMAL)
It's not as if I was ugly. (INFORMAL)
She acts as if she were Queen. (FORMAL)
She acts as if she was Queen. (INFORMAL)
If I were you, I should tell her. (FORMAL)
If I was you, I should tell her. (INFORMAL)
Note: We do not normally say "if I was you", even in familiar conversation.
Beberapa ekspresi menggunakan subjunctive. Contoh:
Long live the King!
God bless America!
Be that as it may, he still wants to see her.
Come what may, I will never forget you.
We are all citizens of the world, as it were
Subjunctive adalah suatu bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk mengekspresikan unreal
situation (dapat berupa conditional(pengandaian), wish (harapan), as if, as thoughyang berbeda
dengan kenyataan), requirement(kebutuhan), maupun suggestion(saran). Subjunctive terdiri
dari present dan pastyang memiliki aturan penggunaan masing-masing.
Subjunctive merupakan satu dari tiga verb mood (termasuk:imperative dan indicative). Pada modern
English, bentuk kata kerja ini hanya terdapat pada bagiandependent clause.
Aturan Penggunaan Subjunctive
Aturan penggunaan present dan past subjunctive dengan beberapa contohnya dapat dilihat pada
tabel sebagai berikut.
Kecuali untuk verb be, bentuk present menggunakanbare
infinitive, yaitu kata kerja bentuk sederhana tanpa
penambahan -s atau -es meskipun subjek yang digunakan
merupakan orang ketiga tunggal (contoh: the man, Ana,
mother) maupun pronoun: I, she, he,
it.Verb be yaitu: is dan are yang digunakan pada present
indicative/normal, digantikan oleh “be”.
Kecuali untuk verb be, bentuk past sama seperti past
indicative/normal.Verb be baik was maupun weremenggunak
Conditional Auxiliary Verbs Vs Subjunctive
Karena penggunaan subjunctive yang rawan kesalahan, bentuk kata kerja ini
jarang digunakan didalam bahasa inggris. Modal verbs lebih disukai untuk digunakan. Adapun untuk
menghasilkan makna pengandaian unreal condition (kenyataan berbeda dengan
harapan), Conditional auxilliary verbs (could, should, would) dapat digunakan menggantikan bentuk
kata kerja ini dengan contoh sebagai berikut di bawah ini.
I wish the teacher were nice to me. (Subjunctive)
I wish the teacher could be nice to me. (Auxiliary Verb)
Fungsi dan Contoh Subjunctive
Secara umum, subjunctive digunakan pada complex sentence. Berikut adalah rincian kondisi serta
contoh subjunctive dalam kalimat.
Subjunctive berada pada dependent clausedimana bagian independent clause-nya
menggunakan verb:ask, command, demand, determine, insist, order, propose,
recommend, regret, request, require, suggest, untuk
mengekspresikan requirement (kebutuhan) maupun suggestion (saran).
that she take a
rice be replaced
with brown rice.
Subjunctive berada pada dependent clause dimana bagian independent clause-nya
menggunakan adjective yang mengekspresikanurgency/requirement:crucial,
desirable, essential, important, imperative, necessary, urgent, vital
It is desirable
that they be on
It is necessary
she prepare for
the next exam.
(Perlu untuk dia
Subjunctive berada pada dependent clause dimana independent
clauseberupa conditional sentence yang kenyataannya berbeda pengandaian (unreal
condition:conditional type 2 dengan verb be)
If I were a
would donate my
money to charity.
I wouldn’t be
I were you.
(Saya tidak akan
panik jika jadi
Subjunctive mengikuti kata wish.
he were here to
(Saya harap dia
Sarah were able
to control her
Subjunctive mengikuti kata as if dan as though.
Robi acts as
he were the
Siti eats much as
if she had
not eaten for a
akan dia sudah
Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in parentheses, then click the
"Check" button to check your answers. Negative, passive and continuous subjunctive forms
are possible. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if an answer is giving you trouble.
1. It's important that she (remember) to take her medicine twice a day.
2. I suggest that Frank (read) the directions carefully before assembling
the bicycle. He doesn't want the wheels to fall off while he
is riding down a hill
3. Mrs. Finkelstein demanded that the heater (repair) immediately. Her
apartment was freezing.
4. It's vital that the United States (focus) on improving its public education
system. What we do now will affect our country for
generations to come.
5. The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) the temple until they had
removed their shoes.
6. I am not going to sit here and let her insult me. I demand that she immediately
(apologize) for what she just said.
7. Judy asked that we (attend) her graduation ceremony next week.
8. Was it really necessary that (sit) I there watching you the entire time you
were rehearsing for the play? It was really
boring watching you repeat the scenes over and over again.
9. It is important to remember that Janine (think) very differently from you.
She may not agree to the changes you have made in
the organization of the company.
10. It's a little difficult to find the restaurant. I propose that we all (drive)
together so that nobody gets lost along the way.
11. The woman insisted that the lost child (take) to store's information desk
so his parents could be paged.
12. The nutritionist recommended that Sally (reduce) her daily fat intake.
13. The environmental leader felt it was extremely important that the people of the
city (allow) to voice their concerns over the
new hotel being built on the bay.
14. She told me that the government (regulate) the airline industry. I don't
know if that is true.
15. The sign at the pool recommended that you (swim) after eating a large
16. It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) the summing pool while the
children are taking their swimming lessons.
17. The sun is scorching today. I suggest you (put) on sunblock
immediately before you get a sun burn.
18. John insists that Sarah (invite) to the wedding; otherwise he will not
19. I think it's an interesting fact that she (come) from Estonia.
20. It is imperative that the world (work) towards a solution to global
warming before the weather patterns of the world are