Subjunctive

3,235 views
3,079 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,235
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
96
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Subjunctive

  1. 1. Subjunctive The following is a mini-tutorial on the use of the Subjunctive. After you have studied the tutorial, complete the associated exercises. If you already know how to use this verb form, you can skip the explanation and go directly to the exercises. FORM Use the simple form of the verb. The simple form is the infinitive without the "to." The simple form of the verb "to go" is "go." The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. USE The Subjunctive is used to emphasize urgency or importance. It is used after certain expressions (see below). Examples: I suggest that he study. Is it essential that we be there? Don recommended that you join the committee. NOTICE The Subjunctive is only noticeable in certain forms and tenses. In the examples below, the Subjunctive is not noticeable in the you-form of the verb, but it is noticeable in the he-form of the verb. Examples: You try to study often. YOU-FORM OF "TRY" It is important that you try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF "TRY" LOOKS THE SAME. He tries to study often. HE-FORM OF "TRY" It is important that he try to study often. SUBJUNCTIVE FORM OF "TRY" IS NOTICEABLE HERE. Verbs Followed by the Subjunctive The Subjunctive is used after the following verbs: to advise (that) to ask (that) to command (that) to demand (that) to desire (that)
  2. 2. to insist (that) to propose (that) to recommend (that) to request (that) to suggest (that) to urge (that) Examples: Dr. Smith asked that Mark submit his research paper before the end of the month. Donna requested Frank come to the party. The teacher insists that her students be on time. Expressions Followed by the Subjunctive The Subjunctive is used after the following expressions: It is best (that) It is crucial (that) It is desirable (that) It is essential (that) It is imperative (that) It is important (that) It is recommended (that) It is urgent (that) It is vital (that) It is a good idea (that) It is a bad idea (that) Examples: It is crucial that you be there before Tom arrives. It is important she attend the meeting. It is recommended that he take a gallon of water with him if he wants to hike to the bottom of the Grand Canyon. Negative, Continuous and Passive Forms of Subjunctive The Subjunctive can be used in negative, continuous and passive forms. Negative Examples: The boss insisted that Sam not be at the meeting. The company asked that employees not accept personal phone calls during business hours.
  3. 3. I suggest that you not take the job without renegotiating the salary. Passive Examples: Jake recommended that Susan be hired immediately. Christine demanded that I be allowed to take part in the negotiations. We suggested that you be admitted to the organization. Continuous Examples: It is important that you be standing there when he gets off the plane. It is crucial that a car be waiting for the boss when the meeting is over. I propose that we all be waiting in Tim's apartment when he gets home. Should as Subjunctive After many of the above expressions, the word "should" is sometimes used to express the idea of subjunctiveness. This form is used more frequently in British English and is most common after the verbs "suggest," "recommend" and "insist." Examples: The doctor recommended that she should see a specialist about the problem. Professor William suggested that Wilma should study harder for the final exam. EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS: Subjunctive Exercise 1
  4. 4. Subjunctives Subjunctive adalah bentuk kalimat pengandaian. Namun topik Subjunctive ini berbeda dengan Conditional. Conditional adalah kalimat pengandaian juga namun perbedaannya adalah Conditional dilengkapi dengan syarat-syarat tertentu untuk mengandai-andai. Misalnya "Aku akan mengundanya jika aku jadi kamu.". Berikut ini adalah penjelasan tentang Subjunctives. Struktur Subjunctive be (past) I were you were he, she, it were we were you were they were be (present) I be you be he, she, it be we be you be they be Kata kerja lain (past & present) I work you work he, she, it work we work you work they work Penggunaan Subjunctive Kita menggunakan subjunctives ketika kita berbicara tentang suatu kegiatan yang sebenarnya tidak akan terjadi. Kita menggunakan subjunctive ketika berbicara tentang kegiatan yang seseorang: Inginkan agar terjadi Harapkan akan terjadi Membayangkan akan terjadi Contoh: The President requests that you be present at the meeting. It is vital that you be present at the meeting. If you were at the meeting, the President would be happy.
  5. 5. Subjunctive biasanya menggunakan kedua struktur berikut: Kata Kerja: ask, command, demand, insist, propose, recommend, request, suggest + that Ekspresi: it is desirable, essential, important, necessary, vital + that Contoh: The manager insists that the car park be locked at night. The board of directors recommended that he join the company. It is essential that we vote as soon as possible. It was necessary that every student submit his essay by the weekend. Perhatikan bahwa struktur berikut ini, subjunctive-nya sama. Tidak masalah kalimat itu tenses-nya past atau present. Contoh: Present: The President requests that they stop the occupation. Past: The President requested that they stop the occupation. Present: It is essential that she be present. Past: It was essential that she be present. Kita selalu menggunakan were sebagai pengganti "was" setelah if (dan kata lainnya yang memiliki arti yang sama). Contoh: If I were you, I would ask her. Suppose she were here. What would you say? Mengapa kita menggunakan "I were", "he were"? Kita sering mendengar orang berkata "if I were you, I would go" atau "if he were here, he would tell you". Memang normalnya adalah: I was, he was. Tetapi struktur if I were you tidak melihat Past Tense". Struktur tersebut hanya mengenal past subjunctive untuk "to be" nya. Perhatikan contoh kata-kata/frase di bawah ini untuk struktur di atas: if as if wish suppose If I were younger, I would go. (FORMAL) If I was younger, I would go. (INFORMAL) If he weren't so mean, he would buy one for me.(FORMAL) If he wasn't so mean, he would buy one for me. (INFORMAL) I wish I weren't so slow! (FORMAL) I wish I wasn't so slow! (INFORMAL) I wish it were longer. (FORMAL) I wish it was longer. (INFORMAL) It's not as if I were ugly. (FORMAL) It's not as if I was ugly. (INFORMAL) She acts as if she were Queen. (FORMAL) She acts as if she was Queen. (INFORMAL) If I were you, I should tell her. (FORMAL) If I was you, I should tell her. (INFORMAL)
  6. 6. Note: We do not normally say "if I was you", even in familiar conversation. Beberapa ekspresi menggunakan subjunctive. Contoh: Long live the King! God bless America! Heaven forbid! Be that as it may, he still wants to see her. Come what may, I will never forget you. We are all citizens of the world, as it were
  7. 7. Pengertian Subjunctive Subjunctive adalah suatu bentuk kata kerja yang digunakan untuk mengekspresikan unreal situation (dapat berupa conditional(pengandaian), wish (harapan), as if, as thoughyang berbeda dengan kenyataan), requirement(kebutuhan), maupun suggestion(saran). Subjunctive terdiri dari present dan pastyang memiliki aturan penggunaan masing-masing. Subjunctive merupakan satu dari tiga verb mood (termasuk:imperative dan indicative). Pada modern English, bentuk kata kerja ini hanya terdapat pada bagiandependent clause. Aturan Penggunaan Subjunctive Aturan penggunaan present dan past subjunctive dengan beberapa contohnya dapat dilihat pada tabel sebagai berikut. Tense Aturan contoh verb normal/indicativ e Subjunctiv e Presen t Kecuali untuk verb be, bentuk present menggunakanbare infinitive, yaitu kata kerja bentuk sederhana tanpa penambahan -s atau -es meskipun subjek yang digunakan merupakan orang ketiga tunggal (contoh: the man, Ana, mother) maupun pronoun: I, she, he, it.Verb be yaitu: is dan are yang digunakan pada present indicative/normal, digantikan oleh “be”. reads read goes go is be are be Past Kecuali untuk verb be, bentuk past sama seperti past indicative/normal.Verb be baik was maupun weremenggunak an “were”. walked walked ate ate was were were were
  8. 8. Conditional Auxiliary Verbs Vs Subjunctive Karena penggunaan subjunctive yang rawan kesalahan, bentuk kata kerja ini jarang digunakan didalam bahasa inggris. Modal verbs lebih disukai untuk digunakan. Adapun untuk menghasilkan makna pengandaian unreal condition (kenyataan berbeda dengan harapan), Conditional auxilliary verbs (could, should, would) dapat digunakan menggantikan bentuk kata kerja ini dengan contoh sebagai berikut di bawah ini. Contoh:  I wish the teacher were nice to me. (Subjunctive)  I wish the teacher could be nice to me. (Auxiliary Verb) Fungsi dan Contoh Subjunctive Secara umum, subjunctive digunakan pada complex sentence. Berikut adalah rincian kondisi serta contoh subjunctive dalam kalimat. Fungsi Subjunctive Contoh Subjunctive dalam Kalimat Subjunctive berada pada dependent clausedimana bagian independent clause-nya menggunakan verb:ask, command, demand, determine, insist, order, propose, recommend, regret, request, require, suggest, untuk mengekspresikan requirement (kebutuhan) maupun suggestion (saran). I recommended that she take a cooking class. (Saya merekomdasikan dia mengambil kelas memasak.) The doctor suggests that white rice be replaced with brown rice. (Dokter menyarankan beras putih diganti dengan beras merah.) Subjunctive berada pada dependent clause dimana bagian independent clause-nya menggunakan adjective yang mengekspresikanurgency/requirement:crucial, desirable, essential, important, imperative, necessary, urgent, vital It is desirable that they be on time. (Diharapkan mereka datang tepat waktu.)
  9. 9. It is necessary that she prepare for the next exam. (Perlu untuk dia mempersiapkan ujian selanjutnya.) Subjunctive berada pada dependent clause dimana independent clauseberupa conditional sentence yang kenyataannya berbeda pengandaian (unreal condition:conditional type 2 dengan verb be) If I were a millionaire, I would donate my money to charity. (Jika saya miliuner, saya akan mendonasikan uang untuk amal.) I wouldn’t be panic if I were you. (Saya tidak akan panik jika jadi kamu.) Subjunctive mengikuti kata wish. I wish he were here to repair my computer. (Saya harap dia disini memperbaiki komputer.) Everybody wishes that Sarah were able to control her emotion. (Setiap orang berharap Sarah dapat mengontrol emosinya.) Subjunctive mengikuti kata as if dan as though. Robi acts as though he were the king. (Robi berlaku seakan-akan dia raja.)
  10. 10. Siti eats much as if she had not eaten for a month. (Siti makan banyak seakan- akan dia sudah tidak makan sebulan.)
  11. 11. Subjunctive Gap-fill Exercise Fill in the blanks below with the correct form of the verb in parentheses, then click the "Check" button to check your answers. Negative, passive and continuous subjunctive forms are possible. Use the "Hint" button to get a free letter if an answer is giving you trouble. 1. It's important that she (remember) to take her medicine twice a day. 2. I suggest that Frank (read) the directions carefully before assembling the bicycle. He doesn't want the wheels to fall off while he is riding down a hill 3. Mrs. Finkelstein demanded that the heater (repair) immediately. Her apartment was freezing. 4. It's vital that the United States (focus) on improving its public education system. What we do now will affect our country for generations to come. 5. The monk insisted that the tourists (enter) the temple until they had removed their shoes. 6. I am not going to sit here and let her insult me. I demand that she immediately (apologize) for what she just said. 7. Judy asked that we (attend) her graduation ceremony next week.
  12. 12. 8. Was it really necessary that (sit) I there watching you the entire time you were rehearsing for the play? It was really boring watching you repeat the scenes over and over again. 9. It is important to remember that Janine (think) very differently from you. She may not agree to the changes you have made in the organization of the company. 10. It's a little difficult to find the restaurant. I propose that we all (drive) together so that nobody gets lost along the way. 11. The woman insisted that the lost child (take) to store's information desk so his parents could be paged. 12. The nutritionist recommended that Sally (reduce) her daily fat intake. 13. The environmental leader felt it was extremely important that the people of the city (allow) to voice their concerns over the new hotel being built on the bay. 14. She told me that the government (regulate) the airline industry. I don't know if that is true.
  13. 13. 15. The sign at the pool recommended that you (swim) after eating a large meal. 16. It is necessary that a life guard (monitor) the summing pool while the children are taking their swimming lessons. 17. The sun is scorching today. I suggest you (put) on sunblock immediately before you get a sun burn. 18. John insists that Sarah (invite) to the wedding; otherwise he will not attend. 19. I think it's an interesting fact that she (come) from Estonia. 20. It is imperative that the world (work) towards a solution to global warming before the weather patterns of the world are disrrupted irreparably.

×