The Big Bang: anexpanding universe By Dr. Jay L Wile Exploring Creation with Physical Science Apologia Educational Ministries, Inc.
In the early 1900s, astronomers began to notice that the lightcoming from stars in galaxies other than the Milky Way is a bitdifferent from what was expected. Wavelengths of light emitted byexcited elements are called spectral lines. Each element has its ownunique pattern of spectrum lines it emits when excited. Thesespectrum lines are well known and understood for most elements.When astronomers looked at spectrum lines that come from excitedelements from stars of another galaxy, the spectrum lines weredifferent from those of the same element on earth. For eachelement, the spectrum lines had longer wavelengths when the lightcame from other galaxies as compared to those same spectrun lineson earth. (Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science, J.L.Wile, pg.414)Spectrum Lines
The wavelength of visible light determines the color of the light.Visible light with the shortest wavelengths is blue, while visiblelight with long wavelengths is red. Astronomers found that thelight from other galaxies had longer wavelengths than one wouldpredict. The wavelengths seemed to be shifted to the red or longwavelength end of the spectrum. This phenomenon became knownas the red shift. ( Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science pg.415)The RedShift
What causes the red shift? Asronomers had a theory. The Dopplereffect tells us that when moving objects emit waves, the frequencyand wavelength of the waves we observe is different from what wewould observe when the object is stationary. If the object movestoward us, the waves bunch up, and the observed wavelength issmaller than the actual wavelength and has a blue shift. If the objectmoves away from us, the waves get stretched out, and the observedwavelength is larger than the actual wavelength and has a red shift.(Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science, J.L.Wile, pg. 415)The Doppler Effect for Light
Asronomers saw that the light coming from most of the othergalaxies had wavelengths that were longer than they should havebeen. They theorized that the red shift was actually the Dopplereffect for light. Therefore most galaxies were actually moving awayfrom the earth. As time went on, astronomers became convincedthat the red shift was the Doppler effect and that most galaxieswere moving away. The Andromeda galaxy, the closest to us, seemsto be moving toward us because the light that comes from it is bluerthan it should be. The vast majority of the galaxies emit a light thatexperiences a red shift so most astronomers have concluded thatthese galaxies are moving away from the earth.( Exploring Creationw/ Physical Science, pg. 415)The Vast Majority of the GalaxiesAre Moving Away from the Earth
In 1929, Edwin Hubble noticed that the further the galaxy is away from the earth, the larger the red shift. Light that comes from distant galaxies has significantly larger wavelengths than expected. Astronomers have interpreted this to mean that the universe is actually expanding. Light that travels through the universe as it expands would get stretched because it would have to expand with the universe. According to this interpretation, the red shift is not the result of the Doppler effect. Instead, it is the result of the expanding universe. Today most astronomers think the universe is expanding. (Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science, J.L.Wile, pg.415)Edwin Hubble and the expandinguniverse
If the universe is expanding,it could be doing it in manydifferent ways. It could beexpanding from a centralpoint, the way a balloonexpands. In this case it couldbe an ever-expandingsphere. However, mostastronomers think theuniverse is expanding, butnot from a fixed center. Theythink it is expanding withoutany specific geometry at all.To contrast these two views,perform the followingexperiment. (ExploringCreation w/ Physical Science,pg. 415)The Expanding Universe: 2 Views
Supplies: Balloon & a marker to writeon the balloon.Introduction: There are many possibleways the universe could be expanding.This experiment contrasts two of them.Procedure:1. Lay the balloon flat on a table. Put dots all over the balloon on both sides.2. Bring the balloon to your mouth to blow it up.3. Hold the balloon so that you can see the dots and blow the balloon up.4. Notice how the dots move in relation to one another. (Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science,pg.416)Experiment: An ExpandingUniverse
In the experiment you should have seen all the dots moving awayfrom each other. Many astronomers consider this experiment anillustration of how the universe is expanding. According to them, thesurface of the balloon and only the surface represents all of space.When you blow the balloon up, space (the surface of the balloon)begins to expand. Because space expands all the galaxies moveaway from each other. However, there is no point on the balloon´ssurface which you can call the center point. Instead, the entiresurface of the balloon expands with no specific geometry. This ishow most astronomers believe the universe is expanding. (ExploringCreation w/ Physical Science, J.L.Wile, pg.416)Expanding but with No Center
There are two views of the universe expanding. It might beexpanding with a defined center and all the galaxies rushing awayfrom the center, which is perfectly consistent with the data. Or, itmight be expanding because, as space expands, it carries allstructures away from each other, like the dots on the balloon. Again,this is perfectly consistent with the data. Or, it might not beexpanding at all, if our interpretation of the red shift is wrong. Whichof these opinions is right? The majority of the astronomers believethe universe is expanding without a center point. However, there isno scientific reason to choose that explanation over the one with acenter point. (Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science, pg.417)Same Data-Two Views
Why do most scientist believe in the non-centered universe? Theanswer is philosophical and not scientific. Most scientist do not wantto believe there is anything special about any one particular point inthe universe. If the universe were expanding from a central point,that point would be very special from a universal point of view. Mostscientist do not want to believe there is any special place in theuniverse, therefore, they pick the model which conforms to theirbelief system. (Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science, pg. 417)Philosophical Reasons
Astronomers who believe in God, however,look at things differently. If God created theuniverse, then he might want the earth tohave a special place. We know that earth is ina special place because for life to exist manyimportant values of physics must be exactlywhat they are or life would be impossible andeven the universe as we know it would beimpossible. There is a high degree of finetuning in the universe that makes life on ourplanet possible. Just as the earth needs thesun, the earth might need a special positionin the universe as a whole. If the galaxy inwhich the earth exists is near to the centralpoint around which the universe expands,that would make it a special place andwarrant certain philosophical conclusions.(Exploring Creation, pg.417.)The Creationsts View
Dr. Russell Humphreys wrote a book entitledStarlight and Time. In it, using Einstein´sGeneral Theory of Relativity, he develops anentire theory for the formation of the universepredicted on the assumption that the earth´sgalaxy is at the center of the universe, and theuniverse is expanding around that point. A largenumber of creation scientists believe that theearth is only a few thousand years old. Theybelieve that the vast majority of scientific data isconsistent with this assumption and inconsistentwith the assumption of billions of years. Theybelieve the universe was created only a fewthousand years ago. How can that be?(Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science, pg.417)Dr. Russell Hunphreys: Starlightand Time
There seems to be a problem. We can observe stars that seem tobe billions of light years away. If the creation of the universehappened only a few thousands years ago, how can we be seeingthe light from those stars? It would take billions of years to gethere. Dr. Humphreys theory tries to explan this problem. Usingstandard theories and tools that all other astrophysicists use, Dr.Humphreys shows that if the universe is expanding with the earth´sgalaxy as its center, creation could have happened only a fewthousand years ago, and we could still to be able to see light thattook billions of years to travel here! Watch this link below for moreinformation: (Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science, pg. 417) http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=k3XSz5TEInU Origins: Starlight & Time- Dr. Russell Humphreys.The Problem and Solution!
The majority of scientists believe in a theory called the “bigbang.” This theory assumes that the universe is expanding, butit assumes that the expansion takes place without a center. Thistheory concludes that the universe is a result of random chanceand is billion of years old. Dr. Humphreys´theory tells us that ifwe assume the universe is expanding with earth´s galaxy as thecenter, the universe need not be the result of random chance,and need not be billions of years old. (Exploring Creation,pg.418)Big Bang or Dr. Humphrys?
Which theory is right? We do not know. For all we know they areboth wrong. However, we do know that the only real differencebetween them is a philosophical assumption. So, if you assume oneway, you get one theory. If you assume another way, you getanother theory. From the scientific point of view, both assumptionsare absolutely equal. (Exploring Creation w/ Physical Science,J.L.Wile, pg.418) Philosophical Assumptions
The vast majority of scientist believe the universe is, indeed,expanding. Although science has only recently been consideringsuch an idea, The Bible has always indicated that the universe isexpanding. Job 9:5-8 says, “It is God who removes the mountains,they know not how... Who alone stretches out the heavens...” Inaddition, Psalm 104:1-2 says, “Bless the Lord, O my soul! O lordmy God, You are very great; You are clothed with splendor andmajesty, covering Yourself with light as with a cloak, stretchingout the heavens lile a tent curtain.” In both verses, and 15other similar ones, the Bible mentions that God is stretching out theheavens. It has taken science thousands of years to conclude whatthe Bible has always said- the universe is expanding! (ExploringCreation w/ Physical Science, J.L.Wile, pg.418)The Bible confirmed!
Text taken from Dr. Jay L Wile´s textbook: ExploringCreation with PhysicalScience 2nd Edition, ApologiaEducational Ministries, Inc., 2007. pages 414-418.http//www.apologia.comImages taken from Google Images used only for non-comerical, that is, educational purposes.Links available on Youtube.Dr. Humphreys book & Dr. Wile´s textbooks available onlinethrough various bookstores.Presentation arranged by Dennis MolinskiReferences