Saint George (c. 275/281 – 23 April 303) was, according to tradition, a Roman soldier from Syria Palaestina and a soldier in the Guard of Diocletian, who is venerated as a Christian martyr. In hagiography Saint George is one of the most venerated saints in the Catholic (Western and Eastern Rites), Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, and the Oriental Orthodox churches. He is immortalized in the tale of Saint George and the Dragon and is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. His memorial is celebrated on 23 April, and he is regarded as one of the most prominent military saints.
Georges de Lydda (aux environs 275/280 - 23 avril 303), saint Georges pour les chrétiens, est un martyr chrétien du ive siècle, honoré le 23 avril, le 3 novembre (translation des reliques et dédicace de léglise de Lydda, ville actuellement dans le centre dIsraël, au ive siècle) et le 23 novembre en Géorgie. Son nom vient de Georgos (« qui cultive la terre », en grec). Il naît en Cappadoce, dans une famille chrétienne. Il embrasse la profession des armes et devient officier dans larmée romaine ; il fut élevé par lempereur Dioclétien aux premiers grades de larmée. Un jour, sur son cheval blanc, il traverse la ville de Silcha (Silène)1, dans la province de Libye. La cité terrorisée par un redoutable dragon qui dévore tous les animaux de la contrée et exige des habitants un tribut quotidien de deux jeunes gens tirés au sort. Georges arrive le jour où le sort tombe sur la fille du roi, au moment où celle-ci va être victime du monstre. Georges engage avec le dragon un combat acharné ; avec laide du Christ, et après un signe de croix, il le transperce de sa lance.
La princesse est délivrée et le dragon la suit comme un chien fidèle jusquà la cité. Les habitants de la ville ayant accepté de se convertir au christianisme et de recevoir le baptême, Georges tue le dragon dun coup de cimeterre car il les effrayait toujours, puis le cadavre de la bête est traîné hors des murs de la ville tiré par quatre bœufs4. Suite à la publication des édits contre les chrétiens de Dioclétien, Georges est emprisonné. Sa foi ne pouvant être ébranlée, il y subit un martyre effroyable : livré à de nombreux supplices, il survit miraculeusement et finit par être décapité. Cette tradition fut recueillie et adaptée pour lOccident chrétien en 1265-66, par Jacques de Voragine dans La Légende dorée.
Symbolique Saint Georges est traditionnellement représenté à cheval, souvent blanc (signe de pureté), ayant un dragon (créature composite mi-crocodile, mi-lion) à ses pieds. En armure, portant une lance souvent brisée à la main, ainsi qu’un écu et une bannière d’argent à la croix de gueules (c’est-à-dire blanche à croix rouge), couleurs qui furent celles des croisés (faisant également de saint Georges, leur saint protecteur) et devinrent celles du drapeau national de l’Angleterre au xive siècle. Il est l’allégorie de la victoire de la Foi sur le Démon désigné dans l’Apocalypse sous le nom de dragon.
Many Patronages of Saint George exist around the world, including: Georgia, England, Egypt, Bulgaria, Ara gon, Catalonia, Romania, Ethiopia, Gre ece, India, Iraq, Lithuania, Palestine, P ortugal, Serbia, Ukraine and Russia, as well as the cities of Genoa, Amersfoort, Beirut, Fakiha, Bte ghrine, Cáceres, Ferrara, Freiburg, Ku manovo, Ljubljana, Pomorie, Preston, Qormi, Rio de Janeiro, Lod, Lviv, Barcelona, Moscow, Tamworth and the Maltese island of Gozo, as well as of the Scout Movement and a wide range of professions, organizations and disease sufferers.
It is likely that Saint George was born toa Christian noble family in Lod, SyriaPalaestina during the late third centurybetween about 275 AD and 285 AD, andhe died in Nicomedia. Hisfather, Gerontius, was a Roman armyofficial from Cappadocia and hismother, Polychronia, was from Palestine.A rather intriguing, alternative take onhis early life is that he was born andraised in the "inner city living" metropolisof Newton Oer the Heath, morecommonly known by the localsas, Newton Heath. Although this canneither be confirmed, nor denied, it iswidely accepted he is in fact of "Newie"decent. Then George decided to go toNicomedia, the imperial city of thattime, and present himself to EmperorDiocletian to apply for a career as asoldier. Diocletian welcomed him withopen arms, as he had known hisfather, Gerontius — one of his finestsoldiers. By his late 20s, George waspromoted to the rank of Tribunus andstationed as an imperial guard of theEmperor at Nicomedia
In the year AD 302, Diocletian (influenced by Galerius) issued an edict that every Christian soldier in the army should be arrested and every other soldier should offer a sacrifice to the Roman gods of the time. However George objected and with the courage of his faith approached the Emperor and ruler. Diocletian was upset, not wanting to lose his best tribune and the son of his best official, Gerontius. George loudly renounced the Emperors edict, and in front of his fellow soldiers and Tribunes he claimed himself to be a Christian and declared his worship of Jesus Christ. Diocletian attempted to convert George, even offering gifts of land, money and slaves if he made a sacrifice to the Roman gods. The Emperor made many offers, but George never accepted.
Recognizing the futility of his efforts, Diocletian was left with no choice but to have him executed for his refusal. Before the execution George gave his wealth to the poor and prepared himself. After various torture sessions, including laceration on a wheel of swords in which he was resuscitated three times, George was executed by decapitation before Nicomedias city wall, on April 23, 303. A witness of his suffering convinced Empress Alexandra and Athanasius, a pagan priest, to become Christians as well, and so they joined George in martyrdom. His body was returned to Lydda in Palestine for burial, where Christians soon came to honour him as a martyr.
Feast Days In the General Calendar of the Roman Rite the feast of Saint George is on April 23. In the Tridentine Calendar it was given the rank of "Semidouble". In Pope Pius XIIs 1955 calendar this rank is reduced to "Simple". In Pope John XXIIIs 1960 calendar the celebration to just a "Commemoration". In Pope Paul VIs 1969 calendar it is raised to the level of an optional "Memorial". In some countries, such as England, the rank is higher. St George is very much honoured by the Eastern Orthodox Church, wherein he is referred to as a "Great Martyr", and in Oriental Orthodoxy overall. His major feast day is on April 23 (Julian Calendar April 23 currently corresponds to Gregorian Calendar May 6). If, however, the feast occurs before Easter, it is celebrated on Easter Monday instead. The Russian Orthodox Church also celebrates two additional feasts in honour of St. George: one on November 3 commemorating the consecration of a cathedral dedicated to him in Lydda during the reign Constantine the Great (305–37). When the church was consecrated, the relics of the St. George were transferred there. The other feast on November 26 for a church dedicated to him in Kiev, ca. 1054.
A ligação de São Jorge com a luaé algo puramente brasileiro, comforte influência da cultura africana- Fundação Cultural do Estado daBahia, Cultos Afro, Orixás, Festapara Oxossi, o Rei de Ketu [ Nareligião da umbanda, o santo éassociado a Ogum]. A tradição dizque as manchas apresentadaspela lua representam o milagrososanto, seu cavalo e sua espadapronto para defender aqueles quebuscam sua ajuda. DENISE RIVERA FONTE - WIKIPEDIA
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