Investigating the Pedagogical Push and Technological Pull of Computer Assisted Formative Assessment

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Discussion of computer assisted formative assessment projects at The Open University.

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  • Investigating the Pedagogical Push and Technological Pull of Computer Assisted Formative Assessment

    1. 1. Investigating the Pedagogical Push and Technological Pull of Computer Assisted Formative Assessment Denise Whitelock The Open University, Milton Keynes [email_address] DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    2. 2. Behaviourist prescriptions for assessment: wolves in sheep's clothing DMW Learning for Life Workshop March 2008
    3. 3. Don’t forget the human reaction DMW Learning for Life Workshop March 2008
    4. 4. DMW Learning for Life Workshop March 2008 www.storiesabout.com www.storiesabout.com/creativepdp [email_address]
    5. 5. Formative Assessment <ul><li>Black & Wiliam (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>improvement 0.4 to 0.7 on standardised tests </li></ul><ul><li>MacFarlane-Dick (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>empower students as self regulated learners </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback and assessment – moving forward </li></ul>DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    6. 6. Collaborative Formative Assessment <ul><li>CSCL …. on task talk </li></ul><ul><li>Predict Look and Explain </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative problem solving find a complex problem </li></ul><ul><li>Tools to support distance students to communicate, find a partner </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate simulation </li></ul>DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    7. 7. BuddySpace <ul><li>Automatic map construction to show locations </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic roster (‘buddy list’) construction using OU login authentication… so it knows which workgroup or tutorial group I’m in </li></ul><ul><li>Many views: map, timelines, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Plug-ins for future enhancements </li></ul>DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    8. 8. DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology BuddySpace
    9. 9. DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology <ul><li>“ State of mind” </li></ul><ul><li>goals, plans, intentions </li></ul><ul><li>devices </li></ul><ul><li>user profiling </li></ul>
    10. 10. DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Automatic Map Generation Smart inset chosen, depending on actual data
    11. 11. DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Automatic Map Generation Right-click to ‘drill down’into ‘cluster’ nodes (provides scaleability)
    12. 12. BuddyFinder DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology <ul><li>Who else is facing a similar problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can I find complementary approaches? </li></ul><ul><li>Has anyone found contrary evidence? </li></ul>Generally: “Find me the person who can really help me now .” More specifically:
    13. 13. DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Arbitrary keywords at user’s discretion BuddyFinder
    14. 14. DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Easy search
    15. 15. DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Matches ‘ light up’
    16. 16. DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Invokes Google’s Web Service behind the scenes, if requested, and auto-highlights within user’s own map! BuddyFinder
    17. 17. Finding an appropriate science application <ul><li>Complex problem solving with Global Warming </li></ul><ul><li>7 variables for manipulation </li></ul><ul><li>Solar constant, CO 2 , H 2 O, Aerosol content, albedo, ice & snow, cloud cover </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate effects of manipulation displayed as graphical output </li></ul>DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    18. 18. Global Warming DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    19. 19. Global Warming DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    20. 20. Next: ‘Yoked’ apps via BuddySpace DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology Student A Student B (‘yoked’, but without full screen sharing required!)
    21. 21. Global Warming: Simlink Presentation DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    22. 22. DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    23. 23. Debate with SIMLINK <ul><li>More questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation became more important </li></ul><ul><li>Socio emotive communication more evident </li></ul><ul><li>Some couples separated for a while and then came back together </li></ul>DMW 2007 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    24. 24. What is Open Comment? <ul><li>Automated formative assessment tool </li></ul><ul><li>Free text entry for students </li></ul><ul><li>Automated feedback and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Open questions, divergent assessment </li></ul><ul><li>For use by Arts Faculty </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    25. 25. Causal models of explanation <ul><li>First step: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of question types where students exhibit causal reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Looked for questions with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salient variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of these variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of relationship between the variables i.e. causality </li></ul></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    26. 26. Three common types of question types were selected for Open Comment in History <ul><li>Analysis of statistics, usually presented to the student as a table </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension of a set text </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying similarities and differences for a given event </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    27. 27. Knowledge elicitation/ethnography <ul><li>DW and SW acted as students </li></ul><ul><li>Answered all three question types </li></ul><ul><li>C grades </li></ul><ul><li>Improved only when an “answer model” elicited </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    28. 32. Open Comment components <ul><li>A Java-based feedback system </li></ul><ul><li>A web service shell </li></ul><ul><li>A graphical interface for testing </li></ul><ul><li>A Moodle-based question type </li></ul><ul><li>A forms-based editing tool </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    29. 33. Pedagogical models: checking them out with you now! <ul><li>List the activities that tutors engage with when they are marking a script. </li></ul><ul><li>What things are they looking for e.g. error detection. </li></ul><ul><li>Categorise the activities into a scheme or stages from which you could build instructions for a robot to mark the scripts. </li></ul>DMW, IET, Managing Assessment SIG, June 2008
    30. 34. Stages of analysis by computer of students’ free text entry for Open Comment: advice with respect to content (socio-emotional support stylised example) <ul><li>STAGE 1a: DETECT ERRORS E.g. Incorrect dates, facts. (Incorrect inferences and causality is dealt with below) </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of concentrating on X, think about Y in order to answer this question Recognise effort (Dweck) and encourage to have another go </li></ul><ul><li>You have done well to start answering this question but perhaps you misunderstood it. Instead of thinking about X which did not…….. Consider Y </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    31. 35. Computer analysis continued <ul><li>STAGE 2a: REVEAL FIRST OMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the role of Z in your answer Praise what is correct and point out what is missing Good but now consider the role X plays in your answer </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 2b: REVEAL SECOND OMISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the role of P in your answer Praise what is correct and point out what is missing Yes but also consider P. Would it have produced the same result if P is neglected? </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    32. 36. Final stages of analysis <ul><li>STAGE 3:REQUEST CLARIFICATION OF KEY POINT 1 </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 4:REQUEST FURTHER ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 (Stages 3 and 4 repeated with all the key points) </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 5:REQUEST THE INFERENCE FROM THE ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 IF IT IS MISSING </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 6:REQUEST THE INFERENCE FROM THE ANALYSIS OF KEY POINT 1 IF IT IS NOT COMPLETE </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 7:CHECK THE CAUSALITY </li></ul><ul><li>STAGE 8:REQUEST ALL THE CAUSAL FACTORS ARE WEIGHTED </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    33. 37. Feedback <ul><li>5 main categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing/expanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation and structure essay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice – concept linking, analysis </li></ul></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    34. 38. What have we learnt? <ul><li>Mixed Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis tutor feedback of 200 plus TMAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographic study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules of the Game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving students into the relational zone of proximal development ( Hasse 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing what to do helps you play with ideas i.e. Learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All applications based on pedagogical PUSH </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source Tools </li></ul><ul><li>New question type for Moodle </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology
    35. 39. No longer learning about X but reflecting about X <ul><li>Students are able to find facts similar to X </li></ul><ul><li>Know how X might be disputed </li></ul><ul><li>Are able to make predictions about X </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to use X in an argument </li></ul><ul><li>Know how far X can be pushed </li></ul><ul><li>Supported with tools and strategies </li></ul>DMW 2008 The Open University's Institute for Educational Technology

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