Models of feedback: Findings from hospital school teachers using ICT with children suffering from a chronic illness Denise...
Project problem <ul><li>Children with chronic illness hospitalised for long periods </li></ul><ul><li>Miss out on schoolin...
Solving the problem <ul><li>Targeted children with kidney disease </li></ul><ul><li>Science lessons have more effect targe...
Nefreduca 1 DMW, CALRG, May 2010
Nefreduca 2 DMW, CALRG, May 2010
Nefreduca 3 DMW, CALRG, May 2010
Nefreduca 4 DMW, CALRG, May 2010
Finding a feedback model <ul><li>Recorded teacher and student talk when using Nefreduca </li></ul><ul><li>Analysed with Ba...
Bales Categories DMW, CALRG, May 2010
Feedback incident 1 occurred when children were reading the text or templates for the activities DMW, CALRG, May 2010  Bal...
Feedback incident 2 occurred during a child’s  activity with the Nefreduca program DMW, CALRG, May 2010  Bales Category  T...
Feedback incident 3 occurred after the children answered a question DMW, CALRG, May 2010  Children’s answer to Nefreduca q...
Feedback incident 4 occurred when the student finished a question, an activity or the whole Nefreduca materials DMW, CALRG...
Operational model of formative feedback generation for the next version of the Nefreduca program:  Part 1 DMW, CALRG, May ...
Operational model of formative feedback generation for the next version of the Nefreduca program:  Part 2 DMW, CALRG, May ...
Operational Model: Thoughts <ul><li>Rules following Anderson, Krathworld and Bloom’s (2000) revised taxonomy of educationa...
Acknowledgements <ul><li>The project was funded by both: </li></ul><ul><li>Consell Social de la Universitat Autonoma de Ba...
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Calrg2010

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This presentation models the feedback teachers give to students who are using an interactive computer tutorial (Nefreduca) to help them understand key biological concepts related to the kidney. Nefreduca consists of a series of open source science inquiry based web learning materials targeted at children with chronic kidney disease. It utilises a scenario based approach drawing on the work of Lijnse (1995) and Buty, Tiberghien & Le Marechal (2004). The hospital teachers who assisted the children with their use of Nefreduca reported learning gains with the system but there is no automatic feedback for autonomous learning with Nefreduca when children are unsupported by a teacher. An ethnographic approach was adopted to then understand how teachers provided feedback to the students in order to devise a model of supportive feedback to the chronically ill students, which can be implemented in the next version of Nefreduca.

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Calrg2010

  1. 1. Models of feedback: Findings from hospital school teachers using ICT with children suffering from a chronic illness Denise Whitelock, Roser Pinto* and Marcel.la Saez* The Open University *Autonoma University, Barcelona [email_address] DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  2. 2. Project problem <ul><li>Children with chronic illness hospitalised for long periods </li></ul><ul><li>Miss out on schooling </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to catch up with Maths and Science </li></ul><ul><li>At home often without tutors </li></ul>DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  3. 3. Solving the problem <ul><li>Targeted children with kidney disease </li></ul><ul><li>Science lessons have more effect targeted to child’s illness (Korta, 2003, Arnau et al, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Science material delivered by Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Nefreduca </li></ul>DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  4. 4. Nefreduca 1 DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  5. 5. Nefreduca 2 DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  6. 6. Nefreduca 3 DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  7. 7. Nefreduca 4 DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  8. 8. Finding a feedback model <ul><li>Recorded teacher and student talk when using Nefreduca </li></ul><ul><li>Analysed with Bales categories </li></ul>DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  9. 9. Bales Categories DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  10. 10. Feedback incident 1 occurred when children were reading the text or templates for the activities DMW, CALRG, May 2010 Bales Category Teachers’ action Teachers talk during action Teacher identifier B1- GIVES SUGGESTION Suggest the student re-examines the task instructions or reviews the video animation “ When we don’t know something we should go back and revise what has been explained in the Nefreduca texts” T1 B3- GIVES INFORMATION Clarifies some science concepts “ The student as ks: What does it mean “the unassimilated food”, and the teacher answers “The food that is not assimilated, not dissolved, not useful” T1, T2, T3 Clarifies some aspects of the images ” The student asks about the size of the ‘strainer’ holes. This part of the program is referring to diagrams of the filtration system in the kidney. The student rephrases the same question by asking if the images are microscopic. The teacher agrees and explains that the holes are only visible with the microscope” T1, T2, T3
  11. 11. Feedback incident 2 occurred during a child’s activity with the Nefreduca program DMW, CALRG, May 2010 Bales Category Teachers’ action Teachers talk during action Teacher identifier A2- SHOWS TENSION RELEASE Smile and make statements to prevent and avoid the building of negative emotions (frustration, worry) “ (Smile) Well, don’t worry, try to explain it in your own words”, “Listen, if you don’t know the answer, you could write “I don’t know”. We could also answer this way, eh? T1, T2, T3 B1- GIVES SUGGESTION + C1-ASK FOR INFORMATION Propose a hint in a direct or indirect way The teacher helps the student to remember the text that has been read and the images seen. Then the student gives the right answer and the teacher concurs. The student says: Small tubes and the teacher: What have those small tubes…? The student says: ah! Holes!, the teacher replies: aha! T1, T2, T3
  12. 12. Feedback incident 3 occurred after the children answered a question DMW, CALRG, May 2010 Children’s answer to Nefreduca questions or tasks Bales Category Teachers’ action Teachers talk during action Teacher identifier If the answer is incomplete 3.2 B1-GIVES SUGGESTION Propose to revise the video or animation of the activity or to revise the text of the previous templates “ Let’s see the activity video again!” T1 Gives a hint “ And this also, eh! (the teacher is pointing to the computer screen)“ T2, T3 A3-SHOWSAGREEMENT + C1-ASK INFORMATION Complies “ Ok! Put this answer here. Well, the water and what else? Which kind of nutrients do you have here?” T2 Clarification C2-ASK FOR OPINION The teachers intonation is expressing that the student answer is not complete, the teacher also give hints “ Really? They move it from one side to another? And what else? They move it alone or they put in something”, It renews them, do you think so? It’s difficult to renew something that you don’t want any more, that’s not useful for anything. What do you think?”; “Already? So quickly?” T2
  13. 13. Feedback incident 4 occurred when the student finished a question, an activity or the whole Nefreduca materials DMW, CALRG, May 2010 Bales categories Teachers’ action Teachers talk during action Teacher identifier A1-SHOWS SOLIDARITY Rewards “ Fantastic”, “Very good!”, “We’re the Champions! The Champions!! We’ve finished, that’s the end of the Nefreduca darling! Good work!” T1, T2, T3
  14. 14. Operational model of formative feedback generation for the next version of the Nefreduca program: Part 1 DMW, CALRG, May 2010 Stages of Analysis by computer of students’ responses in the Nefreduca program Advice with respect to Content Socio-Emotional Support STAGE 1: UNDERSTANDING THE NEFREDUCA ACTIVITIES Computer system to check the timing spent on this section of the work The introduction will help you to understand what you are going to learn with Nefreduca. Recognise effort and encourage students to have a go You have done well to make a start ….. STAGE 1a: Spending too long on the introduction and understanding the Nefreduca activities Is there anything you do not understand? Perhaps go back and see what was explained before? Praise the students for working through so far and remind them that it will be good to study what is in the program and why STAGE 1b: If no time delay, go to 2
  15. 15. Operational model of formative feedback generation for the next version of the Nefreduca program: Part 2 DMW, CALRG, May 2010 Stages of Analysis by computer of students’ responses in the Nefreduca program Advice with respect to Content Socio-Emotional Support STAGE 2a: WORKING THROUGH THE NEFREDUCA ACTIVITIES Response to error 1 Give an indirect hint Instead of concentrating on X, think about Y in order to answer the question. Praise what is correct and point out what is missing STAGE 2b: Response to error 1 Give a direct hint about P Have another look at the video and concentrate on what Y is doing Praise what is correct and point out what is missing STAGE 2c: Response to error 1 Give answer Praise persistence and effort STAGE 2d: If answer is correct go to 4 STAGE 3a: RESPOND TO INCOMPLETE ANSWER Ask for clarification What do you mean by X? Explain it more fully Confirm and concur about what is correct encourage to take the analysis further STAGE 3b: Ask for information What role is Y playing here? Praise persistence and effort and how this has led to improvement STAGE 4: Correct final answers to activities Offer a summary of what has been learnt by the activity Praise student for effort as well as cognitive ability
  16. 16. Operational Model: Thoughts <ul><li>Rules following Anderson, Krathworld and Bloom’s (2000) revised taxonomy of educational objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Offers both cognitive and socio-emotive support </li></ul><ul><li>Bales analysis lens for viewing emerging pattern of feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Increased understanding of the special needs of children who are trying to learn basic science concepts when suffering from a chronic illness </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation should encourage more rapid progress and build students’ confidence </li></ul>DMW, CALRG, May 2010
  17. 17. Acknowledgements <ul><li>The project was funded by both: </li></ul><ul><li>Consell Social de la Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB, Ref: 200700047154) and </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia (MICCIN, Ref: CCT005-06-00169) </li></ul><ul><li>Findings accepted for publication in the International Journal of Continuing Engineering and Lifelong Learning </li></ul>DMW, CALRG, May 2010
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