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Syracuse University-Thesis 2010

Syracuse University-Thesis 2010
See What I... Controlling Vision through the Senses

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    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses See What I . . . Controlling Vision through the Senses Alex Taylor Wilk Thesis Preperation Fall 2009 Syracuse University: Bachelors of Architecture Committee Members: Lori Brown & Robert Svetz
    • Contents 1 CHAPTER 1 PREFACE Introduction Contention 2 CHAPTER 7 HYPER IMAGERY IN A TECHNOLOGICAL CULTURE: DISMISSING THE INVISIBLE Images, Images, Images Distraction Effects 3 CHAPTER 21 A CASE STUDY IN RECOGNIZING THE INVISIBLE Designing the invisible with Decosterd & Rahm (Technology)(Climatic Condition) + Touch= Hormonorium (Technology)(Climatic Condition) + Sound= Convective Museum (Technology)(Climatic Condition) + Smell= Winter House (Technology)(Climatic Condition) + Taste= Digestible Gulf Stream
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 4 CHAPTER 53 VISION IN JUXTASPOSITION WITH THE INVISIBLE See what I Touch (‘Feed Back Space’, COOP HIMMELB(L)AU) See what I Hear (Hypo-Surface Wall, CeBit Technology) See what I Smell (“Pesce for Lunch”, Gaestano Pesce) See what I Taste (Nature Matching System, Tatfoo Tan) 5 CHAPTER 85 DESIGN PROJECT Program: Fitness Center & Mineral Spa Site: New York City 6 CHAPTER 125 EPILOGUE Summary Bibliography Terms 7 CHAPTER 132 THESIS PROJECT
    • Preface “In memorable experiences of architec- ture space, matter and time fuse into a single dimension, into the basic substance of being, that penetrates consciousness. We identify ourselves with this space, this place, this moment, and these dimensions become ingredients of our very existence. Architecture is the art of reconciliation be- tween ourselves and the world, and this mediation takes place through the senses. “ 1 -Juhani Pallasmaa 1
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 1 2
    • Preface The realism of architectural experience is tional engagement. We as a society have rooted in the occupation of space within a become numb to emotive involvement - building and the hidden dimension of the we have become mesmerized by imagery senses. Placing the sense of sight at the top and have forgotten about the capabilities of the hierarchical scale in comparison to the architecture can employ on experience. other senses has become a theme in West- ern architectural approach. The ocular is so Architects like Steven Holl, Peter Zumthor potent in contemporary society specifically and Glen Murcutt have designed spaces in- architecture, promoted by technology, which corporating the non-dismissive senses in has ultimately been influenced through the order to produce multi-phenomena’s ulti- visual imagery of television and the media. mately enhancing the occupant’s experience. This technologically oriented imagery has led Recently in architecture there has been a ris- us to become dismissive of the other senses. ing interest in the invisible, and architects like Descosterd & Rahm express the “unseen” By dismissing the other (non visual) senses through an avant-garde minimalist style. we are encouraging a design approach that lacks concern for human, physical and emo- Decosterd & Rahm’s architecture distorts ar- INTRODUCTION 3
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses tificial environmental and atmospheric con- with its few architectural explorations. So, ditions such as relative humidity, variations how can we begin to take these invisible phe- in temperature and light in search for man’s nomena’s and make it less experimental so it physiological response. They deal with in- can be more commonly incorporated in archi- visible parameters of interior architectural tectural design instead of an afterthought? space organized in accordance with thermal concepts more related to sensuality than Instead of embracing the division of the five comfort. This is an architecture tied to the senses like western contemporary architec- senses, a theory of space grounded in the re- ture has, is there a way we can bring sens- actions of the human body implemented by es together or in contrast to one another? its immediate surroundings ultimately con- What if we allowed vision, something obvi- trolled through technological mechanisms. ously comprehensive to control the senses? Vision will be used in juxtaposition to the So how do we begin to develop a visual lan- invisible in order to create an enhanced ar- guage for the unseen? Invisible architecture is chitectural experience of space. Technology extremely experimental and, although it has will be the mechanism in which we can em- become a growing interest, it is still limited ploy vision in juxtaposition to the invisible. 4
    • Preface By authorizing vision, the most comprehen- with in a spatial experience. This schism is a sive of the senses to graphically control the reflection on the contemporary condition we four invisible senses - touch, sound, scent and are embedded within. Living in a hyper imag- taste - one can provoke an architectural expe- ery society during a technological era has en- rience that is profound and exploits different hanced our dependence on the ocular - mak- multi-sensory phenomena’s. ing us ocular-centric. Technology will be the mechanism for regis- We can alter traditional phenomenological tering vision in juxtaposition with the other architecture design approach by placing the senses. Technology can also be used to mod- visual in juxtaposition with the four dismissed ify invisible space by distorting artificial cli- senses; no longer allowing phenomenology to mate control, ultimately broadening the field be strictly an afterthought or even a discharged of invisible architecture by specifically allow- application. By graphically projecting the four ing vision to graphically project the unseen. invisible senses, we can advance phenomeno- logical design by making it more visually com- Contemporary architecture has developed prehensive, ultimately enhancing the human into an aesthetic requirement, neglecting experience and architectural design of a space. the sensory conditions and its opportunities 1 Pallasmaa, Juhani. The eyes of the skin: architecture and the senses. London: Academy Editions, 1996. pg 50. CONTENTION 5
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses “A NEW WORLD SENSATIONS” WERBEGRAFIK ILLUSTRATIONS FOR AN ADVERTISEMENT 2008
    • Hyper Imagery in a Technological Culture: Dismissing The Invisible “From Television to newspapers, from adver- tising, to all sorts of mercantile epiphanies, our society is characterized by a cancerous growth of vision, measuring everything by its ability to show or be shown, and transmut- ing communication into a visual journey.“ 2 -David Harvey 7
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 2 8
    • Hyper Imagery in a Technological Culture: Dismissing The Invisible We are currently living in a hyper-imagery, call I just received. It is hard not to believe technologically oriented society. Our genera- that my multi-tasking self isn’t a reflection on tion is in complete contrast to my 90-year-old our current society induced by technology. grandfather’s life experiences. Times have changed. What once was per- While walking one day next to my grandfather sonal to many has now become the imper- at a nearby shopping center, he states like sonal. “We are living in a new space, a world most grandparents’ who grew up in a more of information.”3A single moment command- conjoint (interactive) culture, “I don’t under- ing our attention is fading away; we are vic- stand you kids these days, how you all walk tims of a mass society diagnosis of Atten- and chew gum at the same time.” Through tion Deficit Disorder. We are surrounded by 2 this archaic quote, I never took a step back to arrays of multiple, simultaneous imagery, in realize what I was doing that day at the shop- the streets, airports, stores, supermarkets ping center. While walking I was browsing the malls but more importantly on our comput- store fronts while eating my hot pretzel and ers and televisions. The computer and televi- sipping on my soda and answering the phone sion serve as a new form of distraction, it de- IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES 9
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses MULTI-MEDIA EXHIBITION CHARLES AND RAY EAMES MOSCOW, RUSSIA 1959
    • Hyper Imagery in a Technological Culture: Dismissing The Invisible ands our attention. “Rather than wondering pendency when we are constantly confronted cinematically through the city, we now look visually. in one direction and see many juxtaposed moving images, more than we can possibly synthesize or reduce to a single impression. We sit in front of our computers on our er- gonomically perfected chairs staring with a fixed gaze at the many simultaneously open ‘windows’ through which different finds of in- formation stream toward us. We hardly even notice it. It seems natural as if we were simply breathing in information.” 4 The ocular sense is so potent in our way of life and our understanding of architecture; however it is hard to realize our ocular de- IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES 11
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses FILM: PLAYTIME JACQUES TATI PARIS, FRANCE 1967
    • Hyper Imagery in a Technological Culture: Dismissing The Invisible The film Play Time directed by Jacques Tati is fire, the couple watches him torch the des- a complex visual comedy that takes place in a sert but they do not flinch in excitement or futuristic Paris. Modern industrial technology express any emotional response because is accepted as a necessity by society yet it is they’re too involved in their conversation, lis- represented as obstructions to daily life and tening to the band, there are to many distrac- interferences to natural human interaction. tions to even concentrate, especially what is going on right in front of them. Play Time contains limited dialogues’ ex- cept for background sounds which makes This movie embodies the diagnosis of At- us aware of the numerous distractions that tention Deficit Disorder in which the future occur in daily life. During a restaurant scene (contemporary society) has been embedded the maitre d’s, waiters and musicians are within. It is considered normal to multi-task, constantly scrambling in a crowded room which ultimately leads us to be less precise of conversation, eating, drinking dancing, in our actions. This multi tasking is a direct each trying to serve their customer. At one descendent of technology induced by the si- point, a waiter brings a couple their dessert multaneous imagery. where he then lights the bananas foster on 13 DISTRACTION
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses FILM: PLAYTIME JACQUES TATI PARIS, FRANCE 1967
    • Hyper Imagery in a Technological Culture: Dismissing The Invisible Customer Employee View Direction Movement Talking DISTRACTION 15
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses DIAGRAM: FILM PLAYTIME LEFT: PLAN RIGHT: SECTION RESTURANT SCENE
    • Hyper Imagery in a Technological Culture: Dismissing The Invisible All too often our bodies remains remote an object, where we can look but cannot en- and disengaged within in a building/ con- gage with its potential experience. structed space. For some time now in ar- chitecture, aesthetics have taken prece- Society values sight as the utmost important dence, giving far more importance to form, aspect of comprehension and understanding idea and appearance than to the occu- in comparison to the other senses - induced pant’s needs and embodied experiences. by technology oriented imagery this has be- Contemporary works in architecture have come consistent in western and international been perceived as autonomous objects architectural application. We are living in a which are clearly represented in books, society where technology has evoked a domi- magazines and visually oriented mediums. nant ocular presence with attractive aes- Through these visually concentrated medi- thetics and performances yet in due course ums you can’t smell the building, you can detaching itself from its environment. David sense the volume of space, and you can’t Michael Levin critiques the dominance of the feel the air move nor the warmth of the sun- eye when he states: “I think it is appropriate shine. Architects are creating the building as to challenge the hegemony of vision - the EFFECTS 17
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses FILM: PLAYTIME JACQUES TATI PARIS, FRANCE 1967
    • Hyper Imagery in a Technological Culture: Dismissing The Invisible ocularcentrism of our culture. And I think we become an organic prototype for modernist need to examine very critically the charac- architects. A lot of architects today are more ter of vision that predominates today in our interested in creating visual effects rather world. We urgently need a diagnosis of the than exploring the buildings tactile, acoustic, psychosocial pathology of everyday seeing- scent and taste capabilities. and a critical understanding of ourselves, as 2 visionary beings .” 5 David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity, Blackwell (Cambridge), 1992, pg 293 3 Colomina, Beatriz. “Enclosed by Images: The Eameses’ Multi- media Architecture.” Grey Room 02 (2001): pg 7. Modernists have designed structures to 4 Colomina, Beatriz. Privacy and publicity: modern architecture please the eye yet they have left the rest of as mass media. Cambridge, Mass: MIT, 1994., pg 27. Colomina explores simultaneous imagery. the senses, body, and recollection behind. 5 David Michael Levin, “Decline and Fall- Ocularcentrism in Heidegger’s Reading of the History of Metaphysics’, in Levin The only sense that can keep up with the 1993, pg 205 pace of the technology is vision. Le Corbusier 6 Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Trans. Maureen Oberli- Turner and Catherine Schelbert. Boston: Basel, 2006 pg. 17. Zumthor uses his design to explain phenomenological design. states: “I exist in life only on the condition that I see; I am and I remain (and impenitent) visual-everything is in the visual”. 6 The eyes EFFECTS 19
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses UN CHIEN ANDALOU (ANDALUSIAN DOG) LUIS BUNUEL AND SALVADOR DALI FRANCE 1929
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible “The world is full of signs and information, which stand for things that no one fully un- derstands because they, too, turn out to be more signs for other things. The real thing remains hidden. No one gets to see it.” -Peter Zumthor 7 21
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 3 22
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible Induced by hyper imagery and technology, kinds of meteorology; renewing the idea of society has been devoted to the visible. We form and use between sensation and phe- are in a period where the slippage of the real/ nomenon, between the neurological and me- visible towards the invisible is taking place, a teorologically, between the physiological and shift of architecture towards the atmospheric the atmospheric. These become spaces with and the biological as well as the meteorologi- no meaning, no narrative; interpretable spac- cal. The considerable progress in life sciences es in which margins disappear, structures dis- resonates with today’s study of the climate solve and limits vanish.” 8 Architecture must and concerns of global warming. The fields of build unlimited sensual exchanges between the visible are overly saturated with symbols, the body and space, the senses, skin, climate images and stories that only deal with an aes- temperature and variations in humidity. thetic condition. Architects of these spaces, specifically De- “The tools of architecture must become in- costerd & Rahm, aim to re-establish the lan- visible and light, producing places like free, guage of architecture with the knowledge of open landscapes, a new geography, different the invisible and stretch between the physiol- DESIGNING THE INVISIBLE WITH DECOSTERD & RAHM 23
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses LATITUDINAL DISTORTION DECOSTERD & RAHM BOOK: DISTORTIONS 2000-2005
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible ogy and meteorology. In Descosterd & Rahm’s one invisible sense is being explored. manifesto Form and Function Follow Climate, the conditions of temperature, humidity and light are deployed as new instruments for determining architectural space keyed to: hu- man comfort and behavior, energy efficiency and a single sensory experience. The inten- tion is to alter the essence of the elements of architecture in order to disintegrate the visible. The architectural tools in Decosterd & Rahms’ works are invisible. It is something we perceive, feel, hear, smell and taste. Descosterd & Rahm have deployed a formula to their projects and exhibitions - their belief in climatic distortion remains constant where DESIGNING THE INVISIBLE WITH DECOSTERD & RAHM 25
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses LATITUDINAL DISTORTION ii DECOSTERD & RAHM BOOK: DISTORTIONS 2000-2005
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible Decosterd & Rahm designed the “Hormono- felt slightly disorientated and confused. Ulti- rium,” an installation for the Swiss Pavilion mately this “alpine-like climate” was meant in 2002 at the Architectural Biennale. The to allow visitors to experience - a decrease project explored the relationship between in fatigue, an increase in sexual desire and a architecture and the human metabolism, regulation in moods. As the visitors began between space, light and the neurological to feel “dopey” due to the physic-chemical systems of the body via 528 florescent tubes parameter of the room, the occupants ex- set under the floor simultaneously reduc- hibited bizarre behavior, but also slight ing the oxygen levels from 21 to 14.5 per- euphoria due to endorphin production. cent. This mimicked a high altitude climatic condition like the mountains of the Swiss Decosterd & Rahm deal with the environ- Alps. A high intensity light produced an ment as if it were a living thing undergoing increase in the nitrogen level and marked a constant change. Rahm imposes a continu- decrease of breathing air in this luminous and ous monitoring system which implies the mesmerizingly sonorous space. Some visitors intent to exercise a considerable degree began to feel sexual exhilaration, while some of what takes place in the spaces he de- (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + TOUCH= HORMONORIUM 27
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses HORMONORIUM DECOSTERD & RAHM SWISS ARCHITECTURAL BIENALLE 2002
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible signs. He concentrates his attention on the field of activity which is tied to an original problem of atmospheric conditions inside aesthetic value registered in the physiological the building through detailed analysis and dimension of a buildings performance. The manipulations of larger environmental is- new invisible elements measure the environ- sues. Due to the manipulation of atmo- ment by means of technology establishing a spheric levels, after ten minutes of being in climate which will define new behaviors and the “Hormonorium” installation physiolo- determine the production of space to contain gists can scientifically conclude that the ef- them. fects of being in this space will improve the body’s physical capabilities up to 10 percent. Reyner Banham wrote that “in freeing archi- tecture from local climatic constraints, me- chanical environmental management’s tech- niques have given carte blanche for formal experimentation”. 9 Rahm exploits this new (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + TOUCH= HORMONORIUM 29
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses HORMONORIUM DECOSTERD & RAHM SWISS ARCHITECTURAL BIENALLE 2002
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + TOUCH= HORMONORIUM 31
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 22-25% O 2 14.5% O2 DIAGRAM: HORMONORIUM LEFT: PLAN RIGHT: SECTION OXYGEN CHANGE DESIGNED ATMOSPHERE
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible BEHAVIOURAL EMULATION (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + TOUCH= HORMONORIUM 33
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses FOOT STEP PLEXI GLASS UV TUBES SMART FLOOR DIAGRAM: HORMONORIUM LEFT: SECTION, BEHAVIOURAL EMULATION OF SWISS ALPS RIGHT: PERSPECTIVE AND FLOOR SECTION DESIGNED ATMOSPHERE
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible Philippe Rahm’s competition entry in 2009 They thus generate the entire museum at- for the contemporary art museum in Wro- mosphere, composed of multitudes of cli- claw, Poland is defined by the introduction mates and flow ranging between 16-22 de- of two of heat sources (similar to radiators), grees Celsius. These heat sources generate a where one is registered at 16 degrees Celsius, sound as well as the natural convection flow. while the other indicates 22 degrees Celsius. These two temperatures were chosen be- Almost nothing in this volume is fully en- cause they set the low and high temperature closed - the surfaces (ceiling, floor plates and limits required for a museum in Poland (16 walls) throughout the space are transparent degrees Celsius corresponding to a storage and contain open slots, so air can move from space and 22 degrees Celsius corresponding space to space. One can recognize the invis- to the maximum temperatures in an office.) ible air movement not just by the tempera- These two heat sources in plan and section ture registration on ones skin but also by the are placed opposing one another, the cold- sound of the air and its interaction amongst er pole is placed higher than the warmer the walls, transparencies and slots. One can pole to create a thermodynamic imbalance. notice a different acoustic quality in the ex- (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + SOUND= CONVECTIVE MUSEUM 35
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses ‘CONVECTION MUSEUM’ MUSEE KANTOR: COMPETITION DECOSTERD & RAHM CRACOW, POLAND 2006
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible hibition rooms because the slats are closed Museum deals with notions of tempera- and sound is being monitored by the insu- ture and convection flow, yet Rahm brings lation placed in the thickness of the beams. his notions of meteorology to the next level The air flow manipulates the entire volume by engaging ones auditory sensory nodes. of the building as well as different climates, He does this through the materiality of sur- environments and qualities of space for vari- faces, opening and closing of walls and the ous activities. The sound of the air move- application of two different heat sources. ment is in contrast to pedestrian movement, therefore creating two different sounds: First, when a person is walking with the air flow and, second, when someone is walk- ing in the opposing direction of the air flow. The outer envelope of the building is iso- lated yet it contains the interior climate. This competition entry for the Convective (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + SOUND= CONVECTIVE MUSEUM 37
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses ‘CONVECTION MUSEUM’ MUSEE KANTOR: COMPETITION DECOSTERD & RAHM CRACOW, POLAND 2006
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + SOUND= CONVECTIVE MUSEUM 39
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses INFILTRATION REFLECTION ABSORPTION DIAGRAM: CONVECTION MUSEUM LEFT: MODEL OF TRANSPARENT LAYERS RIGHT: 3SURFACE TYPES, TEMPERATURE OF FLOOR PLATES VERTICAL DESIGNED ATMOSPHERE
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible In winter, when a person feels a chill, they im- as the primary determinates of the design. mediately walk over to the thermostat/radia- tor and turn the dial to heat the space. This Here Descosterd & Rahm propose an “artifi- notion of turning a dial is in stark contrast to De- cial reproduction of a geographically localized, costerd & Rahms architecture. It is not about chemically determined climate,” specifically turning a dial to get a resultant. It is about localized, chemically determined climate,” 10 in this case Tahiti. Creating this tropical zone creating distortions in latitude, bringing a cli- in a harsh winter climate at the choice of the mate that exists somewhere else in the world. occupant (Tahiti), the architecture becomes the air - invisible but physically modified. The The winter house is located on the coun- heating system becomes a space for the pro- tryside of Vendee (outside of Paris) near a duction of this air, and contains not just the small river. The house needs to protect its technical apparatus but also exotic plants, occupants against the cold and harsh win- microorganisms and mineral substances from ter, therefore dealing with the technical en- Tahiti, a region where the temperature is ac- gineering aspects of heating and ventilation tually 20 degrees Celsius with 50 percent hu- systems not as secondary conditions but midity. These plants, through photosynthesis (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + SMELL= WINTER HOUSE 41
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses FABRICE HYBERT WINTER HOUSE: TAHITI DECOSTERD & RAHM VENDEE, FRANCE 2002-2005
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible and their emanations, determine the chemi- cal quality of the air that will infiltrate into the living space through the heating system. The space, due to the exotic plants and microor- ganisms, do not just help us visually relate to a warmer climate but also change the aura through the olfactory. The exotic plants take over the house metonymically connecting the warm climate of Tahiti through scent. (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + SMELL= WINTER HOUSE 43
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses FABRICE HYBERT WINTER HOUSE: TAHITI DECOSTERD & RAHM VENDEE, FRANCE 2002-2005
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible LATITUDE DISTORTION (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + SMELL= WINTER HOUSE 45
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses DIAGRAM: WINTER HOUSE LEFT: SECTION, LATITUDE DISTORTION RIGHT: AXON , ENHANCING SCENT EXOTIC RELOCATION IN A COLD CLIMATE
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible The “Digestible Gulf Stream” exhibition was duced a set of drawings for this exhibition. Its a micro-climate that related to temperature location, however, was now in a removed for- and gastronomy in order to create a spatial ex- est clearing. The drawings portray the same perience at the 2008 Architecture Biennale in distinct air of laziness as the exhibition did. Venice. The exhibition consists of two glossy The drawings depict the inhabitants in this white platforms connected by two horizontal forest clearing, rubbing warming/ cooling metal planes which are extended at different ointments onto each other’s backs, while they heights. These platforms provide a setting for read, sleep and bath in the sun. This lotion re- the performance - the space is inhabited by a lates architecture as gastronomy. Rahm uses lethargic, intermittently-dressed group, who culinary/pharmaceutical applications to the could seek out the ideal climatic conditions two glossy white plates that directly stimulate for their current activities. These activities in- the sensory receptors. The hot plate contains cluded typing on a keyboard, sleeping, play- chili peppers and cold accommodates mint, ing cards and chatting in a circle. thus stimulating the salivary glands. The lo- tion can be eaten or applied to the body and An artist by the name of Piero Macola pro- in the exhibition, specifically the white plates. (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + TASTE= DIGESTIBLE GULF STREAM 47
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses DIGESTIBLE GULF STREAM PHILLIPE RAHM VENETIAN ARCHITECTURAL BIENALLE 2008
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible “The first preparation, on the upper cold Like a miniature Gulf Stream, the plate’s posi- plate, which contains mint, has molecules tion generates air movement using the natu- of crystalline origin known as menthol that ral phenomenon of convection, thus creating cause the same sensation in the brain as the a constant thermal flow, akin to an invisible coolness perceptible at a temperature of 12 landscape. In this case the architecture is lit- degrees Celsius. The menthol activates the erally structured on air current, where the Transient Receptor Potential (TRPM8) molec- taste of the hot chili and cool mint affects ular sensory receptors on the skin and in the the occupant’s experience of that space. mouth that stimulate the group of peripheral 7 Le Corbusier, Precisions, MIT Press (Cambridge, MA) 1991, pg 7 sensorial neurons known as cold-sensitive 8 Lally, Sean. “Meteorological Architecture (Philippe Rahm.” Ed. units. The second composition, on the lower Helen Castle. Energies: New Material Boundaries: Architectural Design (2009): pg 32. hot plate, which contains chili, has one of the 9 Banham, Reyner. Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environ- ment. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1984. molecules, capsaicin, activates the neuro-re- 10 Rahm, Philippe, Marie-Ange Brayer, Nott Caviezel, Pedro Gadan- ho, Christopher Kaltenbach, Marieke Rooy, Marco Michelis, and ceptor TRPV1, which is sensitive to tempera- Béatrice Josse. Distortions. Orléans, France: HYX, 2004,pg 1.1 11 Rahm, Philippe. "Digestible Gulf Stream." Philippe Rahm. Web. tures of 28°C .” 11 Fall 2009. (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + TASTE= DIGESTIBLE GULF STREAM 49
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses DIGESTIBLE GULF STREAM PHILLIPE RAHM VENETIAN ARCHITECTURAL BIENALLE 2008
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible 80 F 72 F 64 F 57 F 50 F SURFACE TEMPERATURE [ F ] 0 10 20 25 28 30 40 44 50 60 TRPA1 TRPV1 TRPM8 TRPV4 TRPV3 TRPV2 CINNAMON GARLIC MINT CAMPHOR CHILLI TRPA1 transient receptor potential ankrin transmembrane protein TRPM8 transient receptor potential melastatine 8 TRPV4 transient receptor potential vanilloide 4 TRPV3 transient receptor potential vanilloide 3 TRPV2 transient receptor potential vanilloide 2 TRPV1 transient receptor potential vanilloide 1 51 (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + TASTE= DIGESTIBLE GULF STREAM
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses DIAGRAM: DIGESTIBLE GULF STREAM LEFT: CONECTIONCURRENT, EAU DE CHALEUR CREAM QUALITIES RIGHT: ILLUSTRATIONS BY PIERO MACOLA EXOTIC RELOCATION IN A COLD CLIMATE
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible “The technology expanded and strengthened eye today penetrates deep into matter and space, and enables man to cast a simultane- ous looks on the opposite side of the globe”. - David Harvey 1 2 53
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 4 54
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible “The eye collaborates with the body and design. In general, perhaps temperature is like the other senses . One’s sense of reality is sound, smell, taste and touch - it is not apart strengthened and articulated by this constant of the standard architects’ toolkit of space, interaction. Architecture is essentially an ex- light and form, yet so it is easily ignored. This tension of nature into the man- made realm, eventually leads to architects passing off de- providing the ground for perception and the sign controlled elements to other people, like horizon of experiencing and understanding engineers or, even worse, to chance. These the world. The eye needs to collaborate with elements become a part of an “after the fact” the senses. “ 13 architectural design. Invisible architecture is hard to draw (except, However, the invisible can be incorporated for example, when drawing music notes to into a primary design element, yet most ar- implicate sound). The non-dismissive senses chitects don’t want to get involved with this are rarely considered or communicated in scope of phenomenological design. This is ul- architectural drawings and for the most part timately hindering architectural potential be- do not play a role in mainstream architectural cause the invisible conditions are what make JUXTAPOSITION 55
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses MARGRITTE POSING IN FRON OF HIS PAINTING RENE MARGRITTE BRUSSLES 1961-1967
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible up our experience of space. By making the invisible visible through graph- ic projection we can perhaps alter the way architectural space is experienced by allow- ing architects to explore this path, thus alter- ing traditional phenomenology and making it less experimental. JUXTAPOSITION 57
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses MAP OF THE INTERNET NOVEMBER 23, 2003
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible Touch is the most tangible of the senses invented at the 2008 architecture biennale which, therefore, has a more obvious effect in Venice by COOP HIMMELB(L)AU entitled on our experience and understanding of “Feedback Space.” This interactive installa- space. The very essence of lived experience tion uses the participants’ heartbeat, which is molded by hapticity. is detected by hand sensors to read their heart beat. This all occurs in a futuristic clear The sense of the tactile can also be some- bubble environment. This bubble membrane thing intangible, perhaps of a more percep- is contains four LED Screens where the partic- tive and invisible quality. The skin is capable ipants heart beat is visually displayed. The re- of distinguishing texture, weight, density sulting installation is a cloud-like, semi-trans- and temperature of an object or matter, so parent floating internal space which uses the through this invisible sensation we can be- human heartbeat in real time. gin to experience a space without physically touching an obvious object. Wolf D. Prix, one of the three founders of COOP HIMMELB(L)AU, explains this proj- For example, the Astro Balloon 1969 was re- ect while at the architectural Bienalle in SEE WHAT I TOUCH 59
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses ASTRO BALLON EXPERIMENT EUROPE 1969
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible 2008: ture looks like architecture smells like architecture but it is not architecture it is just a building because it is not “The theoretical background of our coffee.” 14 work is that we say not that architec- Therefore, through the technology of the joy ture is changing the human being but stick mechanism, this project expresses the the human is able to change architec- invisible which is the displayed graphically on ture. This mean that it is a theoretical the LED screens. Vision is in juxtaposition to contribution, your body is changing touch. the space. If an arch doesn’t want to change the world or the society with his building he stays a builder, this is then not architecture, it is just a build- ing. When thinking isn’t the mentor of his project its like a decaf espresso; decaf architecture looks like architec- SEE WHAT I TOUCH 61
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses ASTRO BALLON 1969 REVISITED- ‘FEEDBACK SPACE’ COOP HIMMELB(L)AU VENETIAN ARCHITECTURAL BIENALLE 2008
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible SEE WHAT I TOUCH 63
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses DIAGRAM: ‘FEEDBACK SPACE’ LEFT: PLAN RIGHT: SECTION TOUCH VISUALLY PROJECTED
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible SEE WHAT I TOUCH 65
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses DIAGRAM: ‘FEEDBACK SPACE’ LEFT: JOYSTICK MECHANISM RIGHT: PLAN OF CONNECTION OFJOYSTICK AND LED SCREEN TOUCH VISUALLY PROJECTED
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible In architecture, seeing a building is a visual of a space. For example, throughout the film experience that can capture a gaze however Play Time there is little to no dialogue, sound the building can also incorporate the expe- is a clear exploration of a background experi- rience of sounds. A space should be under- ence, however it helps the overall theme of stood and appreciated by its visual shape, the movie, visual distraction, be portrayed but also, perhaps, through its echo upon its through the constant background noises of numerous surfaces which can help us employ the loud city. experience. Some designers have rejected this con- Sounds incorporate its surroundings where as ventional notion of sound being a part of a the eye sees what is in front of it. The inte- background experience. For instance, Mark rior of the mind can vividly sculpt an image Goulthrope’s Hyposurface sound wall was of a dripping faucet, due to the sound of wa- first exhibited at the Venetian Architectural ter hitting a hard surface. Acoustics usually Biennale in 2000. The Hyposurface wall by remain an unconscious background experi- nature is interactive. It is a digital system ence which ultimately affects our experience where sensors pick up any digital input such SEE WHAT I HEAR 67
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses HYPO-SURFACE WALL MARK GOULTHROPE BIO WEEK IN BOSTON 2007
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible as movement, or in this case sound, and in return produce an output. Here, three mi- crophones register sound quality and volume which is translated to concentric waves on a three-dimensional surface. The surface be- haves like controlled liquid: waves, patterns, logos, even text emerge continually within its dynamic surface. The human eye is drawn to physical movement based on sound. Technol- ogy has evolved the theory of architecture that vision can juxtapose sound to become apart of a primary interactive experience. SEE WHAT I HEAR 69
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses HYPO-SURFACE WALL MARK GOULTHROPE BIO WEEK IN BOSTON 2007
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible LOUD 180 lbs SOFT 55 lbs SEE WHAT I HEAR 71
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses DIAGRAM: HYPO-SURFACE WALL LEFT: PLAN, FOOTSTEP AFFECTING WALL RIGHT: WALL MOVEMENT DETAIL SOUND VISUALLY PROJECTED
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible Odors are associated with day-to-day expe- Keller was able to recognize an old fashion rience, subconsciously reminding us of the country house because it had several levels olfactory structure which are mainly invisible of odors left by families, plants, perfumes and even though they are almost always active and draperies.” 16 meaningful in the way we experience a place. In Oliver Sack’s book The Man who Mistook The increasing attention dedicated to odors His Wife for a Hat states “You smell people, in recent years has been driven practically by you smell books, you smell the city, you smell the possibilities offered by new technologies the spring-maybe not consciously, but as rich in defining architectural and urban spaces. 15 unconscious background to everything else”. This might have been driven by the 1981 John Odors are not only profoundly inherent com- Waters comedy film Polyester (inspired by ponents of place, but at times are actually the William Castle film in 1960 Scent of Mys- essential in defining them. Odor is a power- tery) where the audience received scratch ful vehicle for memory which penetrates into and sniff cards and the viewers could smell our deepest recollections. “The persistent what they saw on screen with its correspond- memory of any space is often odors. Helen ing numbers. The scratch and sniff cards were SEE WHAT I SMELL 73
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses EXHIBITION ‘PESCE FOR LUNCH’ GAETANO PESCE NEW YORK CITY 2005
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible a gimmick to place you spatially in the film. tured oceans of olive oil and seas of balsamic One becomes more emotionally engaged vinegar, overhung by parmesan cliffs and for- with the film and can comprehend on a multi- ests of basil, rosemary and broccoli. He cat- sensorial level. Communications media have egorized his physical landscape where moun- lead to two different behaviors regarding the tains were made of dairy, acres of herbs, sea olfactory perception; solely concentrated on of liquids and sky’s meat, like one would find developing technologies of the visible and in an Italian hill town. “Pesce for Lunch” is an audible. imaginary landscape where food has become the basic element that induces memory of a The connection of the visual and audible are place. It is hard to wonder through this exhib- apparent the exhibition “Pesce for Lunch,” in it without the smell of Italy eradicating your New York in 2005 designed by Gaetano Pesce. taste buds and inflowing images or even per- This exhibit was made with actual food which sonal memories of Italy. evoked the style, fragrance, flavor and color of Italy. Recognized for his use of color, func- tionality and warmth, Pesce’s creation fea- SEE WHAT I SMELL 75
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses EXHIBITION ‘PESCE FOR LUNCH’ GAETANO PESCE NEW YORK CITY 2005
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible LANDSCAPE PROGRAM INGREDIENT ELEMENTS Tree Plant Mountain Ocean Lake Ground Texture Sky Hangings SEE WHAT I SMELL 77
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses LANDSCAPE + VISUAL = SMELL OF ITALY [ program ] [ food ] + Vegetable = + = + Liquid = + Herbs = + Meat = DIAGRAM: ‘PESCE FOR LUNCH’ LEFT: CATEGORIZING SMELL RIGHT: LANDSCAPE CATEGORIES SMELL VISUALLY PROJECTED
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible Vision is transferred through the expe- ing habits. The colors of the NMS visu- rience of taste. One example of the vi- ally evoke oral sensations, where color is sual transference through taste is Tatfoo visually associated with healthy eating. Fans Nature Matching which serves as a reminder to consume your daily recom- Junichiro Tanizaki states through his works mended doses of color. The shades of The Tea Ceremony “With lacquerware color displayed at the farmers markets there is a beauty in that moment between are more than skin deep, reflecting the removing the lid and lifting the bowl to inner potential of every fruit and vegeta- the mouth when one gazes at the still, si- ble - intense colors might even be called lent liquid in the dark depths of the bowl. nature’s nutrition labels. Color is a de- What lies within the darkness one cannot vice that can be deceptive (for example, distinguish, but the palm senses the gentle Gushers junk food is marketed in bright movements of the liquid, vapor rises from colors its flavors are simulated artificial within forming droplets on the rim, and a fruit extract), however, Tatfoo’s Fans NMS fragrance carried upon the vapor brings a ensures the decrease of unhealthy eat- delicate anticipation... A moment of mys- SEE WHAT I TASTE 79
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses NMS- NATURE MATCHING SYSTEM TATFOO TAN DUMBO BROOKLYN 2008
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible tery, it might almost be called, a mo- ment of trance.” 17 Through this quote, Tanizaki explains that in order to receive a full satisfaction we must visually con- nect with the “bowl of soup” before tast- ing it. Just like the Tatfoo Tan does in the NMS, one must juxtapose the visual with taste in order to gratify an experience. 12 Harvey., 261-307 13 Lally., 24 14 Prix, Wolf D. “Up in the clouds with COOP HIMMELBLAU.” Web. Fall 2009. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sriiUgxwi1s>. 15 As quoted in Barbara, Anna, and Anthony Perliss. Invisible ar- chitecture : experiencing places through the sense of smell. 1st ed. Milano: Skira, 2006 pg 125 16 Diane Ackerman, A Natural of the Senses, Vintage Books (New York), 2005, p 45 17 Kakuzo, Okakura. The book of tea. Trans. Liza Dalbury. Boston: Tuttle Pub., 2000, pg 15 SEE WHAT I TASTE 81
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses NMS- NATURE MATCHING SYSTEM TATFOO TAN DUMBO BROOKLYN 2008
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible SEE WHAT I TASTE 83
    • Vision in Juxtaposition with the Invisible See What I...controlling vision through the senses COLOR + FOOD = FOOD PROCESS CLR PATONE MS BEHR PAINT DIAGRAM: NMS- NATURE MATCHING SYSTEM LEFT: GENERAL COLOR CORRELATION TO FOOD RIGHT: DETAIL COLOR CORRELATION TO VISUAL TASTE VISUALLY PROJECTED
    • Design Project “Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity”. 18 –John F. Kennedy 85
    • 5 See What I...controlling vision through the senses 86
    • Design Project Contemporary Fitness Centers and Spas ment and the taste of our energy drinks all are all about image; where numerous be- heighten our senses. Within a Spa all senses ings within the same space are checking are amplified due to the temperature of wa- one another out, enviously comparing bod- ters and other tranquil effects. However, de- ies and then reflecting on their own. The signing these spaces where the senses are plastering of mirrors within the fitness cen- graphically projected through technological ter only adds to this narcissistic behavior. means will allow the client to become aware The original spas were arranged around no- of their heightened sensory experience and tions of relaxation and serenity, yet now also educate them on their body and fitness. they have transformed into a beautifica- tion process. These spaces are described by its influx of hyper-imagery which is ulti- mately a reflection on contemporary society Within a fitness center the odors amongst sweaty bodies, the sounds of the equip- FITNESS CENTER AND MINERAL SPA 87
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses ‘MAN WORKING OUTR’ QUIT SMOKING BULLETIN CHICAGO 2006
    • Design Project: Program The Downtown Athletic Club creates a spec- obtain their high social status. The NYAC trum of experiences through its multiple floors 1-15 were only for men, this build- themed floor plans. “The club represents ing is considered a multi story bachelor pad. the complete conquest- floor by floor- of the skyscraper by social activity; with the The notion of multi-functions undefined by Downtown Athletic Club the American way ay exterior composition was a unique qual- of life, know-how and initiative definitively ity in a skyscraper for the time it was built overtake the theoretical lifestyle modifica- and even today. The skyscraper suggests tions that the various 20th century Europe- that like the metropolis no single specific an avant gardes have been insistently pro- function can be matched with a single space posing, without ever managing to impose or envelope. This building emulates soci- them.” 19 ety’s needs for multiple functions on an in- dividual platform which can be ceaselessly The New York Athletic club is not just a fit- adapted not affecting the overall framework. ness center it’s about social interaction amongst business men who were trying to FITNESS CENTER: SOCIAL ASPECT 89
    • SeeSee Whatcontrolling vision through the senses What I... I... controlling vision through the senses NEW YORK ATHLETIC CLUB STARRETT & VAN VLECK WASHINGTON ST, MANHATTAN 1931
    • Design Project: Program NEW YORK ATHLETIC CLUB PROGRAM ROOF FLOOR 36 UTILITY FLOOR 20-35 BEDROOMS FLOOR 19 PRIVATE DINING FLOOR 18 LOUNGE FLOOR 17 ROOF GARDEN FLOOR 16 UTILITY FLOOR 15 KITCHEN FLOOR 14 GRILL FLOOR 13 POOL BALCONY FLOOR 12 SWIMMING POOL FLOOR 11 LOCKER FLOOR 10 MEDICAL BATH FLOOR 9 LOCKER FLOOR 8 GYMNASIUM FLOOR 7 GOLF FLOOR 6 SQUASH FLOOR 5 LOCKER FLOOR 4 HANDBALL FLOOR 3 BILLARDS FLOOR 2 ADMINISTRATION FLOOR 1 LOBBY FITNESS CENTER: SOCIAL ASPECT 91
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses Downtown Athletic Club North of Battery Park Dense Vertical Program DIAGRAM: NEW YORK ATHLETIC CLUB LEFT: SECTIONAL PROGRAM RIGHT: SITE PLAN
    • FITNESS CENTER: AESTHETIC QUALITY 93
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses WELLNESS SKY FITNESS CENTER 4 OF 7 BELGRADE, SERBIA 2009
    • Design Project: Program Gymbox is an original type of fitness cen- and transforming the style of and old tra- ter known for its unique program. It is con- ditional gym to something a bit more up- sidered a ‘gym with a new attitude’. There beat that attracts the fast past city goers. are three locations within the London area. 18 “The Federal Government Takes on Physical Fitness.” John F. Kennedy Public Library & Museum. Multimedia. Web. Fall 2009.<http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK+in+History/The+Federal This trendy gym has DJ’s for every class of- +Government+Takes+on+Physical+Fitness>htm>. as quoted in Kennedy, John F. U.S Official Physical Fitness Program. Ed. Bud Wilkinson. fered thus resembling a high end frantic 19 Koolhaas, Rem. Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan. New ed. New York: Monacelli, 1994. pg 152 night club. Kangoo (sneakers that act like pogo sticks), hip hop, Rave-laser-lit dance studio’s are some of the names of classes offered. These spaces offer neon lighting, film projections, split level flooring and a ‘floating’ dance studio (this is the space that turns into a night club at the flip of a switch). Gymbox is on the cutting edge FITNESS CENTER: UNIQUE PROGRAM 95
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses GYMBOX, CONVENT GARDEN BRANCH BEN KELLY ARCHITECTS ST. MARTINS LANE, LONDON 2007
    • Design Project: Program Les Bains Des Docks aquatic center/ bath- by the Roman Empire thermal baths and house is located in the historic city of Port uses this traditional sequence to program Havre, France. This is one of many redevelop- the spaces through the complex. For instance ment projects within this soon to be revital- the sequence at the Roman bath of Diocle- ized area. This post modern complex consists tian starts off in a sauna or steam room, and of 130,000 square feet, filled with intercon- from there the occupant has the option to nected pools, water channels, steam rooms progress from the caldarium (hot) through and hydrotherapy areas. “Each chamber of the tepidarium (warm) and concluding in the Les Bains des Docks, as the spectacular com- frigidarium (cold), or they can go straight to pound is called, is a poetic jumble of mono- the frigidarium. This methodology dealt with lithic white squares and rectangles called the cleansing of the body where the hot air/ classical ruins” . 20 water would open the pores and the cold wa- ters would close them. Jean Nouvel breaks from the contemporary bathhouses and explores waters poetic poten- The Roman baths were oriented to the south- tials like in Roman lagoons. He was inspired west so that solar energy would help main- MINERAL SPA: SEQUENCE 97
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses LES BAINS DES DOCKS JEAN NOUVEL PORT LE HAUVE, FRANCE 2008
    • Design Project: Program tain the hot temperatures of the caldarium, ployed skylights, large windows and translu- not affect the frigidarium. cent/ water walls for maximum natural light. There is a total of twelve pools, including Nouvel oriented the hot pools towards the an outdoor heated lap pool, several leisure south west; his complex consists of twelve pools, children’s whirlpool as well as a sauna, programmed pools with ranging tempera- hammam, spa, a center of balneotherapy and tures. One starts in the hot pool indoor pool fitness center. and ends in the colder children’s pool. This is a modern interpretation of the Roman thermae Following the roman model, there are pools meshing with contemporary society needs. filled of hot and cold baths with Turkish foun- tains, sprays and soothing rays that spill into The interior is in stark contrast to its grey fa- one another. cade, where all the surfaces are covered in white mosaic tile which were favored in Ro- man and Byzantine art. The childrens space is the only area of playful color. There are de- MINERAL SPA: SEQUENCE 99
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses LES BAINS DES DOCKS JEAN NOUVEL PORT LE HAUVE, FRANCE 2008
    • Design Project: Program F FRIGIDARIUM T C TEPIDARIUM & CALDARIUM MINERAL SPA: SEQUENCE 101
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses F T C THERMAL BATHS LEFT: PLAN-BATH OF DIOCLETIAN RIGHT: PLAN AND SECTION- LES BAINES DES DOCKS
    • Design Project: Program Inspired by the breathtaking surroundings, it flows throughout the entire building, cre- Peter Zumthor designed Vals spa on a sharp ating a peacefully pulsating rhythm. Moving Alpine mountain, where its architectural el- around this space means making discoveries. ements (such as the green roof) mimic its You are walking as if in the woods. Everyone natural site conditions. The spa embodies there is looking for a path of their own.” 21 connections between mythology, bathing and purity creating a complete sensory experi- An analysis of the chemical composition of ence. Zumthor carefully designs paths of cir- the water clearly shows that mineralization culation which lead bathers to certain prede- occurs in the Trias strata (various rocks found termined points but lets them explore other on site in the Vals Valley, ranging from white areas for themselves. The circulation and act marble, limestone to grey slate). The miner- of bathing in Vals Spa was influenced by the alization found in the waters can be broken Turkish Baths in Budapest. The perspective is down as follows: calcium, magnesium, so- always controlled. “The meander, as we call dium, chloride, fluoride, iron, iodide, potas- it, is a designed negative space between the sium, manganese, hydrogen carbonate and blocks, a space that connects everything as sulphate. MINERAL SPA: TEMPERATURE AND MINERALS 103
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses VALS THERME SPA PETER ZUMTHOR GRAUBUNDEN CANTON, SWITZERLAND 1996
    • Design Project: Program MINERAL SPA: TEMPERATURE AND MINERALS 105
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses Indoor pool 32° C Outdoor pool winter 36° C Outdoor pool summer 30° C Fire pool 42° C Ice pool 14° C Flower pool 33° C Sound Bath – 35° C Sauna- 85–100% Sounding Stone Massage rooms Relaxation rooms VALS THERME SPA LEFT: PLAN RIGHT: SECTION TEMPERATURE AND MINERAL BATH LOCATIONS
    • Design Project: Program Typical spas concentrate on the relaxation Water has been used in holistic measures; of the body and muscles through deep tis- some believe that water has the ability to sue messages and qualified aromas; however cure diseases more so then modern medi- some spas throughout the world concentrate cine. Water causes the whole body to feel of the medicinal mineral contents of the wa- sedated. Temperatures play a role in this ters which are influenced from the natural holistic healing; cold water rejuvenates, re- qualities of hot springs. Balneotherapy is the energizes and helps resist disease and pain. most popular and natural approach to min- Ice water reduces the pain of minor burns eral water bathing and drinking. It is a healing and bruises. Controls bleeding. Warm (neu- that uses hot springs, water, gasses, mud and tral)water relaxes and sedates the body. Hot climatic factors such as heat. Different springs Water soothes the body, induces perspiration contain different minerals which have special increases. Steam opens pores, creates perspi- therapeutic effects on the organs of the body, ration which in turn cleanses the body. Going such as the heart, liver and skin. For instance, from hot water to cold quickens circulation Ein Gedi’s hot spring in Israel contains quali- and bodily reaction. ties of sulfurous, chloride and peloid waters. 20 Sherwood, Seth. “Le Baines des Docks.” Interior Design Maga- zine, le grands place Oct. 2008: 351. 21 Hauser, Sigrid, and Peter Zumthor. Peter Zumthor therme Vals. Trans. Kim Lum. Scheidegger & Spiess: Zurich, 2007. MINERAL SPA: HOT SPRINGS 107
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses EIN GOKEK NATURAL MINERAL SPRING EIN GEDI, TIBERIAS ISRAEL FOUNDED IN BIBLICAL TIMES
    • Design Project: Program BICARBONATE: Sodium Bicarbonate SULFAR & SULFATES Calcium Bicarbonate Salt resulting from the incomplete neutral- Sulfur springs abound wherever there is vol- ization of carbonic acid or the passing of ex- canic activity, although they can be found in cess carbon dioxide into a solution base. areas without volcanic activity. Contains a Natural component of blood and is essential high aroma of hydrogen sulfide gas. for proper digestion, metabolism and overall Sulfur-rich waters help in assist in the forma- functioning. tion of a variety of microorganisms, algae, Drinking- Biocarbonates stimulate the ap- bacteria that are cultured and therapeuti- petitie and increate secretion of the gastric cally in the form of mud applications. juices necessary for proper digestions. Cures- Indigestion, kidney disorders and Bathing- 10- 20 minutes temperature of 86- opens nasal passages and stimulates mucous 95 degrees F. membranes. Cures- Cardiovascular diseases, nervous ex- Bathing- No specific time or temperature, haustion and autonomic nervous system im- more commonly used for drinking and balance. breathing in the form of a fine mist through. MINERAL SPA: HOT SPRINGS 109
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses GASES: carbon dioxide CHLORIDE radon Dioxide waters can be dangerous yet highly medicinal. Known as salt waters or muriated waters, Produced through the combustion, decomposition or saline springs are rich in sodium chloride, fermentation of carbon or its compounds. derived from deposits of salt or sandstone. Carbon Dioxide stimulates breathing and has positive Chloride helps regulate fluids both in and effects on the heart. Also has the ability to help dilate out of the body cells. Facilitates the diges- the arteries and its helps increase peripheral blood tion of food and body’s absorption of nu- circulation. Gas is extracted from the springs to be trients. used as injections in ‘bagging’, which involved placing Drinking- Chloride is not meant to be drank. an airtight plastic bag and injecting it with dry Carbon Bathing- (ideally .5- 3% sodium) at a tem- Dioxide gas. perature 93-104 degrees F for 10- 25 min- Bathing- Cold waters rather then warm or hot. Start- utes. ing with 5 minute 15% Carbon D. baths slowly increas- Cures- Hypotrophy, respiratory infections, ing to 10 minutes and 20% Carbon D. and later to 40%. enuresis. 110
    • Design Project: Program PELOIDS RADON Peloid is the technical term for mud, pelotherapty. This helps re- Radon- Radioactive inert gas move toxins from the body and maintains heat in various parts that has a very short life nor- of the body and aids absorption of minerals and other therapeu- mally found in soil, rock and tic and softens skin. water. Mud is made up of 2/3rds water and 1/3 solid. Bathing- European spa’s use Bathing- Thermal peliod springs can be as hot as 152 degrees F. small amounts of radon gas to flora is found in its chemical composition adding to its chemical treat a wide range of health and therapeutic qualities. Man made baths should range from problems. Recommended baths 100-115 degrees F for 20-40 minutes and washed off with warm are 8-15 minutes in heated water. water ranging from 95-100 de- Cures- complaints of rheumatic, vascular, skin and orthopedic grees F. Can also be used from disorders. rheumatic diseases, gout, neuralgia, dermatitis, gyne- inhaling humid air or steam con- cological problems and diabetes. tain radon. MINERAL SPA: HOT SPRINGS 111
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses IRON CALCIUM MAGNESIUM POTASSIUM LITHIUM Our blood depends Essential found in Reduces risk of heart Maintains Silvery-white on iron to nourish foods specifically diseases and regu- normal alkali metal oc- it with oxygen and dairy products such lates body functions b l o o d curs in a variety promote the forma- as milk, soy products, as well as produces pressure, of compounds. tion of red blood sea kelp, wheat germ bones and teeth. found in Poison when cells which are es- and green vegetables. Found primary in mineral ingested yet sential to our blood Help blood to clot nuts, whole grains waters ab- lithium carbon- system. Usually iron and builds bone and and green vegetables. sorbed by ate therapeu- springs are brown- teeth. Plays a role on This can be absorbed drinking or tic qualities ish in color. Used for normal liver function in hot baths as well as hot baths. to cure manic both bathing and and helps muscles drinking rich magne- depression via drinking. contract. sium mineral water. hot springs. These are not highly concentrated minerals or oligomineral waters; lightly chemically compacted heated at temperatures over 95 degrees F. They help reduce stress, increase body temperature and general circulation. 112
    • Design Project: Program ‘Visions’ Fitness Center and Mineral Spa Lobby/ Entrance Cycling Security stations, checking member Hip Hop ship. Boxing Public Program Wellness Center Female and Male Changing Room. Speak with consultants regarding life Showers, lockers style changes or personal training as Work out Spaces Equipment sistance consultation. Cardio- Treadmill, Elliptical Oxygen Bar Weight Machines Wellness Center Free Weights Speak with consultants regarding life Floor Mats style changes or personal training as Classes sistance consultation. Club ‘Rave’ Administration Kangoo Administration offices/ Conference Kickboxing Lounge POTENTIAL PROGRAM SPACES 113
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses TYPICAL ONE FLOOR NYC FITNESS CENTER PLAN BALLEYS 113 4TH AVENUE 2001
    • Design Project: Site Age: Twenty Five- Fourty-Five the site, specifically where water is a large component. Moderate--> + Income Preferably owner verses renter neighbor- Accessible or within this criteria neigh- hood to maintain membership borhood Transportation accessibility via subway Not sticky a residential neighborhood, traffic footprint necessary for advertising Non- Touristy neighborhood and profit reasons Not located to close to any large chain Near a water source for green conscious (example: Equinox) fitness center. design in regards to the mineral spa. Al- though the water will be filtered and Preferably not near a private/local neigh- chemically altered it is important if avail- borhood fitness center. able, to use the natural surroundings of DESIRED CLIENT 115
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses PLAN OF MANHATTAN MANHATTAN NEW YORK CITY 2009
    • Design Project: Site MANHATTAN FITNESS CENTERS 117
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses FITNESS CENTER CRUNCH FITNESS CENTER EQUINOX GYM FITNESS BALLEYS FITNESS YMCA FITNESS CENTER NEW YORK SPORTS CLUB PLAN OF MANHATTAN MANHATTAN NEW YORK CITY 2009
    • Design Project: Site 1 SOUTHERN TIP 16 KIPS BAY 2 WALL STREET 17 CHELSEA 3 WHITE HALL 18 MURRAY HILL 4 TWO BRIDGES 19 TUDOR, BEEKMAN & SUTTON 5 ABC CITY 20 GARMENT DISTRICT & HELLS KITCHEN 6 LOWER EAST SIDE 21 MIDTOWN 7 TRIBECA 22 TURTLE BAY 8 LITTLE ITALY 23 MID-TOWN WEST 9 SOHO 24 LINCOLN SQUARE (WEST SIDE) 10 EAST VILLAGE 25 UPPER EAST SIDE 11 STUYVESANT 26 CENTRAL PARK 12 GREENWICH VILLAGE 27 UPPER WEST SIDE 13 WEST VILLAGE 28 EAST HARLEM 14 GRAMERCY PARK 29 MORNINGSIDE HEIGHTS 15 MIDTOWN SOUTH 30 WEST HARLEM 119 MANHATTAN NEIGHBORHOODS
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 1 3 2 7 13 9 17 4 8 12 6 20 23 15 5 10 14 24 16 21 11 18 27 19 22 26 29 25 30 28 PLAN OF MANHATTAN MANHATTAN NEW YORK CITY 2009
    • Design Project: Site 5 ABC CITY 19 BEEKMAN/ SUTTON I- 46,985 I- 88,371 H- 30,561 H- 60,923 6 LOWER EAST SIDE 23 MID-TOWN WEST I- 27,625 I- 69,219 H- 33,193 H- 24,727 9 SOHO 24 LINCOLN I- 48,004 I- 88,557 H- 12,166 H- 40,014 12 GREENWICH VILLAGE 25 UPPER EAST SIDE (LENOX HILL, YORKVILLE) I- 73,978 I- 78,301 H- 30,263 H- 31,144 10 EAST VILLAGE 28 EAST HARLEM I- 69,475 I- 28,955 H- 13,843 H- 33,201 18 MURRAY 30 WEST HARLEM I- 77,889 I- 29,116 H- 32,144 H- 14,450 NEIGHBORHOODS WITHOUT FITNESS CENTERS_WITH DESIRED CLIENT 121
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses PLAN OF MANHATTAN MANHATTAN NEW YORK CITY 2009
    • Design Project: Site SITE: MID-TOWN WEST/ LINCOLN CENTER (54TH-61ST, 9TH-12TH AVENUE) 123
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses MIDTOWN WEST MANHATTAN NEW YORK CITY 2009
    • Epilogue “To make visible how the world touches us”. 22 - Paul Cezanne 125
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 6 126
    • Epilogue Hyper-imagery and constant distractions in In order to make traditional phenomenologi- contemporary culture, induced by technology cal approach more comprehensive, we must has made us dependent on the visual sense, juxtapose vision with one other sense. Exhibi- ultimately leading to the dismission of the tions like “Feedback Space” and “Hypo-surface “other senses,” touch, sound, smell and taste. Wall” use technology to contrast vision with touch and vision with sound, where exhibi- By investigating the case studies of Decosterd tions like “Pesce for Lunch” and the “Nature & Rahm, one can begin to understand their Matching System” use association to contrast ultimate goal of recognizing the invisible nur- vision with smell and vision with taste. Howev- tured through technology. These architects go er, these projects are just exhibitions and not above and beyond traditional phenomenolo- occupiable programmed buildings. gists, by incorporating chemical and electro- magnetic realms as well as meteorological Within a Fitness center and Mineral spa our conditions. However, their architecture like senses are intensified. When designing these traditional phenomenologists is still reliant on spaces where the senses will be graphically bodily acknowledgement of the invisible. projected through technological means will al- SUMMARY 127
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses allow the client to become aware of these the client will be left alone with this mineral multi-sensory phenomena. For example, when in a private space ultimately creating a multi- lifting free weights, the client will no longer see sensory experience while conditioning his/her a reflection of themselves yet now an internal body. These are only three examples of how temperature registration amongst the project- the senses can be projected visually within the ed wall, allowing the client to visually compre- space, ultimately enhancing experience. hend which muscles are being stretched. The Mineral Spa will embody different chemical In order to alter phenomenological design we compositions within the waters solution to must make it more visually lucid, since that’s help cure the client’s condition. Gasses, bicar- what out society demands. So placing vision in bonates and other minerals will be injected the hand with one sense will allow phenom- in the water based on client’s needs; perhaps enological design specifically within in the each mineral receives its own room where space, specifically a Fitness Center and Min- the characteristics of each mineral are iso- eral Spa, to be less experimental, ultimately lated. For example sulfates are naturally yel- enhancing an architectural experience and de- low in form and contain a potent scent, now sign approach. 22 Holl, Steven, Juhani Pallasmaa, and Alberto Perez- Gomez. Questions of perception. Tokyo: E ando Yu, 1994. as quoted in Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Phenomenology of Perception. Trans. Colin Smith. Great Britian: Routledge & Keegan Paul, 1962, pg 19 128
    • Epilogue Altman, Nathaniel. Healing Springs: The Ultimate Guide to Taking the Waters. Roch- David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity, Blackwell (Cambridge), 1992, Part ester, Vermond: Healing Arts, 2000. Explains bathing sequence and mineral content three discuses conditions of time and space in the postmodern cinema. of natural springs around the world. David Michael Levin, “Decline and Fall- Ocularcentrism in Heidegger’s Reading of Bachelard, Gaston. The poetics of space. Trans. Maria Jolas. Ed. Etienne Gilson. the History of Metaphysics’, in Levin (1993). Discussions on the essence of modern New York: Orion, 1964. Persistent memory of any a space through the sense of technology and its effects on the future odor. Useful tool receive context from the numerous other authors who quote this Book. Diane Ackerman, A Natural of the Senses, Vintage Books (New York), 2005, 1-45 Discussion on the senses and its definition in a specific culture. Banham, Reyner. Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1984. Precedents for architects like Decosterd and Philippe Franck, Karen A., and R. B. Lepori. Architecture from the inside out : from the body, Rahm, explaining contemporary environmental conditions. the senses, the site, and the community. 2nd ed. England, NJ: Wiley-Academy, 2007. Print. Introducing a basis for design that transcends fixed notions emerged from Barbara, Anna, and Anthony Perliss. Invisible architecture : experiencing places technology emphasizing experience. The precedents used in this book orient their through the sense of smell. 1st ed. Milano: Skira, 2006. Numerous precedents of projects around modes of sensory design. the design of olfactory architecture Holl, Steven, Juhani Pallasmaa, and Alberto Perez- Gomez. Questions of perception. Betsky, Aaron, Jean-Gilles Decosterd, Nikola Jankovic, Patrick Lemoine, Hans U. Tokyo: E ando Yu, 1994. Print. Expressing the invention of the sixth sense. A descrip- Obrist, Philippe Rahm, Claudio Sartori, Urs Scherrer, Michael Stigler, Guy Tortosa, tive analysis of the five senses and its application in architecture. Jead-Didier Vincent, and Anna Wirz-Justice. Decosterd & Rahm, Physiological Archi- tecture. Birkhauser, 2002. Useful for its diagrams. Jodidio, Philip. “Warped Factor Five.” Modern Painters. July & aug. 2005. Web. Fall 2009. <http://wilsonweb.com>.Discussion on the cutting edge firm, Decostered and Buchman, Dian D. The Complete Book of Water Healing. Kindle Edition, 1995. Rahm. Colomina, Beatriz. “Enclosed by Images: The Eameses’ Multimedia Architecture.” Kakuzo, Okakura. The book of tea. Trans. Liza Dalbury. Boston: Tuttle Pub., 2000. Grey Room 02 (2001): p 6-29. Print. The Eameses’ Multimedia exhibition explores Print. The sequence of Japanese tea ceremony evokes a bodily experience. notions of technological distractions through moving simultaneous imagery. Koolhaas, Rem. Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan. New Colomina, Beatriz. Privacy and publicity : modern architecture as mass media. Cam- ed. New York: Monacelli, 1994. bridge, Mass: MIT, 1994. Print. ] Le Corbusier and Aldof Loos set up the argument of public and private space. Lally, Sean. “Meteorological Architecture (Philippe Rahm.” Ed. Helen Castle. Energies:New Material Boundaries: Architectural Design (2009): Discussion of the Culley, Peter, and John Pascoe. Sports facilities and technologies. Routledge: New new architectural discourse, meteorology. York ; Abingdon [England], 2009. Explains the evolution of sports facilities and their standard sized space. Le Corbusier, Precisions, MIT Press (Cambridge, MA) 1991 BIBLIOGRAPHY 129
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses Massumi, Brian. “Chapter 8 Strange Horizon: Buildings, Biograms, and the Body To- Rasmussen, Steen E. Experiencing architecture. 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass: MIT, pologic.” Intersections of science, sensation, and culture. 1998 1968. Print. Based on Goggio Public Lectures at the University of Toronto in 1998, Rasmussen deals with personal experiences in translation with its theoretical na- Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Phenomenology of Perception. Trans. Colin Smith. Great ture. Britian: Routledge & Keegan Paul, 1962. Print. The study of essence divided into the rational and unconscious. Rast, Rudolf. Architecture.Expo.02 : exposition nationale Suisse : concept, montage, démontage. Birkhäuser: Basel, 2003. All projects at the in 2002 in Swiss Exposition.. Moravánszky, Ákos. Precisions :architecture between sciences and the arts. Ed. Ole W. Fischer. NY: Berlin : Jovis Verlag, 2008. Print. Technology has lead to the shift Rendell, Jane. Art to architecture : a place between. London ; New York: I.B. Tauris, in architectural style from art to science. This book explores the influence of the 2006. This book gives a myriad of precedents that integrate nature and contem- scientific methods on architecture and art. porary art works. Ranging precedents include Robert Smithson, Walter de Maria and Rachel Whiteread.Jane Rendell probes the meanings of place, space and site. Obrist, Hans U. “Decosterd and Rahm: Hormonal Architecture.” Flash Art. H.W Wil- son Company, May & june 2004. Web. Fall 2009. <http://wilsonweb.com>. Interview Rush, Fred L. On Architecture: thinking in action. 1st ed. New York: Routledge, 2009. discusing Decosterd and Rahm’s practice between art, architecture and science. Fred Rush discusses the role of phenomenology in architectural theory while also providing a synopsis of Maurice- Merleau Ponty. Pallasmaa, Juhani. The eyes of the skin: architecture and the senses. London: Acad- emy Editions, 1996. Print. An understanding on phenomenological discourse. Sacks, Oliver. The Man Who Mistook His Wife For A Hat: And Other Clinical Tales. New York: TouchStone, 1998 Playtime. Dir. Jacques Tati. Perf. Jacques Tati, Barbara Dennek, Jacqueline Lecomte, Valerie Camille. Janus Film presentation, 1967. Videocassette. Playtime takes place Sherwood, Seth. “Le Baines des Docks.” Interior Design Magazine, le grands place in futuristic Paris where the imagery of everyday life and technology move faster Oct. 2008 then the people whom built them Swirnoff, Lois. Dimensional Color. New York: W.W Norton, 2003. Print. Swirnoff ex- Rahm, Philippe, and Gilles Clement. Gilles Clement and Philippe Rahm: approaches plains colors significant role in the environment and its associations or symbolism. of tomorrow. Ed. Giovanna Borasi. London: Skira, 2007. Print. This book explores the different projects regarding climate conditions and its effects Zumthor, Peter. Atmospheres: architectural enviornments, surrounding objects. on human experience Basel: Birkhauser, 2006. Architecture as it is perceived through its multi-sensory experience of contextualizing horizons of place through memory. Rahm, Philippe, and Jean G. Decosterd. Philippe Rahm. Web. Fall 2009. <http:// www.philipperahm.com/>. Zumthor, Peter. Thinking Architecture. Trans. Maureen Oberli-Turner and Catherine Schelbert. Boston: Basel, 2006.. Zumthor uses precedents and his own studies/ sto- Rahm, Philippe, Marie-Ange Brayer, Nott Caviezel, Pedro Gadanho, Christopher ries to express architecture and the senses. Kaltenbach, Marieke V. Rooy, Marco D. Michelis, and Béatrice Josse. Distortions. Orléans, France: HYX, 2004. 130
    • Epilogue Balneotherapy- immersions into mineral waters; natural Hydrotherapy- involves the use of water for pain-relief and healthy approach to healing that uses hot springs, water, gas- treating illness. The term hydrotherapy itself is synonymous ses, mud and climatic factors such as heat. with the term water cure. Caldarium- a room with hot plunge bath waters used in a Ro- Hypocaust- underground floor heating. man bath complex. Kuahausu- Japanese traditional hot spring (derived from the Dismissed Senses- touch, sound, smell and taste. German term kurhaus). Espa- meaning fountain in the Wallon language was a resort at Lightly mineralized- terms used when springs do not contain the spring Espa. This became so popular that the world known strong concentrations of minerals also known as oligomineral. in English spa remains became the common designation for health resorts around the world. PH level- healing springs are classified by the ph level, classi- fied under alkaline (above 8.5) Neutral 7 and acid under 3. Fangotherapy- using thermal clay for medicinal purposes. Mineral Bath- springs are also known as geothermal waters Ferruginous- technical term for an iron springs. and are often used for therapeutic treatments, as well as for revitalizing and relaxing the mind and body. The three com- Frigidarium- large cold water/ pool found in a Roman bath ponents in mineral baths that are used therapeutically are the complex. temperature of the water, dissolved minerals and gases in the water, and mud. Hammon- warm springs. Oligomineral- reference lightly mineralized. Healthing springs- spring of varying temperature containing minerals gases and vapors likely to bring out specific therapeu- Oxygen Bar- flavors in an oxygen bar come from bubbling tic effects on the human body. oxygen through bottles containing aromatic solutions before TERMS 131
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses it reaches the nostrils: most bars use food-grade particles to Salt water- muriated waters also known as saline springs. produce the scent, but some bars use aroma oils. Sauna- usually a cedar-lined room where dry heat from is ad- Oxygen Therapy- general term used to describe the admin- ministered from 160-210 degrees Fahrenheit. Like the steam istration of supplemental oxygen to increase oxygenation of bath, a sauna increases body temperature, leading to in- body tissue; however, it is often used to describe ozone thera- creased circulation and elimination of toxins. py or the administration of small amounts of medicinal-grade hydrogen peroxide as intravenous drip or added to bathwater. Spa- Origins to a mountain town of that name near Liege in southeastern Belgium. Here, an iron rich spring was used by an Ozone Therapy- involves the use of mixing a small amount of ironmaster in the fourteens century to cure his rheumatism. therapeutic ozone and oxygen with the patient’s blood, which He founded a health resort at the spring called Espa. is then re-infused into the patient. It has been used to treat a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, high blood pressure, Steam bath- takes place in a room lined with ceramic tiles HIV infection and diabetes. and heated with steam at temperatures of 110-160 degrees Fahrenheit. The steam may or may not contain mineral water Peloid- technical term for mud vapors and is often better tolerated than a sauna. Like thermal bathing, steam baths increase blood circulation, raise body Pelotherapy- using thermal mud for medicinal purposes (simi- temperatures and aid in body cleansing. lar to Fangotherapy). Technology- a mechanism to help express the invisible. Phlegm baths- in Japan these baths are accomplished by bath- ing in the warm sulfur springs and breathing in the vapors for a Tepidarium- warm bath waters of Roman Bathrooms heated prescribed amount of time. by the Hypocaust. PH level- healing springs are classified by the ph level, classi- Thermae- the term for baths in Ancient Rome. fied under alkaline (above 8.5) Neutral 7 and acid under 3. 132
    • Thesis Project The relationship of architecture to the context beyond its surface perimeter is one of confront- ing an omnipresent materiality that not only engulfs the building but permeates it as well”. 1 - Sean Lally 133
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 7
    • Thesis Project 135
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE CALENDAR OF THE AREA 136
    • Thesis Project 50 higher university 25 residential space 4 food 9 shops 12 office space makeup of street in % 137
    • >> TRANSPORTATION < < different methods to get to 60th and Broadway See What I...controlling vision through the senses public transportation indv. transportation subway bus taxi car foot A all the time M5 infinite infinite infinite B weekdays M7 parking lot 60ST C all times except late night M10 parking lot 61ST D all the time M20 parking lot fordham 1&2 late night M104 IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE LEFT: SITE MAKEUP RIGHT: TRANSPORTATION >> 138
    • Thesis Project 350w 50th st 16,030 sq ft varick st mercer st irving place 23rd park 45e 55th st 7,020 sq ft 6,000 sq ft 8,020 sq ft broadway, spring 9,800 sq ft 23rd 8th st 11,020 sq ft 9,020 sq ft 9,520 sq ft 217 broadway 152 christopher st 16th 8th st 11,120 sq ft 6,000 sq ft 4,880 sq ft battery park 13,750sq ft 14th 5th st tribeca 5,020 sq ft 12,780 sq ft 404 lafayette 139 w 32nd st 5,020 sq ft wall st 3,000 sq ft 7th av 10st 74th st 2nd av 76th 2nd av 17,100 sq ft 9,020 sq ft 63rd lex av 10,020 sq ft 11,00 sq ft water st 7,020 sq ft 85th st 3rd av 5,020 sq ft 90 john st << 9,700 sq ft theatre district 7,820 sq ft NY 92nd st broadway 8,000 sq ft SC 13,000 sq ft 40th & 8th << E 1921 86th st 17th st 10th av 5,900 sq ft 5,020 sq ft 15,000 sq ft 38th & brodway QUIN 162w 83rd st 9,000 sq ft 19th st broadway 10,740 sq ft 12,800 sq ft grand central OX 15,020 sq ft soho 8,900 sq ft 59th & lex 8,000 sq ft 133 4th av 21,000 sq ft gym greenwich 12th st 48th & 2nd 1915 3rd av 7,020 sq ft 9,800 sq ft 5,010 sq ft tribeca 41st & 3rd NCH < < CRU 13,070 sq ft 5,020 sq ft 144w 38th st 36th & mad 12,550 sq ft 33rd & park 6,000 sq ft 12,000 sq ft YS 34th & park AILE << B 273 bowery st 12,100 sq ft 5,020 sq ft wall street 641 6th av 15,900 sq ft 34th & 2nd 7,000 sq ft 7,900 sq ft 34th 6th av 43rd st 5th av 125w 14th st 8,090 sq ft 15,020 sq ft 125th, harlem 9.0100 sq ft 60th 6th av 50th st broadway 5,600 sq ft 13,000sq ft 44th st lex av 54thst 2nd av 9,020 sq ft CA 11,020 sq ft 11,050 sq ft 224 e 47th st YM 115th & 5th 10,000 sq ft << 5,020 sq ft 73rd central park 5w 63rd 8,000 sq ft 11,020 sq ft 94th broadway 10,000 sq ft 70th & 1st 80th broadway 5,020 sq ft 86th & lex 14,000 sq ft 4,010sq ft 91st & 3rd 62nd broadway 76th broadway 3,000 sq ft 12,300 sq ft 13,000 sq ft < < PROGRAM IN SQUARE FOOTAGE NYC 139
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses < < NYSC > > 35 nyc locations 5 stars < < EQUINOX << sml 3,00 > > 18 nyc locations sqft lrg >> 17,000 4.5 stars $ 1,000.00 per year << sml 7,020 sqft lrg >> 15,000 both $ 2,400.00 per year < < CRUNCH both 2 > > 6 nyc locations 3 stars 1 << sml 10,020 sqft lrg >> 21,000 3 $ 799.99 per year both < < BAILEYS > > 6 nyc locations 4 stars 4 << sml 3,000 sqft lrg >> 16,030 $ 900.00 per year female gym < < YMCA sqft $ > > 4 nyc locations 5 R M G SU av EN av RF av AN av EM era D 3.5 stars era A era K era B ge CE ge IN ge E ge ER G R SH >> << sml 5,020 AR >> IP EA sqft lrg >> 11,020 CO >> ST $ 1,068.00 per year >> family oriented DIAGRAM: GYM ANALYSIS LEFT: CHAIN GYM SQ. FOOTAGE RIGHT:GYM SUMMARY 140
    • Thesis Project 30 TON LLS KITCHEN IDE) 141 broadway avenue
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 750 625 500 375 250 125 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 > > AGE female male 50.5% 18,200 49.5% 17,812 ROTATION white other two races hispanic asian black > > GREEN SPACES AND COURT YARDS greed space > > DEMOGRAPHICS Income- 88,557 Household- 40,014 Cost of Living- 174.9 court yard buildings GREEN > > SITE SHAPES EDGE >> EDGE CONDITION AFFECTS my site greenedge city block dependent building IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE LEFT: SITE MAP RIGHT: SITE ANALYSIS 142
    • Thesis Project 143
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE 144
    • 145
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses SUN STUDIES LEFT: SUMMER RIGHT: WINTER 146
    • Thesis Project Lower Ground Floor Plan SCALE: 1/8” = 1Foot 147
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses Upper Ground Floor Plan SCALE: 1/8” = 1Foot IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE 148
    • Thesis Project +3' +2' +1' +3' +2' +2' +3' +2' +1' +3' +1' +2' +3' Floor Ten Mineral Spa: Thermal Pools Fitness Center: Public Green Roof SCALE: 1/16” = 1Foot 149
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses Floor Nine Mineral Spa: Hydrotherapy Fitness Center: Yoga Studio SCALE: 1/16” = 1Foot IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE 150
    • Thesis Project Dance Studio Pilates Studio 770 sq ft 885 sq ft Meditation Studio Kickboxing Studio 450 sq ft 865sq ft Up Down Down Floor Eight Mineral Spa: Steam Room Fitness Center: Green Studios SCALE: 1/16” = 1Foot 151
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses Up Down Floor Seven Mineral Spa: Sauna Fitness Center: Cardio SCALE: 1/16” = 1Foot IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE 152
    • Thesis Project Up Down Down Floor Six Mineral Spa: Sauna Fitness Center: Thermograph Weight SCALE: 1/16” = 1Foot 153
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses Floor Five Mineral Spa: Massage Therapy Fitness Center: Spinning Classroom & Lecture Hall SCALE: 1/16” = 1Foot IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE 154
    • S ST TE EP P 22 Thesis Project Mineral Spa Fitness Center S ST TE EP P 33 metro opera house metro opera house trump towers trump towersuniversity fordham fordham university columbus circle columbus circle broadway avenue avery fisher hall avery fisher hall broadway avenue time warner time warner central park central park of art & design museum museum of art & design columbus avenue columbus avenue Mineral Spa Mineral Spa Fitness Center 60th street Fitness Center 60th street Public Circulation Public Circulation 60th street Site Information 60th street From 60th- 61st street in between Broadway and Columbus avenue looking @ 61st st looking @ 61st st BUILDING DIAGRAMS 155 looking @ 60th st looking @ 60th st
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 60th St. Elevation SCALE: 1/16” = 1Foot 61th St. Elevation SCALE: 1/16” = 1Foot th St. IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE 156
    • Thesis Project Thermal pools Hydro therapy Steam room Thermal pools Hydro therapy Sauna Steam room Massage therapy Sauna Massage therapy W. locker room M. locker room W. locker room Administration M. locker room Administration Lobby Lobby 157 Section: Mineral Spa 60th St. Section: Mineral Spa 60th St. SCALE: 1/4” = 1Foot 61th St.
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 158 60th St. Fitness Center SCALE: 1/4” = 1Foot 61th St.
    • Thesis Project SITE MODEL 159
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses IN BETWEEN 60TH & 61ST_ BROADWAY & COLUMBUS AVENUE 160
    • Thesis Project a a b b c c d a Thermal Pools Transition from Hot water with laying blocks to Warm water with seats and jokes to an outdoor cold free swimming pool. d b Peloids Bathing- Thermal peliod springs can be as hot as 152 degrees F. flora a and thera- is found in its chemical composition adding to its chemical Thermal Pools e peutic qualities. Man made baths should range from 100-115 degrees Transition from Hot water with laying blocks to Warm water with seats F for 20-40 minutes and washed off with warm water. and jokes to an outdoor cold free swimming pool. . c b Peloids Bicarbonate: sodium bicarbonate and calcium bicarbonate Bathing- Thermal peliod springs can be as hot as 152 degrees F. flora is found in its chemical composition adding to its chemical and thera- f e Bathing- 10- 20 minutes temperature of 86-95 degrees F. peutic qualities. Man made baths should range from 100-115 degrees F for 20-40 minutes and washed off with warm water. . d Chloride c Bicarbonate: sodium bicarbonate and calcium Bathing- (ideally .5- 3% sodium) at a temperature 93-104 degrees F for 10- 25 minutes. bicarbonate Bathing- 10- 20 minutes temperature of 86-95 degrees F. f e Gases: carbon dioxide radon g Bathing- Cold waters rather then warm or hot. Startingd Chloride with 5 minute 15% Carbon Dioxide. Baths slowly increase to 10 minutes and 20% Bathing- (ideally .5- 3% sodium) at a temperature 93-104 degrees F Carbon Dioxideand later to 40%. for 10- 25 minutes. Bathing- Recommended Radon baths are 8 - 15 minutes in heated water ran-ging from 95-100 degrees F. e Gases: carbon dioxide radon g Bathing- Cold waters rather then warm or hot. Starting with 5 minute f Sulfar and Sulfates 15% Carbon Dioxide. Baths slowly increase to 10 minutes and 20% Carbon Dioxideand later to 40%. Bathing- No specific time or temperature, more commonly used for drinking and breathing in the form of a fine mist through. Bathing- Recommended Radon baths are 8 - 15 minutes in heated . water ran-ging from 95-100 degrees F. g Laundry Room and Mineral Storage f Sulfar and Sulfates Bathing- No specific time or temperature, more commonly used for drinking and breathing in the form of a fine mist through. . g Laundry Room and Mineral Storage Section: Mineral Spa & Fitness Center 60th St. SCALE: 1/4” = 1Foot 61th St. Section: Mineral Spa & Fitness Center 60th St.
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 162
    • Thesis Project FIG SURFACE TEMPERATURE [ F ] CITRUS 0 10 20 25 30 40 50 CITRUS ROSE- FIG ROSEMARY CHIVE MARY Rutaceae Ficus Cacemsa Romarinus Allium Officinalis CHIVE Shrub: 16’ 1’ length 2 - 3 feet Green- Bright Green 6feet-7inches Green- Yellow Green-Brown White India Western Asia Mediterranean Europe, N.A COLD Cli- WARM CHILLI COOL Climate W-CClimate Climate mate SITTING PODS- I SEE TASTE AND SMELL 163
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 164
    • Thesis Project Depending on a persons heart beat through Internal temperature will be registered the transfer of sensors on the cardio equip- through walls and mirrors, instead of seeing ment, a pattern of varying intensities will be your reflection when lifting free weights, you displayed amongst screens in the fitness cen- can now see which muscle is being streched ter. If one if running and burning more calo- and working the hardest . ries then the person next to them, there pat- tern will be more intense then their neighbor. 60 70 80 CARDIO HEART BEAT AND BODY THERMOGRAPH - I SEE TOUCH 165
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 166
    • Thesis Project The visual projection of the senses become lo- calized with in the building. The Fitness center and Mineral Spa must deal with heating and cooling, their can be no stagnant air. Since the air is polluted in New York City, a natural con- vection current would not be so successful. Us- ing the natural chemical process of breathing and photosynthesis will help create a healthy breathing system through a vegetated wall. Oxygen will be absorbed by the players who then release carbon dioxide and water vapor that transforms chemical energy into simple substances. Plants absorb the carbon dioxide and minerals that occur through respiration and perspiration. Excess heat will be removed through evaporation and transpiration (a per- son losses up to .8 gallons of water per hour during physical exercise). HYDRATION- I SEE SMELL 167
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 168
    • Thesis Project A one-hundred percent transparent floor lift- ed up one hundred forty feet off the ground can only lead to one feeling uneasy or even nauseous. This transfer takes gym members from the mineral spa to the fitness center or vice versa which extracts the feeling of vertigo amongst its walkers. VERTIGO- I SEE EVERYTHING 169
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 170
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible PERSPECTIVE- 60TH STREET ENTRANCE 171
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 172
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible PERSPECTIVE- 61ST STREET ENTRANCE 173
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses 174
    • A Case Study in Recognizing the Invisible (TECHNOLOGY)(CLIMATE CONDITION) + SOUND= CONVECTIVE MUSEUM 35
    • See What I...controlling vision through the senses