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GIFT MACHA ON, " The Decline of Investigative Journalism in Tanzania: Case Study Mwanza"
 

GIFT MACHA ON, " The Decline of Investigative Journalism in Tanzania: Case Study Mwanza"

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This research aimed at investigating the reasons for the decline of investigative ...

This research aimed at investigating the reasons for the decline of investigative
journalism in Tanzania. The study was guided by two specific objectives; to find out the
reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania and to explore the
perception of journalists toward investigative journalism in Tanzania.
The study was guided by the watchdog theory of the press by Lichtenberg, (1990). The
theory asserts that the press should criticize and evaluate the government and other
institutions to ensure they don’t become corrupt or overstep their power. The basic idea is
that media needs to oversee the performance of government and private officials and
uncover all hidden matters which may affect the public negatively. The study used
interview and questionnaire for data collection.
Generally the study reveals that the reason behind the decline of investigative journalism
in Tanzania is the corrupt practices among journalists. Journalists use investigative stories
to blackmail suspects to make money. Other reasons include the fear of journalists to risk
their lives as they regard investigative journalism as the death line carrier, editors do not
provide assignments to investigative journalism and media owners are merely profit
seeking companies rather than public servants.

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    GIFT MACHA ON, " The Decline of Investigative Journalism in Tanzania: Case Study Mwanza" GIFT MACHA ON, " The Decline of Investigative Journalism in Tanzania: Case Study Mwanza" Document Transcript

    • ST AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication The Decline of Investigative Journalism in Tanzania: Case Study Mwanza A Research Paper in Partial Fulfillment for Requirements of the Award of Bachelor Degree of Mass Communication submitted to the department of Journalism and Mass Communications at St. Augustine University of Tanzania. Macha Gift A (BAMC 17817) April, 2013
    • i DECLARATION I, Macha Gift A, declare that this research entitled “The decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania” is my original work and has not been submitted in any university for the same award. Signature………………………………………Date
    • ii CERTIFICATION The undersigned certifies that he has read and hereby recommends for the acceptance by St. Augustine University of Tanzania a research report, “The Decline of Investigative Journalism in Tanzania: Case Study Mwanza” ……………………………………………. Denis Mpagaze Supervisor
    • iii COPYRIGHT © 2013 This research paper is a copyright material protected under the Berne Convection Act of 1999 and the other international and national enactments, on that behalf of the intellectual property. It may not be reproduced by any means, in full or in part, except for short extracts in fair dealing, for research or private study, critical scholarly review or discourse with acknowledgement, without written permission of author or dean of faculty, head of department, or supervisor of this research on behalf of the author and the St Augustine University of Tanzania.
    • iv ACKNOWLEDGMENT Firstly I thank the Almighty God for his protection and blessing through my entire life. Next, appreciations go to Mwanza Press Club (MPC) for their cooperation during data collection. Also I kindly appreciate the cooperation from Mwanza journalists and their editors Furthermore, I would extend my sincere gratitude to Mr. Denis Mpagaze of Saint Augustine University for his critical but constructive comments on this study. Also I send my gratitude to my lovely parents for their contribution on my studies.
    • v TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION............................................................................................................. i CERTIFICATION.......................................................................................................... ii COPYRIGHT © 2013 ................................................................................................... iii ACKNOWLEDGMENT ............................................................................................... iv ABSTRACT................................................................................................................. vii CHAPTER ONE..............................................................................................................1 1.0 Introduction............................................................................................................1 1.1 Background of the Study ...................................................................................1 1.1.1 Historical background of investigative journalism ...............................................2 1.1.2Study Setting........................................................................................................4 1.2 Statement of the Problem .......................................................................................5 1.3 Research objectives................................................................................................5 1.4 Research Questions ................................................................................................5 1.5 Significance of the Study........................................................................................6 1.6 Scope of the Study .................................................................................................6 CHAPTER TWO.............................................................................................................7 Literature Review ............................................................................................................7 2.0 Introduction............................................................................................................7 2.1 Theoretical Argument.............................................................................................7 2.2 Theoretical Framework ........................................................................................12 2.3 Empirical Literature Review.................................................................................13 2.4 Research Gap .......................................................................................................14 CHAPTER THREE.......................................................................................................15 Research Methodology..................................................................................................15 3.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................15
    • vi 3.1 Research design....................................................................................................15 3.2 Population of the study.........................................................................................15 3.3 Sampling Technique and Sample Size ..................................................................16 3.4. Methods of Data Collections ...............................................................................16 3.5. Validity and Reliability .......................................................................................17 3.6 Data Analysis.......................................................................................................17 CHAPTER FOUR .........................................................................................................18 Research Findings .........................................................................................................18 4.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................18 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents .................................................18 4.2 Findings ...............................................................................................................18 CHAPTER FIVE...........................................................................................................25 Discussion and Recommendations.................................................................................25 5.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................25 5.1. Discussion...........................................................................................................25 5.2 Recommendations................................................................................................27 5.3. Conclusion ..........................................................................................................28 REFERENCES..............................................................................................................30 Appendix One ...............................................................................................................33 Questionnaire ................................................................................................................33 Appendix Two...............................................................................................................36 Interview Guide.............................................................................................................36
    • vii ABSTRACT This research aimed at investigating the reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania. The study was guided by two specific objectives; to find out the reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania and to explore the perception of journalists toward investigative journalism in Tanzania. The study was guided by the watchdog theory of the press by Lichtenberg, (1990). The theory asserts that the press should criticize and evaluate the government and other institutions to ensure they don’t become corrupt or overstep their power. The basic idea is that media needs to oversee the performance of government and private officials and uncover all hidden matters which may affect the public negatively. The study used interview and questionnaire for data collection. Generally the study reveals that the reason behind the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania is the corrupt practices among journalists. Journalists use investigative stories to blackmail suspects to make money. Other reasons include the fear of journalists to risk their lives as they regard investigative journalism as the death line carrier, editors do not provide assignments to investigative journalism and media owners are merely profit seeking companies rather than public servants.
    • 1 CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction This chapter consists of background of the study, historical background of investigative journalism, study setting, and statement of the problem, research objectives, and research questions, significance of the study and; scope of the study. 1.1 Background of the Study Today the investigative journalism is declining or rather dying despite the exponential growth of media industry in Tanzania if compared in 1990s because of the liberalization policies.. Private ownership of media was allowed and the country started to witness variety of newspapers, TV and radio station. Immediately after the re-introduction of multiparty politics, newspapers like Family Mirror, Rai, Motomoto, Heko, Shaba, and Wakati ni Huu, Tanganyika leo, Radi, Shaba, Baraza, The express and Fahari championed the reform agenda as well as playing the watchdog role (Kilimwiko 2009). At these early days of press freedom media did wonderful job of uncovering and reporting fraud, corruption and mismanagement. According to (Kilimwiko 2009) between 1990 and June 1994, about 703 government scandals were exposed by media.Among others, are sandal s about more than one million US dollars trip to Rio de Janeiro, Mohamed enterprises scandal, Kitine scandal, the secret of granting of Loliondo game reserve to an Arab hunting Sheik.
    • 2 This good job of media of exposing corruptions and scandals was witnessed in many African countries making a sign of journalism professional maturity. For example, in Nigeria investigative journalism helped the rise of different scandals such as the ‘speaker gate’ scandal exposed by a weekly magazine in Nigeria. The scandal involved Alhaji Salihu Buhari, the first Speaker of the House of Representatives in the Obasanjo Presidency where Buhari forged both his age and education qualifications which come to his resignation, trial and conviction (Yusha’u, 2009). Amazing all these good job of uncovering scandals happened when media technology was so weak making difficult for journalists do their job. Today in the age of high technology and every sort of journalism training institutions, one would expect investigative number of investigative journalism being high. This study thought to explore the factors for the declining of investigative journalism in Tanzania. 1.1.1 Historical background of investigative journalism The earliest known investigative stories are traced back on American soil to the first colonial newspaper published in 1690 by Printer Benjamin Harris’s Publick Occurrences. In its first issue, the newspaper exposed allegedly “barbarous” human rights abuses of French prisoners of war and a supposed sex scandal in which the king of France “used to lie with” his “Son’s Wife” (Feldstain 2006). This is accounted as the beginning of investigative journalism
    • 3 Reporters in USA actively pursued investigative stories in 1920s as it grew to be thought as independent oversees of the government, the watchdog of the government which provided another layer of public confidence. There were different stories which brought the rise of investigative journalism such as story by Boston Post weekly paper in 1921 which won one of the Pulitzer prizes when it exposed the financial scheme of Charles Ponzi as it detailed his trick of paying investors with money from new investors in USA (Gaines, 2008). Dramatic successes in investigative stories such as ‘Watergate’ scandal involving the president of USA ,Richard M. Nixon, in 1972 which later in 1974 forced him to resign and become the first USA president to resign was the product of investigative journalism. In Africa investigative journalism was mostly witnessed in the 1970s in south Africa when the Mail and the Guardian reported how the apartheid government siphoned off some R.64 million of tax payers money to buy newspapers and other media both in South Africa and overseas the scandal which came to be known as ‘Muldegate’ scandal (Forbes 2005). In 2003 Kenyan reporters uncovered a disastrous scandal involving leading education officials and bureaucrats. Over 1.8 billion Kenyan Shillings, intended for the FPE, had been embezzled by these officials, exposed by the journalists’ discovery of fraudulent receipts and fictitious accounting. As a direct consequence of this investigative
    • 4 journalism, two education ministers were suspended and five other officials arraigned in court on corruption charges. The Kenyan public was also enlightened as to the extent of the scheme’s internal corruption. An independent audit has begun to establish the full details of the fraud perpetrated (Spencer, 2009). According to Kilimwiko (2009) in Tanzania between 1990 and June 1994, 703 government scandals were exposed by media. Example of the scandals include more than one million US dollars trip to Rio de Janeiro, Mohamed enterprises scandal, Kitine scandal, the secret of granting of Loliondo game reserve to an Arab hunting Sheik(Kilimwiko 2009). 1.1.2 Study Setting Mwanza, which is the case study of the research paper, is among the five big cities in Tanzania that has witnessed a sudden development of media industry in the recent time. During and soon after independence to 1980’s there were no any media operated in the city due to the nationalization of media through socialism and self reliance. However, today in the city there are nine radio stations, three newspapers and one television station also with two cable television’s networks. These radio stations are Kwa Neema Radio FM, radio free Africa, radio SAUT FM, living water FM, Kiss FM, Iqra FM, Metro FM, city FM and Afya Radio FM. Newspapers are Kasi Mpya, Baruti and Mzawa. Only Mzawa and Baruti newspapers are in operation.
    • 5 1.2 Statement of the Problem Investigative journalism is the basic aspect of journalism which provides for the surveillance function of mass media to monitor and reveal hidden maters which are beneficial for the public interests. Though we had few media entities in Tanzania during 1980’s and 1990’s the role of investigative journalism was evident as they play a part in uncovering potential issues. Today despite the exponential growing of media industries in Tanzania, investigative journalism is declining day after day. So this research paper reports the reasons for the declining of investigative journalism in Tanzania in spite of the existence of many media outlets. 1.3 Research objectives Main objective To assess the factor for the declining of investigative journalism in Tanzania Specific Objectives 1. To explore the perceptions of journalists toward investigative journalism in Tanzania. 2. To explore the reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania. 1.4 Research Questions 1. What is the perception of journalists toward investigative journalism in Tanzania?
    • 6 2. What are the reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania? 1.5 Significance of the Study The study brings out knowledge on the reasons for the declining of investigative journalism in Tanzania. The findings of the study show that journalists fear investigative journalism as they perceive it as the death row game. Others include abstain of media owners to fund investigative stories and corruption among journalists. 1.6 Scope of the Study To cover all the regions in the entire country was impossible because of the limited time frame and amount of funds for this research so the researcher covered Mwanza region only. The choice of Mwanza region was due to the fact that the region has large number of journalists therefore provided a good source of data for the study.
    • 7 CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2.0 Introduction This chapter consists of the theoretical argument, theoretical framework, and empirical literature review and knowledge gap. 2.1 Theoretical Argument Forbes (2005) has highlighted some of the obstacles which curb the development of investigative journalism in the SADC community. These include government and private sector secrecy, lack of access to information, bureaucracy and logistical problems. Other obstacles include a shortage of financial resources and training for investigative journalists and lack of editorial support. Difficulties in obtaining information exist at several levels. In one-on one situation where individuals are reluctant to talk, journalists can devise means to extract a story. Journalist in developing countries has been facing many challenges in pursuing investigative journalism. Forbes (2005) argued that due to sensitive nature of investigative assignments, investigative journalism can be a dangerous game, with the threat of physical violence used to deter further investigation. Under such extreme
    • 8 pressure, the press can adopt special measures of protection for the reporter, even to the extent of keeping the journalist’s identity secret. Forbes (2005) cited example of Mozambican investigative journalist, editor and owner of Metical, Carlos Cardoso who was gunned down in Maputo in November 2000. The journalist was known for his criticism of both government and the political opposition in that country. Cardoso was killed after he began investigating the $14 million bank fraud case involving over a dozen individuals at the Mozambican Commercial Bank (Forbes 2005). This means that it is unquestionable that investigative journalism is important but still there is no good environment for investigative journalists in developing countries. The threat of physical harm or injury should always be taken seriously. Investigative reporters’ home numbers should be unlisted. Identification through the use of photo bylines could be avoided. If threats are made against a journalist’s life, assistance can be sought from media colleagues and pressure groups such as the Media Institute of Southern Africa, the Southern African Editors’ Forum, and local and international press institutes like Reporters without Borders (Forbes, 2005). Investigative journalism helps in different issues of public interests and which has negative impact to the masses has been revealed by media (Feldstein, 2006). Knowing the importance of investigative journalism, in USA investigative journalists were investigating different issues such as child labor, corruption in the cities, condition of
    • 9 labors and the condition of meat parking industries in light with development. Things are different in Tanzania whereby almost all media entities concentrate on straightforward reporting. What is happening in Tanzania is not new in other African countries as some African countries had gone far to prohibit investigative journalism. This has mostly happened in military regimes taking example of Lesotho where the presence of the military regime imposed the difficult environment of the development of independent media. An undesirable spin-off of this situation is the almost total lack of investigative journalism in Lesotho and the inability of the media to see themselves as a true watchdog of society in matters pertaining to the role of institutions of state in upholding and entrenching the rule of law, good governance and democracy (Matjama, 2007). The absence of investigative journalism in Lesotho is the result of a combination of factors against the fear of revealing matters which may be adjudged to be actionable in the courts, lack of skills, lack of resources, a fundamental misunderstanding of the role of the media in a democracy and the fear of victimization of newspapers by government, example withholding of advertising by government departments by Cabinet edict as it is happening in the case of Public Eye Newspaper (Matjama, 2007). The same has happened in Angola where there were the absence of the investigative journalism as an important tool in monitoring the process of democratic governance,
    • 10 particularly issues like political corruption, transparency, elections and violations against human rights were missing in Angolan media landscape. Due to the lack of skills, the direct and indirect pressure on critical media or the impossibility to access to official information, the journalists are unable to conduct their work in an effective and efficient manner (MISA, 2009). All these which are happening in other African countries can be linked to the situation in Tanzania whereas African countries have many things in common. In many parts of the world independent media have been responsible for investigative journalism as government owned media has exempted from investigative journalism. This has been different in Zimbabwe where government owned media revealed the ‘willogate’ scandal in 1980s. In 1988, the newspaper undertook an investigation of irregular deals at the state-owned Willogate Mazda Motor Industries, a car assembly plant where cabinet ministers and senior government officials were using their positions to buy cars cheaply, as they were officially entitled to do, but later reselling the vehicles at exorbitant prices, this come to be known as ‘Willogate scandal’ (Mawarire, 2010). In spite of the attention it receives, investigative journalism is not sufficiently promoted because it is time consuming and requires resources that are often hard to come by. This adds pressures and dangers already inflicted on reporters by those who have an interest in keeping investigative reports quiet. Another risk is the use of investigative journalism's
    • 11 name for the publishing of less-than-serious reporting or investigations with insufficient documentation and research. The factors affecting investigative journalism are to a certain extent a reflection of a country’s overall governance environment, and therefore not all will be fully amenable to journalism-focused assistance. For example, the problem of a corrupt judiciary does affect journalists, but is not specific to journalists, whereas overly harsh libel laws can be addressed under a journalism-specific legal support. A weak school system that focuses on learning by rote and does not build capacity for critical inquiry is a general obstacle to the rise of investigative journalism. Despite of its hardship, In Nigeria investigative journalism has helped the rise of different scandal such as the ‘speaker gate’ scandal (Yusha’u 2009). For example in Nigeria The News uncovered what it come to be known as “Speakergate” scandal that involved Alhaji Salihu Buhari, the first Speaker of the House of Representatives in the Obasanjo Presidency, the North or South perspective of the Nigeria media was manifest. The news first reported that the speaker forged his age and education qualifications to get the position of speaker. In their investigation they contacted University of Toronto, Canada, to verify Buhari’s claim that he was its graduate. The University’s disclaimer of Buhari nailed him on the academic consideration. The News magazine then went to King’s College, Lagos and established from Buhari’s college records that he was under aged for the Speaker ship of the House of Representatives. So they found that Buhari (the speaker)
    • 12 forged both his age and education qualifications which come to his resignation, trial and conviction. 2.2 Theoretical Framework The study will be guided by the watchdog theory of the press which asserts that the press should criticize and evaluate the government and other institutions to ensure they don’t become corrupt or overstep their power (Lichtenberg, 1990). The main idea of watchdog theory of the press is that the press should protect citizens from the abuses of the government or other powerful people or institutions. A free press is able to perform its democratic role of providing useful information to voters to encourage public debate (Lichtenberg, 1990). Because the basic role of government is to protect liberty, a watchdog is needed to guard against deviations from that role. Citizens in a democracy, as the ultimate decision makers, need a wide range of information to make intelligent political decisions. He believes the press serves as the people’s watchdog, criticizing and evaluating the established power of government (Meiklejohn, 1960). This study has used the watchdog theory of media as it shows the responsibilities of media in engaging in investigative journalism. According to the theory media entities need to engage in investigative journalism as one of their basic function but in Tanzania things are different as media outlets have forgone investigative journalism and concentrated on straightforward reporting.
    • 13 2.3 Empirical Literature Review The study by Kantumoya (2004) on Zambia media landscape reported that the major problem facing investigative journalism in Zambia is reluctant sources. Because of the sensitive nature of subjects that call for investigation, sources are unwilling to divulge certain information. This causes many journalists to give up and pursue straightforward stories instead. The study also found out that some laws in Zambia make it almost impossible for reporters to obtain certain information. The law mentioned relating to invasion of privacy and the State Security Act as being among statutes which restrain journalists from pursuing stories that need in-depth probing. Legal challenges have been attributed to be big constraining for the decline of investigative journalism in most of African countries. They limit press freedom to the extent of limiting journalist performance in investigative journalism. Journalists also in Zambia attributed the lack of an investigative reporting culture to low levels of training among journalists. They said standards of journalism education and training in the country have deteriorated to the extent that “novice reporters” cannot take up the challenges that goes with pursuing a story of an investigative nature. The study by Yusha’u (2009) reported that investigative journalism in Nigeria is limited by low salaries, bad working conditions, corrupt practices, and “clientelism”. Also he reported that while the press can help to strengthen government institutions, especially
    • 14 through its watchdog role, significant reform is needed to strengthen media organizations, to limit corruption and to restore public confidence in the press. Various Nigerian governments - both civil and military - have been subject to allegations of corruption. However, the extent to which the media has been successful in exposing corruption scandals is open to question. Extensive interviews with Nigerian journalists in 2007 indicate that they understand the concept of investigative journalism, but are unsure about the extent to which it is currently being practiced (Yusha’u, 2009). Report from Nigeria and Zambia portrays the picture of how investigative journalism suffers in Africa. The problems reported by Yusha’u (2009) in Nigeria reveal nothing different from what Kantumoya (2004) reported about media industries in Zambia. This shows that African media shares similar problems in media landscape. 2.4 Research Gap Research done on investigative journalism in Tanzania focused on the way investigative journalism had been able to reveal various corruption and misuse of power scandals. Other literature focused on the absence of investigative journalism in Nigeria and Zambia not in Tanzania. So the study looked forward to explore the reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania.
    • 15 CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology 3.0 Introduction This chapter consists of research design, population of the study, sampling techniques and sample size, methods of data collection, validity and reliability and methods of data analysis. 3.1 Research design The study used survey design where by the researcher conducted interview and distributed questionnaires to Mwanza journalists. Survey methodology measure variables by asking people questions and then to examine relationships among the variables (Kothari 2004). 3.2 Population of the study The study involved Mwanza journalists working with media industries in Mwanza. It was difficult to mention the exact number of journalists working in Mwanza. Instead, the study focused on 125 journalists registered by Mwanza Press Club.
    • 16 3.3 Sampling Technique and Sample Size The study used simple random sampling to get 55 respondents for study. Simple random sampling gave equal opportunities for all Mwanza journalists to be represented in the study. Also the study employed purposive sampling to get investigative journalists Investigative journalists were given priority during the process of data collection. 3.4. Methods of Data Collections The study used questionnaire and interview in collecting data. Kothari (2004) identified a questionnaire as a list of questions sent to a person required to answer and return the questionnaire to the sender. Both open ended questions which gave the respondent a chance to answer the questions freely and close ended questions which limits the respondents answers were used in this study. Forty five (45) questionnaires were distributed to Mwanza journalists during the course of data collection. Interviews- the researcher asked questions to respondents in order to gain the in-depth information that could not be attained by the previous method. The types of interviews that are dedicated for the present study are semi-structured interviews and structured interviews. Ten (10) journalists were interviewed.
    • 17 3.5. Validity and Reliability The researcher consulted the editors of the media houses to measure the validity of journalists who filled the questionnaires together with the leader of Mwanza press club for the registrations confirmation of the journalists. Sample of questionnaires were distributed before actual data collection to measure their reliability for data collection in case of providing relevant information of the study. 3.6 Data Analysis The study used qualitative and quantitative data analysis. The information collected was analyzed thematically and statistically (use of tables and statistics).
    • 18 CHAPTER FOUR Research Findings 4.0 Introduction This chapter presents and analyzes findings from self administered questionnaires and in depth interview. 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents A total of forty five (45) self administered questionnaires distributed, 35 (77.8%) were filled and returned and all 10 respondents were interviewed making at total of 45 informants. Twenty five (25) journalists came from Newspapers, Ten (15) with radio stations and the remaining five (5) working with Television. Their level of education ranges from certificates to bachelor degrees in journalism and mass communications. 11 respondents hold a certificate in journalism, six have diploma in journalism, 8 hold advance diploma in journalism and 20 are holders Bachelor Degree in Mass Communication. 24 journalists have less than five years of working experience, 10 have about five to ten years of working experience while 11 have more than ten years working experience. 4.2 Findings 4.2. Reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania
    • 19 All ten interviewed respondents said that the risk of investigative journalism is the main reason for the current low trend of investigative journalism in Tanzania. Journalists fear to risk their lives because of investigative journalism. Journalists believe that they cannot perform investigative journalism mainly because it risks and put their lives at the death row. A freelance journalist who works with a newspaper says: Investigative journalism is the death row type of journalism which is very dangerous to pursue. Going for investigative stories is like looking for death. For me I would rather concentrate on straightforward reporting rather than to deal with investigative journalism. A journalist with 15 years of working experience in investigative journalism said that investigative journalists in Tanzania are treated unfairly by the government officials due to their endeavor to reveal government wrong doings. This makes journalist fear to engage in investigative journalism. Journalists have been subjected to torture. During an in-depth interview one journalist said: Being an investigative journalist has become a challenging moment in my life time. To be taken to prison has become my culture. For past three years I have been taken to prison for more than five times. All these cases are because of investigative stories I have been writing on different issues. Another investigative journalist who is working with Swahili Daily paper said that for him being an investigative journalist his life has been under high risk. He has been hunted every day. People are not happy with investigative stories so they react negatively which put him in big risk. He said:
    • 20 One day I had a tip on the misuse of public funds among government officials. I worked on and got the evidences to support the story. I took the evidence with me and photocopied it to make it multiple for protection mechanism. That night I got invaded with a group of strangers who wanted to kill me. They ask for that document and took it. I was beaten to death. I sustain the injury for a while but till now my legs are supported with iron. Investigative journalism has been mentioned to be financially expensive. All ten interviewed journalists argued that media owners are for profit making so they tend to abstain from investigative reporting which is most expensive in term of cost of time. Investigative journalism is costly in term of money and time. One investigative story may take up to one month together with a lot of money in working undercover. This makes it difficult for media owner to sponsor a journalist to such stories. Media owners want to see their papers go for publications daily for profit making. Table 4. 1 shows how media in Tanzania ignores investigative journalism. Table 4.1. Investigative Journalism in Tanzania Question Indicators Responses Percent Do Tanzania media provide enough opportunities for investigative stories? Strongly agree 0 0% Agree 7 20% Disagree 22 62.9% Strongly disagree 6 17.1% Total 35 100% Source: Research 2013
    • 21 Table 4.1.shows that most of the respondents disagree that Tanzanian media provides enough opportunities for investigative journalism. In general no respondents who have strongly agree, 7 respondents which equals to 20% of all respondents agreed that Tanzania media provide enough opportunities, 22 (62.9%) of all respondents disagreed and 6 respondents (17.1%) strongly disagreed that Tanzania media provide enough opportunities for investigative stories. Corruption among journalists has been mentioned among the issues for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania. During an in-depth interview, three journalists said that some journalists perform investigative stories but they do not publish them rather they use it to get money from the people involved in the investigated scandal. One journalist said: One day I went for a drink in one bar in the city. I found my friend who is a journalist drunk. He called me and offered me a wine. This was not normal so I tried to figure it out. After deep conversation with him I found that he got an investigative tip and sold it for two million to the person who was accused of misuse of public fund. One investigative journalist who works with Swahili daily newspaper confesses that some time he sells investigative stories for huge amount of money. He says: Investigative reporting is hard task to pursue but at the same time it is the most paying job in journalism. When you have evidence for the story you consult an accused person in the story and blackmail him or her to get handsome payment.
    • 22 Yesterday (the day before interview) in our newsroom one journalist stole a story and went to the accused person and made a huge amount of money. Poor payment to freelance journalists is the burning issue which makes freelances away of investigative journalism. Nine from 10 interviewed journalists argue that they are being paid poorly compared to what they perform. Freelance journalists said that they get paid with the range of 2500/- to 10000/- per story. They argued that this kind of payment put them in hard condition to engage in investigative journalism. Respondents have also condemned editors to be among the reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania. Five out of 10 interviewed respondents argued that editors have neglected investigative stories and do not provide assignments which cover on investigative issues. Table 4: 2: Journalists Assignments for Investigative Stories Question Indicators Responses Percentage Have you ever been assigned for investigative stories Yes 9 25.7% No 26 74.3% Total 35 100% Source: Research 2013 The findings from Table 4:2 show that the majority of respondents had never been assigned to investigative stories which pose threat to investigative journalism as editors are the central people in newsroom. In general nine respondents (25.7%) of the
    • 23 respondents have been assigned for investigative journalism and 26 respondents (74.3%) of the respondents have never received assignment for investigative story. out of 10 respondents interviewed, five respondents said that higher learning’s institutions are not doing enough to prepare investigative journalists in the country. They also argued that higher learning institutions concentrate much on theoretical learning and foregone practical assignments particularly in investigative reporting. 4.2.2 Journalists Perception of Investigative Journalism Among the issues the researcher wanted to explore was the attitude which journalists have on investigative reporting because the attitude people hold has impact on what they are doing. All 10 interviewed journalists believe that investigative journalism is the death game to play one journalist said: I have ten years working experience in journalism but I had never pursued investigative story. I believe that investigative reporting involves high risk as you can be broken into pieces or die before your days. In the questionnaire the findings on the perception of journalist on investigative journalism looks as follows.
    • 24 Table 4.3: Perception of Mwanza Journalists on Investigative Journalism Question Indicators Responses Percentage What is your perception on investigative journalism Positive 24 68.6% Negative 4 11.4% Neutral 7 20% Total 35 100% Source: Research 2013 Table 4.3 shows most of respondents have positive attitudes toward investigative journalism and they can do it when promoted and secured with enough security on it. In general 24 respondents (68.6%) have positive perception on investigative journalism, 4 respondents (11.4%) were neutral and 7 respondents (20%) are having negative perception and fear of doing investigative journalism. Major reason provided by respondents who have positive attitudes is the importance of investigative journalism in the society. For instance one journalist claims that he hold positive attitude toward investigative journalism as it has helped to decrease the number of killings of people with albinism in Tanzania.
    • 25 CHAPTER FIVE Discussion and Recommendations 5.0 Introduction This chapter presents the discussion of the findings together with the arguments presented by different authors who appeared in first and second chapters of this study. The researcher interprets the findings and gives out opinions in relations to data obtained. Also the researcher gave out suggestions and recommendation basing on the findings. 5.1. Discussion In their studies, Matjama (2007), Mawarire (2010), MISA (2009), Yusha’u (2009) and Kantumoya (2004) found out that the major problem for low investigative journalism in Nigeria, Angola and Zambia is sensitive nature of subjects, low salaries, bad working conditions and corrupt practices by journalists. This study also presents similar findings. The overall findings show that corruption practices among journalists, unwillingness of media owners, journalists fear to risk their lives due to the sensitive nature of investigative journalism and lack of finance to cover investigative issues are among the issues which lead to the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania. The high risk of taking investigative journalism and corruption practices among journalists has been mentioned to be the main reasons for the decline of investigative
    • 26 journalism in Tanzania. Mpagaze (2012) found that Tanzania journalists in collaboration with the editors when they get investigative stories tend to call the affected party so that they can get money and kill the story. This shows that if journalist continues to fear investigative journalism and few who perform investigative journalism continue with their corrupt practices investigative journalism in Tanzania will continue to decline day after day. The tendency of journalists taking bribes to kill investigative journalist shows that journalists have failed to act on the watchdog role of the media which asserts that the press should criticize and evaluate the government and other institutions to ensure they don’t become corrupt or overstep their power (Lichtenberg, 1990). In Tanzania this has been different as journalists have failed to work under the monitorial role dictum. If this goes on Tanzania journalists will lose credibility in the eyes of its audiences. This will likely kill investigative journalism in Tanzania and reduce the chances for media to act as the watchdog role the government on behalf of the citizens. Findings on whether Tanzania media provide enough opportunities for investigative stories reveal that Tanzania media does not provide such opportunities. This portray dark cloud on investigative journalism in Tanzania as media industries are continually to be owned by private business men with no or little education on journalism
    • 27 and who look on for profit as Fourie (2008) argues that media owners are merely business capitalist which aim at profit, they just concentrate on maximizing profit rather than serving the citizens. Further, the findings found that journalists hold positive attitudes toward investigative journalism due to its importance in our societies; unfortunately most of these journalists have never conducted any investigative stories. If at one point journalists say that they hold positive perception on investigative journalism, then they are not practicing it, leaves a question on what perception does they need to hold so that they can engage in investigative journalism. 5.2 Recommendations  The study recommends that journalists, media owners, editors, higher learning institutions and the government need to work together in promoting investigative journalism in the country.  Journalists need to be creative enough to develop investigative ideas which will favor the voiceless in the society, communicating developmental issues, current affairs, and uncovering the wrong doings of the government officials.  Journalists need to use advantages of social media and funds from non- governmental organizations (NGO’s) to escape from the barrier posed forward by Tanzania media owners on investigative journalism.
    • 28  Media owners need to consider themselves as public servants rather than business corporations which are aiming at increasing profit. They need to invest enough on investigative journalism to serve the voiceless community from embezzlement of government officials and other injustice posed to the voiceless.  Media editors need also to be creative enough to develop investigative ideas and provide as many as possible assignments which cover different investigative issues. They also need to motivate journalists to move on covering investigative issues.  The government official needs to stop from the use of iron hand to investigative journalists. Journalism training institutions need to impart journalists with relevant practical skills on investigative journalism such as techniques and strategies. 5.3. Conclusion Media outlets in Tanzania and journalists have failed to engage in investigative journalism hence the watchdog theory is not observed. The study revealed that the corruption among journalists, negligence of media owners to fund for investigative
    • 29 stories, risk of pursuing investigative journalism to be among the reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania. The study has also revealed that Mwanza journalists hold positive attitudes and perceptions on investigative journalism but they still fear from practicing it. The positive perception is mainly due to the nature of investigative journalism and the services it rendered to the public.
    • 30 REFERENCES Cabrera. R. (2011), “Who wants to forget?” Truth and Access to Information about past Human Rights Violations: The Global Campaign for Free Expression McGraw Hill New York Feldstein.M (2006) A Muckraking Model; Investigative Reporting Cycles in American History; Washington, President and the Fellows of Harvard College, Forbes. D (2005) A watchdog guide to investigative reporting; a simple introduction to principle and practice in investigative reporting, Johannesburg, Konrad Adenauer Stifting media program; Fourie, P (2008). Media Studies: Policy, Management and Media Representation, Juta $ Co Gaines. C.W. (2008) Investigative journalism; proven strategies for reporting the story, Washington, DC CQ press Kantumoya. L. M (2004) Investigative Reporting in Zambia: A Practitioner’s Handbook, Zambia; Transparency International Zambia and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung Retrieved 23 March 2012 from. library.fes.de/pdf-files/bueros/sambia/50013.pdf Kennedy G & Moen.D (2007) what is good journalism? How reporters and editors are serving American journalism way of life, Columbia & London; University of Missouri Press, from search.library.wisc.edu. retrieved on 19 march 2012 Killimwiko, L. M (2009) Media Power and Politics in Tanzania; Critical Analysis of Media Trends and Practices.Konrad Adenauer Stiffung, Dar es Salam
    • 31 Kobre.S. (1983) Reporting news in-depth, Washington DC, university press of America Inc. Kothari, C (2004). Research Methodology: Research and Techniques, 2nd Ed. New Delhi: New Age International Publisher Lichtenberg, J. (1990). Foundations and limits of freedom of the press in Democracy New York McGraw Hill Matjama. T. (2007) Presentation on the media environment in Lesotho, MISA Lesotho Information and Research Officer Retrieved 21 March 2012 From qa.misa.org/downloads/MISA%20AR%202009.pdf Matumaini, J. (2009). The history of radio Broadcasting for development in Tanzania; Mwanza. St. Augustine Press, Meiklejohn, J. (1960). Political freedom: The constitutional powers of the people. New and the Mass Media (pp. 102-135) Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press, New York: MISA (2009) Training on Investigating and Reporting Corruption for Journalists in Southern Africa: Workshop Report Johannesburg, South Africa Mpagaze, D. (2012) Tanzania Journalists Perception of Bribe Taking: Mind you that he who pays for the piper calls the tune, Saarbrucken: Lambert O’donnell. M (2006) 12th IACC Report; Constrains and Challenges of Investigative Journalism against Corruption, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, from iacconference.org/.../12th_iacc_workshop, retrieved on 23 March 2012
    • 32 Spencer. O (2007) ARTICLE 19, Free Word Centre, 60 Farringdon Road, London EC1R 3GA, United Kingdom Retrieved on 25March 2012 from www.article19.org Stapenhurst R. (2006) The Media’s Role in Curbing Corruption, World Bank Institute retrieved on 22 March 2012 from wbi.worldbank.org Ward.H.H (1991) Reporting in-depth; California USA, Mayfield publishing company Yush’au J.M (2009) Investigative Journalism and Scandal Reporting in the Nigerian Press Abuja Harper Publishers
    • 33 Appendix One Questionnaire My name is Gift .A. Macha from St. Augustine university of Tanzania doing research on the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania as a part of my undergraduate’s studies. I request for your response in filling out this questionnaire. Thank you in advance.  Put a tick where appropriate 1. What media are you working in? (a) Radio ( ) (b) TV ( ) (c) Newspaper ( ) (d) freelances ( ) 2. For how long have you worked as a journalist? (a) 1-5 years ( ) (b) 5-10 years ( ) (c) 10 years and above ( ) 3. What is your education level (a) Certificate in journalism ( ) (a) Diploma in journalism ( ) (b) Advance diploma in journalism ( ) (c) Bachelor degree in journalism/mass communication ( ) (d) None of the above ( )
    • 34 4. Do you think Tanzanian media provide enough opportunities for investigative journalism? (a) Strongly agree (b) Agree (c) Disagree (d) Strongly disagree 5. Have you ever been assigned for investigative story by your editor? (a) Yes (b) No 6. If yes how often (a) Less than every week ( ) (b) Monthly ( ) (c) Every three month ( ) (d) More than three months ( ) 7. What is your perception (attitudes) towards investigative journalism (a) Positive ( ) (b) Negative ( ) (c) Neutral ( ) 8. Provides reasons for your answer above ……………………………………………………………………………………………… What do you think are the reasons behind for the decline (fall) of investigative journalism in Tanzania you think it is possible to improve investigative journalism in Tanzania?
    • 35 (a) Yes ( ) (b) No ( ) 9. Whom do you think is responsible for improving investigative journalism in Tanzania…………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 10. What do you think should be done to improve investigative journalism in Tanzania? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………
    • 36 Appendix Two Interview Guide 1. How many years have you worked as a journalist? 2. How do you take investigative journalism? 3. In Tanzania there is an increase of media industries but investigative journalism in going down day after day. What do you think are the reasons for the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania? 4. Is there any case which can be linked with the decline of investigative journalism in Tanzania?