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Sr.lekule final doc

  1. 1. ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication The role of Community Radio in Promoting Social Development Case Study: Radio SAUT Research Paper on Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Bachelor Degree of Art in Mass Communication Submitted to the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication of SAUT Lekule Immaculate, A June, 2013
  2. 2. DECLARATION I, Lekule Immaculate A,. I declare that this research paper is my own original work. It has not been and will not be presented to any other University for the similar award. Signature____________________ Researcher's name: Lekule Immaculate A. Signature:____________________ Supervisor's name: Denis Mpagaze (Research Supervisor) Supervisor's position: Assistant Lecturer i
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  4. 4. COPYRIGHT All rights reserved by the copyright law,; no parts of this research paper may be reproduced, reprinted or storeds in any form or any means electronic mechanism, photocopy without the permission from Lekule Immaculate . A .Sr. or SAUT. Failure to that law will take its course under the copyright rule. © 2013 LEKULE IMMACULATE A. iii
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  6. 6. DEDICATION This This work research is dedicatis dedicatedion to my belovedmy beloved parents parents Mr. and Mrs. Andrea P. Mmasai and my mother Germana for their moral support and prayers during my three years of study at SAUT. May Almighty God reward you abundantly. v
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  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank God for the good health and protection he granted me during my studies that enabled me to reach the end of my studies at SAUT. I will live to serve and praise him all the days of my life. I also thankalso thanks go myto my Congregation for the the granting me studying opportunity to pursue degree in mass communication.chance they gave to me to study in this university of SAUT and the financial support they gave me. Lastly My appreciation is due to thanks goes to my supervisor Mr. Denis Mpagaze for his tirelessly guidance during my research, he made me work very hard with love and great patience. Thanks Mr. Mpagaze. May God bless you. Also I would like to thank Mr. Paul ShukuruPaul forShukuru for proofreading and editing my work helping me to read and correct my materials during my research. Thank you and May God blessGod bless you. vii
  9. 9. ABSTRACT The major objective of this study was to determine the role of media in promoting sSocial dDevelopment in Tanzania. Throughout the study the major focus was taken into specific objectives of the study which were;- to identify social development programs aired by radio SAUT, to evaluate people’s perception towards Radio SAUT development programmes, and at last to assess the relevance of Radio SAUT development programs to the society’s needs. The study was guided by participant media theory formulated by Fourie in, 2001(2001) which statinges that the cCommunity participation is an inherent feature in any democracdemocratic nationy. The theory was developed in reaction to existing theories such as normative theories which rarely took into account the development of new media and the rise of large media organizations. The research applied case study research design that is to mean that the focus has been taken into specific objectives of the study in collection and analysis of data. Various instruments were used to obtain data for this instance interviewsInterviews and viii
  10. 10. questionnaires were used in data collection. The study came with the findings which revealed that Radio SAUT has a key role to play in amplifying social development through its programs. In other view the audience has credited the radio as an animator in social aspects such as health awareness, human rights, social welfare. Some critics were also risen on the sustainability of the radio due to inconsistency in its operation. Generally the station has emerged as important in social development despites having some critical challenges audience and management. ix
  11. 11. TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION..................................................................................................................................i COPYRIGHT....................................................................................................................................iii DEDICATION....................................................................................................................................v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...................................................................................................................vii ABSTRACT.....................................................................................................................................viii TABLE OF CONTENTS.......................................................................................................................x CHAPTER ONE.................................................................................................................................1 Problem Setting .............................................................................................................................1 CHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction...................................................................................................1 1.1 Background of the study.......................................................................................................1 1.1.1 Historical Background of Radio SAUT ................................................................................2 1.2 Statement of the problem....................................................................................................3 1.3 Research objectives..............................................................................................................4 1.4 Research questions...............................................................................................................4 1.5 Significance of the study.......................................................................................................5 CHAPTER TWO................................................................................................................................6 Literature Review............................................................................................................................6 2.0 Introduction .........................................................................................................................6 2.1 Theoretical argument...........................................................................................................6 2.2 Theoretical Framework.........................................................................................................9 CHAPTER THREE............................................................................................................................11 Research Methodology.................................................................................................................11 3.0 Introduction........................................................................................................................11 3 .1 Research Ddesign...............................................................................................................12 3.2 Population of the study.......................................................................................................12 3.3 Sampling technique and Sample size..................................................................................12 3.4 Methods for Data Collection...............................................................................................13 3.5 Data analysanalysis............................................................................................................13 x
  12. 12. CHAPTER FOUR.............................................................................................................................14 Presentation of Findings...............................................................................................................14 CHAPTER FIVE...............................................................................................................................27 DICUSSIONS ANDDiscussion CONCLUSIONand Conclusion........................................................27 REFERENCES..................................................................................................................................33 APPENDICES..................................................................................................................................35 APPENDIX ONE .............................................................................................................................35 Questionnaires Toto the Audience...............................................................................................35 APPENDIX TWO.............................................................................................................................39 Interview guide for managing director of radio SAUT...................................................................39 APPENDIX THREE..........................................................................................................................40 Interview guide with program producers.....................................................................................40 xi
  13. 13. CHAPTER ONE Problem Setting CHAPTER ONE1.0 Introduction This chapter consists of background of the study, sStatement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions and the significance of the study. 1.1 Background of the study White (2008) argues that the use of resources to improve health or education facilities requires a certain community mobilization. This is not without good communication. The resources available from central government are not used at all or are used badly. Brosseu and Socin, (2001) argues that there is a great relationship between broadcasting and development. The relationship rises as broadcasting based on audio visual capacities despite this technology people are poor and improvement is too little. Therefore, according to Benedict Mongula, (2008) argued that mass media has potential role of informing agreeing the public regarding current affairs, and social economic problems, new trends in developments, demands of the accountability in public services and other stems of major interest of the citizens so that the public can be able to make intelligent decisions. For example, According to Robert White, (2008) has argued that the use of resources to improve health or education facilities requires a certain of community mobilization but without good communication, the resources available from the central government are not used to 1
  14. 14. benefit the larger public. used at all or used badly. Social development can only All the mentioned above can be enhanced possible if and only there is a strong and free press in a particular society. It is through media that people media to org organize people through programmers to initiate in them (people) the spiritand develop of solidarity and team work for development and the better off their standards of living. State of Media in Tanzania The introduction of Since the trade liberalizationtrade liberalization inpolicies in early 1990 brought about , to date we Tanzanians have impressed the new mushrooming of radio stations and many of them privately owned. With this mushrooming, Tanzanians have freedom to access every sort of information of their interests. However, Ddespite of being well informed and taking into consideration that information is power; the majority of Tanzania is economically poor. this reality Tanzanians are still poor and not able to organize themselves to explore the resources in their surrounding due to lack of information from these Medias through their programs.Who is to blame? This study therefore, Therefore, the researcher wants tosought to assess the role of media in promoting social development in a society. Focusing will be on radio SAUT to see whether they promote development through their programs for the people around them especially Luchelele.as a key information provider of Luchelele people. 1.1.1 Historical Background of Radio SAUT The origin of radio SAUT goes back toas 1998 by the name; when RaRadio Nyanza FM 2
  15. 15. under Nyegezi Social Training Institution (NSTI). was founded by Robert Otieno Ndong’a is the founder of the radio. The radio was Radio Nyanza by then was located at Malimbe which at the time was known as the Agriculture Training Institute within the college grounds Nyanza Fm was set up to accomplish the spiritual and secular mission of its owner, the Tanzania Episcopal conference and to meet the needs (agricultural and fishing) of its nearby local communities audience around them that is agriculturalist, fishing communities around Lake Victoria with the aim of informing, educating and entertainments. Its mission and vision To train professionals broadcast journalist to serve Tanzania, Africa and the world and large. Helping listeners to implement the vision of Tanzania andTanzania theand the Church of Africa inAfrica in building the City of God. Following the University vision of building the City of God, radio SAUT tries to be closer to the community of the marginalized regardless their political and religious backgrounds.without taking the account of their political party’s ethnic groups, or religious backgrounds. The programs are then purposely for helping the listeners to improve their aspects of health fishing, environmental; issues, women and children. 1.2 Statement of the problem Amartya Seni once said that where there is free and independent media the society cannot 3
  16. 16. face hunger. It is through media people have the ability to identify the problem and enable them to make vibrant decisions regarding their wellbeing (Mpagaze 2012). It is the media which provide an increasingly important means of making their voices heard, increasingly facilitating horizontal and interpersonal communications and debate and provide mechanism for formulation of identity and creation of community space. This study wasis therefore seeking to determine the role of radio SAUT in promoting social development. 1.3 Research objectives 1.3.1 Main objective. To determine the role of media in promoting Social Development in Tanzania with the reference to Radio SAUT FM. 1.3.2 Specific objectives. 1 To identify social development programs aired by radio SAUT. 2 To evaluate people’s perception towards Radio SAUT development programmes. 3 To assess the relevance of Radio SAUT development programs to the society’s needs. 1.4 Research questions. 1 Are there any Which are social development programs aired by radio SAUT 2 What are people’s perceptionare people’s perceptions toward Radio SAUT on development programs? 4
  17. 17. 3 Is there any relevance of radio SAUT development programs to the society’s needs? 1.5 Significance of the study. The knowledge obtained in this study will help radio SAUT on how to venture in their programs for social development for the wellbeing of the community.better services for the community. 5
  18. 18. CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2.0 Introduction This chapter consists of theoretical argument, theoretical framework, empiricaland empirical literature review and knowledge gap. 2.1 Theoretical argument 2.1.1 Understanding community radio Alumuku (2006) aArgues that community radio is the participatory and democratic medium of communication capable o of initiating dialogue and stimulating critical thinking at the grass root. It is medium of the people in which the om community speaks to itself as well as the rest of the world. Community radio plays a central role in community development. To play this role they used to provide quality programs to ensure continued audience and support from the community Community radio aspires to achieve the ideal of changing the local community to a caring community and a better place to live in. Tthis has potential to increase awareness among audience to participate actively in their social economic and cultural development. It aims at improving the lieaving standards of people and financing solution to their local problems. community radio is an alternative media is the counter balance to profit 6
  19. 19. motivate corporate media. According to Alumuku (2006) ), argues what community radiomedia emphasis ized is to facilitate improvement of people with their achieve participation in the process not as passive listeners but active participants. It Community radio has specific objective to promote people’s agenda ; first locallike local knowledge on culture, human rights and social justice, environment issues and community problems as well as issues related to development. Through Community radio for social development can promote participatory relationship with the sector that resultresults for promoting public participation and governance, media can promote social development (Mtimde, 2002). Since community development is linked to the needs of the people peoplein localized, so it is logical that development should start with the people. This means community based development, development initiated by the people and controlled by the people themselves. Community radio can help people discover well resources including people’s culture, nature history, institutions, activities and commodities. Such discovery usually happens through various programmes focusing on history, culture and nature in the community, hosted by experts (Osukule, 2005). Community radio is used to motivate concerns, arousing people to think about and hopefully, ultimately to on development issuesact to something. Radio programs on political themes often seek to motivate people to national patriotism, programs about environment seek to motivate people to becoame more conscious of their ecology and religious programs seeks to inspire hope, love of neighbors’ or to find inner peace. 7
  20. 20. Community radio is used to inform the public , example programmes on local, national news,, information news farm news on agriculture, weather, information about social activities and services available to audience for development of skills, . Community radio is mandated to educate through progammes on how mothers can prepare more nutrition’s meals for their families, farms on how to plant better crops and how to choose better seeds for better harvest. So using radio to teach for non formal education is probably most important for development purpose. It is confirmed that radio has great potentiality for development especially for many low- income people, countries among people and those who are physically isolated, illiterate and poor. They provide much evidence that radio can be used in efforts to improve the lives of the peoplepeople . (Bates, 1984) 2.1.2 Community radio for social development Social development refers to improvement of human life condition of individual and social levels. The term improvement, in this sense means a positive change for better social, economic, political, cultural, human and spiritual conditions. According to Kasoma, (2001) there is no universal path to development, for it must be conceived as an integralintegral, malt dimensional dimational and dialectic process that differ from one society to another. Development is a many sided processprocess . (Melkcote and Steeves, 2001). Development is meaningful when it is experienced from grassroots, and not imposed from above. The idea and plans for actions have to come out of the community deliberation. And that is what it means to be self-reliant. This is to avoid a top-down 8
  21. 21. system of development in favor of down-top mode of development because if respects people’s ideas and contributions. People know what they need so they have to participate in development programs. Regular listening groups are another way of using radio for rural development. This method has been used in many countries and has proved successful. In Canada, for instance, such programs known as radio farm forum helped people listen, discuss and act. This enhances development as what they do becomes their own decisions. 2.2 Theoretical Framework Thise study was guided by participant media theory formulated by Fourie (in, 2001). The theory states which states that the cCommunity participation is an inherent feature in a democracy, but the ever-emphases and over centralization of the mass society tends to inhibit individuals and minorities from realistic opportunities for participation in the area of mass communication. The theory was developed in reaction to existing theories such as normative theories which rarely took into account the development of new media and the rise of large media organization The theory is primarily a reaction to the trends towards commercialization in public broadcasting Thebroadcasting. The theory advocates for the promotion of media development towards the direct and active participation of communities in publications and narrows casting as opposed to broadcasting. The participant media theory is characterized by the establishment of more local interactive television system and digital villages (Fourie, 2001). The democratic participant model incorporates the local 9
  22. 22. communities which are usually not reached by the mainstream centralized media. It lays emphasis on the local and subcultures as well as horizontal interaction more than dominant mainstream media which are usually top down (Kwaramba 2000). In respect to community radio, this would relate to the concretization and empowerment aimed at enabling communities to gain and understanding of their situation, develop confidence and ability to change their lives. In some radio stations, community members are able to act as reporters, thus they tend to be more interested in community including people, events facilities, building, nature and history. Some programs serve to exchange information about communities and establish connections among or between communities. Local stores and companies are also important resources in the community. Example, some stations issue a members cardmember card with which a member is given the privilege of discounts in local stores and companies that cooperate with the radio station. 10
  23. 23. CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology 3.0 Introduction The chapter discusses entails the methods which the researcher used to conduct to his study. This includes the research design, sample size and sampling techniques, data 11
  24. 24. collection methods and data analysis. 3 .1 Research Ddesign This study applied triangulation research design in which a survey and a case study are enjoined. Triangulation design was opted for this study because the study sought to measure the role of media in promoting social development. Therefore interviews were conducted in order to understand the role of media in promoting social development. Also questionnaires were used to measure people’s perception on understanding theunderstanding the role of media in promoting social development. 3.2 Population of the study. The target population forpopulation for the study was all radio SAUT presenters, Director of radio SAUT and audience around Malimbe areas whoareas who have access to radio SAUT. That make a total of 50. 1 director, 3 presenters of the same radio and 48 audiences around Malimbe. 3.3 Sampling technique and Sample size. Kombo & Tromp, (2006) argue that sampling is the process of selecting a number or individuals or objects from the population such that the selected group contains representative of the characteristics found in the entire group. Simple random sampling was used to obtain a total of 50 responses from SAUT FM radio. presenters and listeners. Simple random sampling is the sampling technique which gave equal opportunity to all audience toaudience to answer the questions provided by the researcher without any categorization. 12
  25. 25. 3.4 Methods for Data Collection 3.4.1 Interviews The researcher conducted interview with Director of SAUT FM and three (3) presentersradio presenters of the radio. 3.4.2 Questionnaires The questionnaires were administered to (46) SAUT students who used to listen to SAUT FM. 3.5 Data analysanalysis The researcher analyzed qualitative data thematically which employed themes and quantitative data statistically using tables and percentages to highlight findings from the field. . 13
  26. 26. CHAPTER FOUR Presentation of Findings 4.1 Introduction. This chapter presents the findings from the field during data collection between October and November 2012. The study aimed at assessing the Role of community Radio in promoting social development in Tanzania through programs with focus on Human Rights program. 4.2 Demographic characteristics the respondent. The previous chapter explains about the type of methods used to investigate the study. The researcher employed qualitative and quantitative approach, questionnaire and interview. This chapter outlines the analysis of the data and presentation of findings of the data and presentation of findings. The researcher findings assembled and returned questionnaires and interview as wary of data collection of the 50 intended respondent, 46 respondents out of 50 were providedserved with questionnaires while other four respondents were interviewed for the purpose served with questionnaires did not return and this makes a total of 48 effective respondents of this research. Of the four interviewed respondent, one is a so for the director of Radio SAUTI and the rest are radio presenters/ host of the same radio station. 4.3 Age range of the respondent. 14
  27. 27. Age range/Years Number Percentage 15 – 25 32 64% 26 – 35 10 20% 36 – 45 6 12% 46 – 66 2 4% 56 – Above 0 0% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. The table 4.4table 4.4 indicates thatindicates thethat majoritythe ofmajority of the respondentthe respondents are of theof the age of 15of 15 – 25( who make total percentage of 64%) higher than the rest. Sex Number Percentage Male 17 34% Female 33 66% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. 4.5 4.5 Respondent to a question as to whether they hasten to radio SAUT, the table below present the resultslistening habits Respondents Number Percent Yes 38 76% No 12 24% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. 15
  28. 28. 4.6 In the course of determining the type oftype of radio programsradio programs. they listen most in radio SAUT, Respondents were able to produce the following results in table:- Name of the programs Response Percentage Jamii na matukio 12 24% Haki za binadamu 19 38% Ijue afya yako 5 10% Michezo 12 24% Ukimwi na maishass 2 4% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. 4.6 4.6 What does these Programs influencePrograms influence / persuade you to do? This was among the questions that appeared in questionnaires and the finding were as follow. Most of respondentsThey admitted toadmitted to have been ablebeen able to understand their righttheir rights, duties andduties and how to take actions whenactions inferredwhen inferred with thewith the same rightssame rights. One ofOne of the respondents hadrespondents explained theexplained the way they value the radio programs given its importance in societyin society. full of injustice. Have been leaning a lot regarding human right, apartApart from being my course in class, the programs keeps on updating me the solution tosolution to the challenges ofchallenges of human righthuman rights protection and promotion in Tanzania” she saidshe said. 4.7 How4.7 How do they walk the talk? They were able to know and followand follow up issues of election and otherand other 16
  29. 29. related community and theand the whole word. Such issuesSuch issues are like environmentlike healthenvironment health, education which havehas great impact oin the development of any society. However, they, they had complained on the inconsistency of radio programs in radio SAUTI which are often affected because of power cut – off. The otherThe other group saidgroup said of difficultof difficult to walk the talkthe talk because they tend to veryto busyvery busy all the time hence no time unless the circumstances make it so. Program Respondent Present Nyimbo za dini 9 18% Wanawake na maendeleo 8 16% Ijue afya yako 11 22% Mazingira 12 24% Michezo 10 20% Vinginevyo 0 0% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. When the audience asked about the programs they listen most 19% said they listen church songs, 13% listened the program women and development 23% listened know your health, 25% liked listening Environmental program and 21% listened sports. The 17
  30. 30. programs lack constant as sometimes they are not aired and they cannot follow or get the full messages. When they were asked about the problem they encounter when in listening to the programs the responses varied as follows; in language was 0%, those who said if frequency were 60%, programs lacking constant 30%, and Iignorance 6%. and those who said others were 0%. The inconstancy of Radio programs was a problem. They commented that programs inconstancy does not bring development as one gets information half way. One presenter said that sometimes the problem of the radio is that they don’t have a standby techniciana standby technician to solve incoming problem during airing the program. The radio is left with students who have no knowledge on how to solve a problem in case it happened. So he can end up closing down the radio if the problem is beyond his rich. Table: 4.8 Problems in listening to the programs aired by Radio SAUT.listening problem Reasons Respondent Percent Its Language 2 4% Its frequency 30 60% Programs lack constant 15 30% Ignorance 3 6% Others 0 0% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. 4.9 Audience challengesBig problem encountered with the community of Malimbe. The respond was that the communities around Malimbe are poor and the majorities 18
  31. 31. depend on one meal per day. Oneday. One presenter noted that the programs of the radio are not able to meet the needs of lives of the people. The programs are not researched well as they lack time and funds to do so. Also there is no team work spirits which make students get discouraged especially when they need help. The whole system is disorganized and no one wants to be responsible. Table: 4.10 the role of Radio SAUT can do what to eliminate the problems of your community Response Respondent Percentage Visits audience 17 34% To better programs 29 58% Better communication 4 8%2 Total 48 100% Source: Researcher 2013. Table 4:10 shows that 34% said they visit the community in order to eliminate the Malimbe community problems 58% said to better the programs and 8% said to better communication. “Programs are not effective as people are not visited and draw materials from their real lives”. This was the comment from the presenter they copy and pest. Programs should 19
  32. 32. open the way to participation and people share what exactly they need for their development. Table Qualities of a good presenter. Responds Respondent Percentage Good articulator 12 24% Welcoming 5 10% Friendly 4 8% Flexible 26 52% Ethical 3 6% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. Table 4.11 Shows that 24% said good articulator 10%, said welcoming presenter, friendly, 8% flexible they responded 52% and eEthically they responded 6%. A flexible presenter was opting by more respondents with 54.1% and 20.8% for a good articulator. This shows that flexibility of the presenter helps in adjusting issues. One presenter said one has to move with time if one wants development and not to stick on one type of a style. Table 4.12 How does Radiodoes SAUTIRadio SAUTI help / serve the marginalized. Responds Respondent Percentage In communication 8 16% To bridge them with the government 32 64% To grow spiritually 6 12% 20
  33. 33. Entertainment 3 6% Others 1 2% None of the above 0 0% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. Table 4.12 shows that 16% agreed that radio SAUT helped people in communication, 64% said itf linksbridges them with their government, 12% said itf helped them to grow spiritually, 6% commented that itf gives them entertainment and 2% opt for others. They 64% acknowledged that it bridges then with their government.One respondent commented that the radio has clearly helped them understand the issue of“if not the radio then one cannot know what the government want them to do” like Kilimo KwazaKwanza, Millenium goals for the development of the people. Data collected from the interview. Managing director (MD).As the responded to the question asked on the priority goals of development the managing he saideditor said is to reach to the grass root of the audience. The success of this has not reached its desired goals due to some financial crisisproblems. This is together with transportation, facilities, and too few employees who can not cover the area in terms of service. He also said that his strategy is to open the brunches of Radio SAUT in all SAUT constituent colleges.its areas where Saint Augustine has opened its brunches; to enhance development. He said despite country and outside the country with good reporters. This is to fulfill it 21
  34. 34. mission a vision to educate broadcasters for the country, Africa and the whole world. He said most radios in Tanzania have a worker from SAUT fm S which is a good achievement. He said SAUT FM isFM is as old as the indempendent of the country. So it has served a lot dispose the challenges it faces, its fruits are recognized. He said the radio now has got solar system which will enable to reduce the power cuts. He thanks the benefactors who donated the solar. Replying to the question to how the programs producers implement those programs the managing director based his answer on the time allocated for each one of these in data collection and recorded programs. He mentioned the equipments available to make such objectives a reality such as, a recording studio, production room, and news collection. All these according to him could help program producers implement the programs aired by Radio said such as Ijue afya yako, Mazingira, Human Right, Chai Yetu, Morning pressure and Jamii na matukio. Responding on whether radio SAUT has a policy concerning the production of the radio programs he said they only abide by communication policies established by Tanzania Ccommunication Regulation Authority (TCRA) on the other hand as a Catholic Radio station they also follow the Catholic teachings on matters of faith and social issues. In charge of the SAUT Human Rights offices / Centre. The researcher made interview with the director of human right office at SAUT so as to discover how Human Right programRights program came about and its objectives and 22
  35. 35. how it contributes to social development of the ;community nearby.around its challenges and its future exploration. He said that the center responded that the aim of the program was established to purposely to fight against any killings of red eyes old women around the lake zone. for the rights of the marginalized raised by the killing of osld women with red eyes who were thought to be witches. This is after seeing that the government was not taking any responsibility to protect these people.step. So SAUT started the NGO to support this issue and that is low Human Right program come into existence. Also the findings show that Its objective. He noted that the objectives of the program the center are to provide civic education on and promote the respect forawareness humanabout human rights. toto the center relies on doing conduct human rights researches and to address matters on violence of human rights challenges and way forward.research. For example through research, they discovered that He gave statistics produced by THRR (2009) that MMwanza Region is city which is one the lake Zone is leading in the killings of older women and people learning with albinism in Tanzania followed by Shinyanga and Tabora. About 60 old women were liked in Mwanza between January and August 2009. Within a period of not more than five years 2585 women were killed in the region of Tanzania main land. This moved the leadership of SAUT to come up with this organization to raise the voice of the voiles. He said through the program 60% of Lake Zone are aware of human right and can fight for it. 23
  36. 36. Further the findings show that the police in Mwanza perceive SAUT Human Rights Center as One the challenge he responded that police see them as a threat because of the through the education they give to the people. anotherAnother challenge is the power cuat off when human rights programs are on air. of the radio which hinder the airing of their program after the research and lack of constancy and thus hinder development. The findings also report that SAUT Human Right Program focuses to offer services all over lake zone regions because On the future plan of the program he said they won to make sure that they reach all areas of the lake Zone especially those who are victims of being thought to be witches and those with albinism to give them civic education this is Magu, Ukerewe and Bariadi. He instead that “wWithout Human Rights other social development issues con notcannot take place and without media there is no social development. Programs on social development and presenters. This came about through the first specific objective in which the researcher wanted to identify social Development programs aired by Radio SAUT. The following are the findings;were found more appealing to the object although all programs are aimed at bringing about social development. Distribution of programs and their presenter and time 24
  37. 37. Name Program MSHANGAMA Haki za binadamu JAME LRONGOA Ukimwi na maisha FORTUNATUS SABINI Pambana na umasikin MANENO Ijue afya yako PASCHAL LEONSI Ihjue katiba GESTON KIWELO Jamii na matukio Source: Researcher 2013. 1 Haki za binadamu: This program is aired at 20:30am 2 21:00 every Monday. Only once a week 3 Ukimwi na Maisha is aired at 20:30-21-00 a.m every Tuesday and on every Thursday 20:30-21:00 a.m This is aired twice a week. 4 Pambana na Umasikin is aired 20:30-21:00, which is on every Wednesday for only half an hour in a week. 5 Ijue katiba is aired 20:00-20:30 on Tuesday. Only once a week. 6 Harakati za Mazingira is aired at 20:30-20:30 am. 7 Ijue afya yako id aired at 20:30 -20: 30 am. Ijue Afya yako is aired at 20:30 -21:00 Every an every Saturday. for half an hour only. One of the presenter responded the question asked on how they gather data for the program that they get from internet café, visits areas like business areas. The targeted on these programs are youth, parents and the entire society. as they offer education which fits all ages of reasoning he added. 25
  38. 38. Answering the question asked on objective the achievements its objectives one of one presenter said therethat there is a lot of straining in preparing the programs as they lack support from the concerns of the radio.management. They mentioned of using their own money to travel to some areas of events and also lacking facilities to carry out activities such as tapes recorderstape recorders. identify of the radio and cause some inconvenient to the reporters. Also the misunderstanding between workers cause others to dodge responsibilities which ends up leaiving the presenter alone inside the without any helpless such as technician or a person who can solve the problem in case it arises. During in depth interview, “Oone presenter said, “One dayday I had to put off the Radio when it caught fire and I did not know what next”. Said one presenter. Magazines are used to support radio strategies one of the presenters said. They use Kiongozi and other magazines to support Radio strategies. 26
  39. 39. CHAPTER FIVE DICUSSIONS ANDDiscussion CONCLUSIONand Conclusion 5.0 Introduction This chapterThis chapter discusses the findings presented in previous chapter after discussions, recommendations and conclusions are made. 5.1 Discussion of the findings Research question 1: How effectiveness of program about development aired by Radio SAUT? The study focusedstudy onfocused theon the effectiveness ofeffectiveness of the programsthe asprograms as far developmentas isdevelopment concernedis concerned. In such objective the study aspired to discover if the programs take into consideration criteria for good programming. The study observed whether the programming fall in line with the needs of people. If there was an audience research in a practical way allowing Malimbe area audience participation. In Malimbe areas people and economic interest economic activities such as agriculture animal husbandly industrial employment in urban areas and fishing activities. Satisfying the information needs for all these groups in a great challenges for most of Tanzania development communication practitioners, especially in Radio broadcasting. In table 2 revealsit was revealed that 67% percent listen to the Radio and enjoy the listening different programs of the Radio. Referring to the world of Zukowsky and Belanger (2000) good programs should be designed to meet the 27
  40. 40. taste of the audience for instance, local dram, stories, local news, generating opinion and giving opportunity for developing local talents. Youth in Mwanza region face challenges such as unemployment, lack of education, frustrations that they cannot get out of poverty others; which according to “Pambana na Umasikini” programs produced might have raised youth’s interest on the programs to let youth realize their talents and use them in order to eradicates poverty. In chapter four it was revealed that the Radio does not cover the required frequencies and this making the programs be heard by very few people. Now for a period of time the radio has been faced with cut off outs electricity making the the audience looses the track of its programs and shift to other radio media stationss. Radio SAUTRadio SAUT lacks internallacks policyinternal sopolicy so as to help inhelp in achieving itsachieving objectivesits objectives. Tthe managing director said state that as a radio station they abide by the communication policies that are established by Tanzania Ccommunication Regulatory Authority (TCRA) and as a catholic radio they adhere to church teachings on the matters of faith and social issues. Research question 2: What are people's perceptionpeople’s towardperceptions radiotoward .radio? SAUT fm development programsdevelopment programs?. The indigenes of day the programs aired at SAUT fm cannot be applied as they are not of their standard. Programs are taken from other environment and applied to them which at the end development at the grass root cannot reachwhich place. The 28
  41. 41. radio is more competing with other radios of Mwanza instead of looking of the audiences they produce they produce program which are beyond the marginalized people and thus who’s the mission and vision of the radio. Also in chapter for the finding revealed that that 20% of respondents favored provision of consistent program as their needs. The study revealed that some of the programs provided by SAUT of were not continuous rather they are stopped or terminated without any prior notification to the audience. People makePeople make a follow upfollow up and expectedand toexpected to make kindmake ofkind of fun club ofclub of a program. It was also evident in chapter four the respondents were foupond to their weds but also to have presenters with good qualities, welcoming and who can articulate well words for better communication. For instance most of the programs use phone calls in to greet friends and relatives they wanted, a presenter who attends them according to their level of understanding. A good presentergood presenter, in their opiniontheir isopinion theis the “one doeswho does not makenot onemake suitone suit that fits all audience” (a presenter for allfor all). To the position of radio SAUT has a long way to go to bring this into reality as social development is concerned. Research question 3: AreTo access the relevance of SAUT FM programsFM programs relevant to to the societythe society needs. 29
  42. 42. The relevance of radio SAUT FM programs are is not relevance to the audience of Malimbe areas and Lake Zone people as they are not applicable to them. When we talk of the marginalized and the programs they are not fit for them. The The development programsdevelopment areprograms are not wellnot researchedwell toresearched to respond to fit people’s needs. This isThis is because programsbecause programs are cookedare incooked in the studiothe studio, and notand drawnnot fromdrawn from the peoplethe people themselves. No participationthemselves No ofparticipation of the audiencethe audience in thein programsthe programs. Sometimes There is a danger also presenters would may prepare the program according toaccording to his/her feeling andfeelings and not thenot feelingthe offeelings theof the people. he is serving. This cannot bringcannot bring changes inchanges in terms of social developmentsocial development of the to people as the programs have no effects on them. They talk things over there and not of their community. Radio SAUT should ensure that mission, vision and policy that guide radio station operations are clear to the whole body of personnel so that programs preparations based on the sensibility reflect such reality. It was learned that the programming should look like basing base on their on basic journalistic skills but there was no guiding principle leading to the at choice of format and content of their programming. 5.2.Areas. Areas of furtherof studyfurther study. 30
  43. 43. The research concentrated on evaluation of programming on radio SAUT in the context of information needs of the audiences it serves so as to establish the reasons why the programming was not effective in Lake Zone especially area in terms of behavior change, knowledge increase and change of attitudes. With regard the above investigation, further researches can be done in the future to include also other radio stations which operate in Mwanza region and Tanzania as a whole so that a synergy of programming that could help answer audiences needs especially in rural areas. 5.3 Conclusions This research studied the role of media in promoting social development in Tanzania. Media as a source of information have a large room to promote people’s social development of the people. This can be done bydone by it airing productive educationalproductive programmeseducational programmes which can promote the social development of the society. From the study findings shows that mediathat media personnel were found to have little commitment in their responsibilities, lack of team work andwork and also there was little or no research conducted to know which relevant programs to prepare and air which in one way another could help in social development of the people. . SAUT as a community radio should involve the community in programming so as to enhance social development from grass root. 5.4 Recommendations Besides all the strengths and weakness the radio SAUT faces, (1996) gives some tips which can be employed by radio station when preparing its programming. 31
  44. 44. 1. To restructure programs to suitesuit the needs of community members. 2. Establishing team-work in radio SAUT 3. Removal of any and weaknesses like;all negatives like excessive talkexcessive talk, annoying commercialsannoying commercials, technical weaknesstechnical andweakness soand so forth. 4. The station should always concentrate in bringing listeners to the station keeping them tuned in and providing the right balance of music, personalities, talk, and information reason to turne elsewhere. 5. Develop the culture of research. 6. In appropriate scheduling and sequences of sound elements may drive listeners to a competitor. 32
  45. 45. REFERENCES Alumuku, P.T. (2006). Community Radio for Development, the World and Africa. Anderson, (1987). Communication Research: Issues and Methods, New York, McGraw Hill Inc. Banda, F. & Fourie, P.J. (2004). Towards a Policy Model for Community Radio. Bates, A (1984) Broadcasting in education: An evaluation, Great Britain, Costable and company limited. Brosseu and Socin, (2001) The Art of Radio, Nairobi, St. Paul Publications Africa. Fourie, P.J. (2001). (ED) Media Studies. Volume one Institutions, Theories and Issues, London, McGraw Hill. Kasoma, (2001). Community radio: Its management and organization in Zambia, Zambia mission press. Kombo, D.K & Tromp, L.A. (2006). Proposal and thesis writing. An introduction. Nairobi: Paulines publications Africa. Krishnaswami, O. (1993). Methodology or Research in Social Science. 1st Ed, New Delhi, MacQuail, D (1983) Communication Theories. London: Sage Matumaini, J. (2009) The History of Radio Broadcasting for Development in Tanzania. SAUT. McQuail, D. (1987). Theories of Mass Communication 2nd Edition. London: Sage. 33
  46. 46. Melcote, J & Steeves, H (2001) Communication for development in third World: Theory and practical for empowerment, London, Sage Publishers. Mongula, B, (2008) Grassroots, Participatory communication, African Communication Research Vol 1, Mpagaze, D. (2012) Effectiveness of Community Radio in Addressing Social Issues Confronting the Society in Tanzania. Mugenda, O. & Mugenda, A. (1999). Research method. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Nairobi: acts press. Notes from Lecturer Mr. Alute on Community Development Nyerere, J.K. (1970) Ujamaa: The Basic of African Socialism. London: oxford university press. Onsukunle, O (2005) An investigation into radio Turf's Social development. Unpublished M.A Thesis submitted at the department of Media studies, University of Limpopo, Sovenga. White, R. (2008). Source of Underdevelopment and Development in Tanzania/East Africa Context. African Communication Research. World Communication Report, (1989) 34
  47. 47. APPENDICES APPENDIX ONE Questionnaires Toto the Audience 1. Umri 15 – 25 ( ) 26 – 35 ( ) 36 – 45 ( ) 46 – 55 ( ) 56 – above ( ) 2. Unasikiliza radio SAUT? 3. ( a )Ndio ( ) 4. (b)Hapana ( ) 5. Unasikiliza vipindi gani zaidi? (a) Jamii na matukio ( ) (b) Haki za binadamu ( ) (c) Ijue afya yako ( ) (d) Michezo ( ) (e) Others ( ) 6. Ni vipindi gani unapendela zaidi na ni kwa nini? (a) Ijue afya yako ( ) (b) Haki z binadamu ( ) (c) Tafakari ( ) (d) Jamii na matukio ( ) (e) Vinginevyo ( ) 35
  48. 48. 7. Vipindi hivi vinakuhamasisha kufanya nini? Elezea ……………………………………………………………………………………… 8. Umewahi kutumia ushauri wa vipindi hivyo katika maisha yako ya kila siku? Ndiyo ( ) Hapana ( ) (i) Kama ndiyo eleza kwa namna gani? ……………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Kama hapana, ni kwanini hapana? ……………………………………………………………………………… 9. Ni vipindi gani ungependelea kusikiliza zaidi? (a) Nyimbo za dini ( ) (b) Wanawake na maendeleo ( ) (c) Ijue afya yako ( ) (d) Mazingira ( ) (e) Michezo ( ) (f) Vinginevyo ( ) 10. Unapata shida yoyote katika kusikiliza vipindi vya radio SAUT? Ni shida gani? (a) Lugha ( ) (b) Masafu yake hayasikiki vizuri ( ) (c) Vipindi havina ubora ( ) (d) Kutokujua ( ) (e) Mengineyo ( ) 11. Ni shida gani kubwa mliyo nayo katika jamii yenu? (a) Fedha ( ) (b) Njaa ( ) (c) Shida za familia ( ) (d) Shida ya mawasiliano ( ) 36
  49. 49. 12. Ungependa radio SAUT ifanye nini ili kutatua matatizo ya jamii yenu? (a) Kututembelea wasikilizaji ( ) (b) Kuboresha vipindi has avya maendeleo ( ) (c) Kuboresha mawasiliano ( ) 13. Kulingana na wewe mtangazaji auapswa kuwa na sifa gani? (a) Matamshi mazuri ( ) (b) Mwenye upendo na anayekatibisha ( ) (c) Anayeweza kubadilika kuendana na wakati ( ) (d) Mwenye maadili mema ( ) 14. Unafikiri radio SAUT inawasaidia watu masikini wa wilaya hii ya nyamagana? (a) Kwa kutoa mawasiliano ( ) (b) Kuwaunganisha watu na serikali yao ( ) (c) Kukua kiroho ( ) (d) Burudani ( ) (e) Mwengineyo ( ) (f) Hakuna ( ) 37
  50. 50. 38
  51. 51. APPENDIX TWO Interview guide for managing director of radio SAUT 1. What is your age? 2. What is your position 3. What do you think are the priority goals of development as far as your radio station is concerned? 4. How do you see the role of your station in this process of development of programs? 5. How do programs producers implement these programs? 6. What do you think is the best way for effective communication to be used for;- 7. Do you have communication policy concerning the radio programming? 39
  52. 52. APPENDIX THREE Interview guide with program producers 1. Name of the program 2. Name of program producer 3. His/her profession 4. What criteria do you use in preparing your program? 5. How often the program is broadcast and at what time? 6. Does the program invite the participation of the audience in any way? Explain how? 7. What are the objectives of the program? 8. To what extent has the program achieve these objectives? 9. How do program directors gather data for program? 10. Which other media do you use to support radio strategies? 40

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