Sr. Lekule on "Lekule2The role of Community Radio in Promoting Social Development Case Study: Radio SAUT"
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Sr. Lekule on "Lekule2The role of Community Radio in Promoting Social Development Case Study: Radio SAUT"

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The major objective of this study was to determine the role of media in promoting social ...

The major objective of this study was to determine the role of media in promoting social
development in Tanzania. Throughout the study the major focus was taken into specific
objectives of the study which were;- to identify social development programs aired by
radio SAUT, to evaluate people’s perception towards Radio SAUT development
programmes, and at last to assess the relevance of Radio SAUT development programs to
the society’s needs.
The study was guided by participant media theory by Fourie (2001) stating that the
community participation is an inherent feature in any democratic nation. Interviews and
questionnaires were used in data collection
Generally the station has emerged as important in social development despites some
critical challenges audience and management.

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Sr. Lekule on "Lekule2The role of Community Radio in Promoting Social Development Case Study: Radio SAUT" Document Transcript

  • 1. ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication The role of Community Radio in Promoting Social Development Case Study: Radio SAUT Research Paper on Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Bachelor Degree of Art in Mass Communication Submitted to the Department of Journalism and Mass Communication of SAUT Lekule Immaculate, A June, 2013
  • 2. i DECLARATION I, Lekule Immaculate A, I declare that this research paper is my own original work. It has not been and will not be presented to any other University for the similar award. Signature____________________ Researcher's name: Lekule Immaculate A. Signature:____________________ Denis Mpagaze (Research Supervisor)
  • 3. ii COPYRIGHT All rights reserved by the copyright law, no parts of this research paper may be reproduced, reprinted or stored in any form without the permission from Lekule Immaculate .
  • 4. iii DEDICATION This work is dedicated to my beloved parents Mr. and Mrs. Andrea P. Mmasai
  • 5. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank God for the good health and protection he granted me during my studies that enabled me to reach the end of my studies at SAUT. I will live to serve and praise him all the days of my life. I also thanks go to my Congregation for the granting me studying opportunity to pursue degree in mass communication. My appreciation is due to my supervisor Mr. Denis Mpagaze for his tirelessly guidance during my research, he made me work very hard with love and great patience. Thanks Mr. Mpagaze. May God bless you. Also I would like to thank Mr. Paul Shukuru for proofreading and editing my work May God bless you.
  • 6. v ABSTRACT The major objective of this study was to determine the role of media in promoting social development in Tanzania. Throughout the study the major focus was taken into specific objectives of the study which were;- to identify social development programs aired by radio SAUT, to evaluate people’s perception towards Radio SAUT development programmes, and at last to assess the relevance of Radio SAUT development programs to the society’s needs. The study was guided by participant media theory by Fourie (2001) stating that the community participation is an inherent feature in any democratic nation. Interviews and questionnaires were used in data collection Generally the station has emerged as important in social development despites some critical challenges audience and management.
  • 7. vi TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION............................................................................................................. i COPYRIGHT................................................................................................................. ii DEDICATION .............................................................................................................. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................. iv ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................v CHAPTER ONE..............................................................................................................1 Problem Setting...............................................................................................................1 1.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................1 1.1 Background of the study.........................................................................................1 1.1.1 Historical Background of Radio SAUT ...............................................................2 1.2 Statement of the problem........................................................................................3 1.3 Research objectives................................................................................................3 1.4 Research questions. ................................................................................................3 1.5 Significance of the study. .......................................................................................4 CHAPTER TWO.............................................................................................................5 Literature Review ............................................................................................................5 2.0 Introduction............................................................................................................5 2.1 Theoretical argument..............................................................................................5 2.2 Theoretical Framework ..........................................................................................7 CHAPTER THREE.......................................................................................................10 Research Methodology..................................................................................................10 3.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................10 3 .1 Research Design..................................................................................................10 3.2 Population of the study.........................................................................................10 3.3 Sampling technique and Sample size....................................................................10 3.4 Methods for Data Collection.................................................................................11 3.5 Data analysis ........................................................................................................11 CHAPTER FOUR .........................................................................................................12 Presentation of Findings ................................................................................................12 CHAPTER FIVE...........................................................................................................22 Discussion and Conclusion............................................................................................22
  • 8. vii REFERENCES..............................................................................................................27 APPENDICES...............................................................................................................29 APPENDIX ONE..........................................................................................................29 Questionnaires to the Audience......................................................................................29 APPENDIX TWO .........................................................................................................32 Interview guide for managing director of radio SAUT ...................................................32 APPENDIX THREE......................................................................................................33 Interview guide with program producers........................................................................33
  • 9. 1 CHAPTER ONE Problem Setting 1.0 Introduction This chapter consists of background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions and the significance of the study. 1.1 Background of the study White (2008) argues that the use of resources to improve health or education facilities requires a certain community mobilization. This is not without good communication. The resources available from central government are not used at all or are used badly. Therefore, according to Benedict Mongula, (2008) mass media has potential role of informing the public regarding current affairs, and social economic problems, new trends in developments, demands of the accountability in public services and other stems of major interest of the citizens so that the public can be able to make intelligent decisions. For example, Robert White (2008) has argued that the use of resources to improve health or education facilities requires community mobilization but without good communication, the resources available from the central government are not used to benefit the larger public. Social development can only be enhanced if and only there is strong and free press in a particular society. It is through media that people organize and develop solidarity and team work for development and the better off their standards of living. State of Media in Tanzania
  • 10. 2 The introduction of trade liberalization policies in early 1990 brought about mushrooming of radio stations and many of them privately owned. With this mushrooming, Tanzanians have freedom to access every sort of information of their interests. However, despite of being well informed and taking into consideration that information is power; the majority of Tanzania is economically poor. Who is to blame? This study therefore, sought to assess the role of media in promoting social development in a society. Focusing will be on radio SAUT as a key information provider of Luchelele people. 1.1.1 Historical Background of Radio SAUT The origin of radio SAUT goes back to 1998 by the name; Raadio Nyanza FM under Nyegezi Social Training Institution (NSTI). Robert Otieno Ndong’a is the founder of the radio. The radio was set up to accomplish the spiritual and secular mission of its owner, the Tanzania Episcopal conference and to meet the needs (agricultural and fishing) of its nearby local communities Its mission and vision To train professionals broadcast journalist to serve Tanzania, Africa and the world and large. Helping listeners to implement the vision of Tanzania and the Church of Africa in building the City of God. Following the University vision of building the City of God, radio SAUT tries to be closer to the community of the marginalized regardless their political and religious backgrounds.
  • 11. 3 1.2 Statement of the problem Amartya Seni once said that where there is free and independent media the society cannot face hunger. It is through media people have the ability to identify the problem and enable them to make vibrant decisions regarding their wellbeing (Mpagaze 2012). It is the media which provide an increasingly important means of making their voices heard, increasingly facilitating horizontal and interpersonal communications and debate and provide mechanism for formulation of identity and creation of community space. This study was therefore seeking to determine the role of radio SAUT in promoting social development. 1.3 Research objectives 1.3.1 Main objective. To determine the role of media in promoting Social Development in Tanzania with the reference to Radio SAUT FM 1.3.2 Specific objectives. 1 To identify social development programs aired by radio SAUT. 2 To evaluate people’s perception towards Radio SAUT development programmes. 3 To assess the relevance of Radio SAUT development programs to the society’s needs. 1.4 Research questions. 1 Are there any social development programs aired by radio SAUT
  • 12. 4 2 What are people’s perceptions toward Radio SAUT development programs? 3 Is there any relevance of radio SAUT development programs to the society’s needs? 1.5 Significance of the study. The knowledge obtained in this study will help radio SAUT on how to venture in their programs for social development for the wellbeing of the community..
  • 13. 5 CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2.0 Introduction This chapter consists of theoretical argument, theoretical framework, and empirical literature review and knowledge gap. 2.1 Theoretical argument 2.1.1 Understanding community radio Alumuku (2006) argues that community radio is the participatory and democratic medium of communication capable of initiating dialogue and stimulating critical thinking at the grass root. It is medium of the people in which the community speaks to itself as well as the rest of the world. Community radio plays a central role in community development. Community radio aspires to achieve the ideal of changing the local community to a caring community and a better place to live in. This has potential to increase awareness among audience to participate actively in their social economic and cultural development. It aims at improving the living standards of people and financing solution to their local problems.. According to Alumuku (2006), community radio emphasis is to facilitate improvement of people with their achieve participation in the process not as passive listeners but active participants. It has to promote people’s agenda like local knowledge on culture, human rights and social justice, environment issues and community problems as well as issues
  • 14. 6 related to development. Through participatory relationship with the sector that results for promoting public participation and governance, media can promote social development (Mtimde, 2002). Since community development is linked to the needs of the people, so it is logical that development should start with the people. This means community based development, development initiated by the people and controlled by the people themselves. Community radio can help people discover well resources including people’s culture, nature history, institutions, activities and commodities. Such discovery usually happens through various programmes focusing on history, culture and nature in the community, hosted by experts (Osukule, 2005). Community radio is used to motivate concerns, arousing people to think about and hopefully, ultimately to on development issues. Radio programs on political themes often seek to motivate people to national patriotism, programs about environment seek to motivate people to become more conscious of their ecology and religious programs seeks to inspire hope, love of neighbors’ or to find inner peace. Community radio is used to inform the public on local, national news, news on agriculture, weather, social activities and services available to audience . Community radio is mandated to educate through progammes on how mothers can prepare more nutrition’s meals for their families, farms on how to plant better crops and how to choose better seeds for better harvest. It is confirmed that radio has great potentiality for development especially for many low- income people, and those who are physically isolated, illiterate and poor. They provide
  • 15. 7 much evidence that radio can be used in efforts to improve the lives of the people (Bates, 1984) 2.1.2 Community radio for social development Social development refers to improvement of human life condition of individual and social levels. The term improvement, in this sense means a positive change for better social, economic, political, cultural, human and spiritual conditions. According to Kasoma, (2001) there is no universal path to development, for it must be conceived as integral, malt dimensional and dialectic process that differ from one society to another. Development is a many sided process (Melkote and Steeves, 2001). Development is meaningful when it is experienced from grassroots, and not imposed from above. The idea and plans for actions have to come out of the community deliberation. And that is what it means to be self-reliant. This is to avoid a top-down system of development in favor of down-top mode of development because if respects people’s ideas and contributions. People know what they need so they have to participate in development programs. Regular listening groups are another way of using radio for rural development. This method has been used in many countries and has proved success. In Canada, for instance, such programs known as radio farm forum helped people listen, discuss and act. 2.2 Theoretical Framework This study was guided by participant media theory by Fourie ( 2001). The theory states that the community participation is an inherent feature in a democracy, but the ever- emphases and over centralization of the mass society tends to inhibit individuals and
  • 16. 8 minorities from realistic opportunities for participation in the area of mass communication. The theory was developed in reaction to existing theories such as normative theories which rarely took into account the development of new media and the rise of large media organization The theory is primarily a reaction to the trends towards commercialization in public broadcasting. The theory advocates for the promotion of media development towards the direct and active participation of communities in publications and narrows casting as opposed to broadcasting. The participant media theory is characterized by the establishment of more local interactive television system and digital villages (Fourie, 2001).The democratic participant model incorporates the local communities which are usually not reached by the mainstream centralized media. It lays emphasis on the local and subcultures as well as horizontal interaction more than dominant mainstream media which are usually top down (Kwaramba 2000). In respect to community radio, this would relate to the concretization and empowerment aimed at enabling communities to gain and understanding of their situation, develop confidence and ability to change their lives. In some radio stations, community members are able to act as reporters, thus they tend to be more interested in community including people, events facilities, building, nature and history. Some programs serve to exchange information about communities and establish connections among or between communities. Local stores and companies are also important resources in the community. Example, some stations issue a member card with which a member is given the privilege of discounts in local stores and companies that
  • 17. 9 cooperate with the radio station.
  • 18. 10 CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology 3.0 Introduction The chapter discusses research design, sample size and sampling techniques, data collection methods and data analysis. 3 .1 Research Design This study applied triangulation research design in which a survey and a case study are enjoined. Triangulation design was opted for this study because the study sought to measure the role of media in promoting social development. Therefore interviews were conducted in order to understand the role of media in promoting social development. Also questionnaires were used to measure people’s perception on understanding the role of media in promoting social development. 3.2 Population of the study. The target population for the study was all radio SAUT presenters, Director of radio SAUT and audience around Malimbe areas who have access to radio SAUT 3.3 Sampling technique and Sample size Kombo & Tromp, (2006) argue that sampling is the process of selecting a number or individuals or objects from the population such that the selected group contains representative of the characteristics found in the entire group. Simple random sampling was used to obtain a total of 50 responses from SAUT FM radio.. Simple random sampling is the sampling technique which gave equal opportunity to all audience to
  • 19. 11 answer the questions provided by the researcher without any categorization. 3.4 Methods for Data Collection 3.4.1 Interviews The researcher conducted interview with Director of SAUT FM and three radio presenters 3.4.2 Questionnaires The questionnaires were administered to (46) SAUT students who used to listen to SAUT FM. 3.5 Data analysis The researcher analyzed qualitative data thematically which employed themes and quantitative data statistically using tables and percentages to highlight findings from the field. .
  • 20. 12 CHAPTER FOUR Presentation of Findings 4.1 Introduction. This chapter presents the findings from the field during data collection between October and November 2012. The study aimed at assessing the Role of community Radio in promoting social development in Tanzania through programs with focus on Human Rights program. 4.2 Demographic characteristics The previous chapter explains about the type of methods used to investigate the study. The researcher employed qualitative and quantitative approach, questionnaire and interview. 46 respondents out of 50 were provided with questionnaires while other four respondents were interviewed 4.3 Age Years Number Percentage 15 – 25 32 64% 26 – 35 10 20% 36 – 45 6 12% 46 – 66 2 4% 56 – Above 0 0% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013 The table 4.4 indicates that the majority of the respondents are of the age of 15 – 25(64%).
  • 21. 13 Sex Number Percentage Male 17 34% Female 33 66% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013.4.5 listening habits Respondents Number Percent Yes 38 76% No 12 24% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. 4.6 type of radio programs. Name of the programs Response Percentage Jamii na matukio 12 24% Haki za binadamu 19 38% Ijue afya yako 5 10% Michezo 12 24% Ukimwi na maishass 2 4% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. 4.6 Programs influence Most of respondents admitted to have been able to understand their rights, duties and how to take actions when inferred with the same rights. One of the respondents explained the way they value the radio programs given its importance in society. Apart from being my course in class, the program keeps on updating me the solution to the challenges of human rights protection and promotion in Tanzania” she said. 4.7 How do they walk the talk? They were able to know and follow up issues of election and other related community and the whole word. Such issues are like environment health, education which has great
  • 22. 14 impact on the development of any society. However, they complained on the inconsistency of radio programs because of power cut – off. The other group said of difficult to walk the talk because they tend to very busy all the time Program Respondent Present Nyimbo za dini 9 18% Wanawake na maendeleo 8 16% Ijue afya yako 11 22% Mazingira 12 24% Michezo 10 20% Vinginevyo 0 0% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. When asked about the programs they listen most 19% said they listen church songs, 13% listened the program women and development 23% listened know your health, 25% liked listening Environmental program and 21% listened sports. When they were asked about the problem they encounter when listening to the programs the responses varied as follows; in language was 0%, frequency 60%, programs lacking constant 30%, and ignorance 6%. The inconstancy of Radio programs was a problem. They commented that programs inconstancy does not bring development as one gets information half way.
  • 23. 15 One presenter said that sometimes the problem of the radio is that they don’t have a standby technician. The radio is left with students who have no knowledge on how to solve a problem in case it happened. Table: 4.8 listening problem Reasons Respondent Percent Its Language 2 4% Its frequency 30 60% Programs lack constant 15 30% Ignorance 3 6% Others 0 0% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. 4.9 Audience challenges The respond was that the communities around Malimbe are poor and the majorities depend on one meal per day. One presenter noted that the programs of the radio are not able to meet the needs of lives of the people. The programs are not researched well as they lack time and funds to do so. Also there is no team work spirits which make students get discouraged especially when they need help. The whole system is disorganized and no one wants to be responsible.
  • 24. 16 Table: 4.10 the role of Radio SAUT Response Respondent Percentage Visits audience 17 34% To better programs 29 58% Better communication 4 8%2 Total 48 100% Source: Researcher 2013. Table 4:10 shows that 34% said they visit the community in order to eliminate the Malimbe community problems 58% said to better the programs and 8% said to better communication. “Programs are not effective as people are not visited and draw materials from their real lives”. This was the comment from the presenter they copy and pest. Programs should open the way to participation and people share what exactly they need for their development. Table Qualities of a good presenter Responds Respondent Percentage Good articulator 12 24% Welcoming 5 10% Friendly 4 8% Flexible 26 52% Ethical 3 6% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013.
  • 25. 17 Table 4.11 Shows that 24% said good articulator 10%, said welcoming presenter, friendly, 8% flexible they responded 52% and ethically they responded 6%. A flexible presenter was opting by more respondents with 54.1% and 20.8% for a good articulator. This shows that flexibility of the presenter helps in adjusting issues. One presenter said one has to move with time if one wants development and not to stick on one type of a style. Table 4.12 How does Radio SAUTI help / serve the marginalized Responds Respondent Percentage In communication 8 16% To bridge them with the government 32 64% To grow spiritually 6 12% Entertainment 3 6% Others 1 2% None of the above 0 0% Total 50 100% Source: Researcher 2013. Table 4.12 shows that 16% agreed that radio SAUT help people in communication, 64% said it links them with their government, 12% said it helped them to grow spiritually, 6% commented that it gives them entertainment and 2% opt for others. One respondent commented that the radio has clearly helped them understand the issue ofKilimo Kwanza
  • 26. 18 Data from interview As the responded to the question asked on the priority goals of development the managing editor said is to reach to the grass root of the audience. The success of this has not reached its desired goals due to financial problems. This is together with transportation, facilities, and too few employees who cannot cover the area in terms of service. He also said that his strategy is to open the brunches of Radio SAUT in all SAUT constituent colleges. He said SAUT FM is as old as the independent of the country. So it has served a lot dispose the challenges it faces, its fruits are recognized. He said the radio now has got solar system which will enable to reduce the power cuts. Replying to the question to how the programs producers implement those programs the managing director based his answer on the time allocated for each one of these in data collection and recorded programs. He mentioned the equipments available to make such objectives a reality such as, a recording studio, production room, and news collection. All these according to him could help program producers implement the programs aired by Radio such as Ijue afya yako, Mazingira, Human Right, Chai Yetu, Morning pressure and Jamii na matukio. Responding on whether radio SAUT has a policy concerning the production of the radio programs he said they only abide by communication policies established by Tanzania Communication Regulation Authority (TCRA) on the other hand as a Catholic Radio station they also follow the Catholic teachings on matters of faith and social issues.
  • 27. 19 SAUT Human Rights Centre. The researcher made interview with the director of human right office at SAUT so as to discover how Human Rights program came about and its objectives and how it contributes to social development of the community nearby. He said that the center was established to fight against any killings of red eyes old women around the lake zone.. This is after seeing that the government was not taking any responsibility to protect these people. Also the findings show that the center provide civic education on awareness about human rights. to the center relies on doing human rights research. For example through research, they discovered that Mwanza Region is leading in the killings of older women and people with albinism followed by Shinyanga and Tabora. About 60 old women were liked in Mwanza between January and August 2009. Within a period of not more than five years 2585 women were killed in the region of Tanzania main land. Further the findings show that the police in Mwanza perceive SAUT Human Rights Center as a threat because of the education they give to the people. Another challenge is the power cut off when human rights programs are on air. The findings also report that SAUT Human Right Program focuses to offer services all over lake zone regions because without Human Rights other social development issues cannot take place and without media there is no social development. Programs on social development
  • 28. 20 This came about through the first specific objective in which the researcher wanted to identify social Development programs aired by Radio SAUT. The following are the findings; Name Program MSHANGAMA Haki za binadamu JAME LRONGOA Ukimwi na maisha FORTUNATUS SABINI Pambana na umasikin MANENO Ijue afya yako PASCHAL LEONSI Ihjue katiba GESTON KIWELO Jamii na matukio Source: Researcher 2013. 1 Haki za binadamu: This program is aired at 20:30am 2 21:00 every Monday. Only once a week 3 Ukimwi na Maisha is aired at 20:30-21-00 a.m every Tuesday and on every Thursday 20:30-21:00 a.m 4 Pambana na Umasikin is aired 20:30-21:00,every Wednesday for 5 Ijue katiba is aired 20:00-20:30 on Tuesday. Only once a week. 6 Harakati za Mazingira is aired at 20:30-20:30 am. 7 Ijue Afya yako is aired at 20:30 -21:00 Every Saturday..
  • 29. 21 One of the presenter responded the question asked on how they gather data for the program that they get from internet café, visits areas like business areas. The targeted on these programs are youth, parents and the entire society. Answering the question asked on objective achievements one presenter said that there is a lot of staining in preparing the programs as they lack support from management. They mentioned of using their own money to travel to some areas of events and also lacking facilities to carry out activities such as tape recorders. Also the misunderstanding between workers cause others to dodge responsibilities which ends up leaving the presenter alone helpless such as technician or a person who can solve the problem in case it arises. During in depth interview, one presenter said, “One day I had to put off the Radio when it caught fire and I did not know what next”.
  • 30. 22 CHAPTER FIVE Discussion and Conclusion 5.0 Introduction This chapter discusses the findings presented in previous chapter after discussions, recommendations and conclusions are made. 5.1 Discussion of the findings Research question 1: How effectiveness of program about development aired by Radio SAUT? The study focused on the effectiveness of the programs as far as development is concerned. In such objective the study aspired to discover if the programs take into consideration criteria for good programming. The study observed whether the programming fall in line with the needs of people. If there was an audience research in a practical way allowing Malimbe area audience participation. In Malimbe areas people and economic interest economic activities such as agriculture animal husbandly industrial employment in urban areas and fishing activities. Satisfying the information needs for all these groups in a great challenges for most of Tanzania development communication practitioners, especially in Radio broadcasting. In table 2 reveals that 67% percent listen to the Radio and enjoy the listening Referring to the world of Zukowsky and Belanger (2000) good programs should be designed to meet the taste of the audience for instance, local dram, stories, local news, generating opinion and giving opportunity for developing local
  • 31. 23 talents. Youth in Mwanza region face challenges such as unemployment, lack of education, frustrations that they cannot get out of poverty others; which according to “Pambana na Umasikini” programs produced might have raised youth’s interest on the programs to let youth realize their talents and use them in order to eradicate poverty. In chapter four it was revealed that the Radio does not cover the required frequencies and this making the programs be heard by very few people. Now for a period of time the radio has been faced with cut off electricity making the audience loses the track of its programs and shift to other radio stations. Radio SAUT lacks internal policy so as to help in achieving its objectives. The managing director said that as a radio station they abide by the communication policies that are established by Tanzania Communication Regulatory Authority (TCRA) and as a catholic radio they adhere to church teachings on the matters of faith and social issues. Research question 2: What are people’s perceptions toward radio? SAUT fm development programs? Programs are taken from other environment and applied to them which at the end development at the grass root cannot reach place. The radio is more competing with other radios of Mwanza instead of looking of the audiences they produce program which are beyond the marginalized people and thus who’s the mission and vision of the radio.
  • 32. 24 Also in chapter for the finding revealed that 20% of respondents favored provision of consistent program as their needs. The study revealed that some of the programs provided by SAUT of were not continuous rather they are stopped or terminated without any prior notification to the audience. People make a follow up and expected to make kind of fun club of a program. It was also evident in chapter four the respondents were found to their weds but also to have presenters with good qualities, welcoming and who can articulate well words for better communication. For instance most of the programs use phone calls in to greet friends and relatives they wanted, a presenter who attends them according to their level of understanding. A good presenter, in their opinion is the “one who does not make one suit that fits all audience” (a presenter for all). To the position of radio SAUT has a long way to go to bring this into reality as social development is concerned. Research question 3: Are SAUT FM programs relevant to the society needs. The radio SAUT FM programs are not relevance to the audience of Malimbe areas and Lake Zone people as they are not applicable to them. The development programs are not well researched to respond to people’s needs. This is because programs are cooked in the studio, and not drawn from the people themselves No participation of the audience in the programs. Sometimes presenters would prepare program according to his/her feelings and not the
  • 33. 25 feelings of the people.. This cannot bring changes in social development of the people Radio SAUT should ensure that mission, vision and policy that guide radio station operations are clear to the whole body of personnel so that programs preparations based on the sensibility reflect such reality. It was learned that the programming should base on basic journalistic skills but there was no guiding principle leading to the choice of format and content of their programming. 5.2. Areas of further study The research concentrated on evaluation of programming on radio SAUT in the context of information needs of the audiences it serves so as to establish the reasons why the programming was not effective in Lake Zone especially area in terms of behavior change, knowledge increase and change of attitudes. With regard the above investigation, further research can be done in the future to include also other radio stations which operate in Mwanza region and Tanzania as a whole so that a synergy of programming that could help answer audiences needs especially in rural areas. 5.3 Conclusion This research studied the role of media in promoting social development in Tanzania. Media as a source of information have a large room to promote people’s social development of the people. This can be done by airing productive educational programmes which can promote the social development of the society. From the study findings show that media personnel were found to have little commitment in their responsibilities, lack of team work and also there was little or no research conducted to
  • 34. 26 know which relevant programs to prepare and air which in one way another could help in social development of the people. SAUT as a community radio should involve the community in programming so as to enhance social development from grass root. 5.4 Recommendations Besides all the strengths and weakness the radio SAUT faces gives some tips which can be employed by radio station when preparing its programming. 1. To restructure programs to suit the needs of community members. 2. Establishing team-work in radio SAUT 3. Removal of any and weaknesses like; excessive talk, annoying commercials, technical weakness and so forth. 4. The station should always concentrate in bringing listeners to the station keeping them tuned in and providing the balance of music, personalities, talk, and information reason to tune elsewhere. 5. Develop the culture of research.
  • 35. 27 REFERENCES Alumuku, P.T. (2006). Community Radio for Development, the World and Africa. Anderson, (1987). Communication Research: Issues and Methods, New York, McGraw Hill Inc. Banda, F. & Fourie, P.J. (2004). Towards a Policy Model for Community Radio. Bates, A (1984) Broadcasting in education: An evaluation, Great Britain, Costable and company limited. Brosseu and Socin, (2001) The Art of Radio, Nairobi, St. Paul Publications Africa. Fourie, P.J. (2001). (ED) Media Studies. Volume one Institutions, Theories and Issues, London, McGraw Hill. Kasoma, (2001). Community radio: Its management and organization in Zambia, Zambia mission press. Kombo, D.K & Tromp, L.A. (2006). Proposal and thesis writing. An introduction. Nairobi: Paulines publications Africa. Krishnaswami, O. (1993). Methodology or Research in Social Science. 1st Ed, New Delhi, MacQuail, D (1983) Communication Theories. London: Sage Matumaini, J. (2009) The History of Radio Broadcasting for Development in Tanzania. SAUT. McQuail, D. (1987). Theories of Mass Communication 2nd Edition. London: Sage.
  • 36. 28 Melcote, J & Steeves, H (2001) Communication for development in third World: Theory and practical for empowerment, London, Sage Publishers. Mongula, B, (2008) Grassroots, Participatory communication, African Communication Research Vol 1, Mpagaze, D. (2012) Effectiveness of Community Radio in Addressing Social Issues Confronting the Society in Tanzania. Mugenda, O. & Mugenda, A. (1999). Research method. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Nairobi: acts press. Notes from Lecturer Mr. Alute on Community Development Nyerere, J.K. (1970) Ujamaa: The Basic of African Socialism. London: oxford university press. Onsukunle, O (2005) An investigation into radio Turf's Social development. Unpublished M.A Thesis submitted at the department of Media studies, University of Limpopo, Sovenga. White, R. (2008). Source of Underdevelopment and Development in Tanzania/East Africa Context. African Communication Research. World Communication Report, (1989)
  • 37. 29 APPENDICES APPENDIX ONE Questionnaires to the Audience 1. Umri 15 – 25 ( ) 26 – 35 ( ) 36 – 45 ( ) 46 – 55 ( ) 56 – above ( ) 2. Unasikiliza radio SAUT? 3. ( a )Ndio ( ) 4. (b)Hapana ( ) 5. Unasikiliza vipindi gani zaidi? (a) Jamii na matukio ( ) (b) Haki za binadamu ( ) (c) Ijue afya yako ( ) (d) Michezo ( ) (e) Others ( ) 6. Ni vipindi gani unapendela zaidi na ni kwa nini? (a) Ijue afya yako ( ) (b) Haki z binadamu ( ) (c) Tafakari ( ) (d) Jamii na matukio ( ) (e) Vinginevyo ( ) 7. Vipindi hivi vinakuhamasisha kufanya nini? Elezea ………………………………………………………………………………………
  • 38. 30 8. Umewahi kutumia ushauri wa vipindi hivyo katika maisha yako ya kila siku? Ndiyo ( ) Hapana ( ) (i) Kama ndiyo eleza kwa namna gani? ……………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Kama hapana, ni kwanini hapana? ……………………………………………………………………………… 9. Ni vipindi gani ungependelea kusikiliza zaidi? (a) Nyimbo za dini ( ) (b) Wanawake na maendeleo ( ) (c) Ijue afya yako ( ) (d) Mazingira ( ) (e) Michezo ( ) (f) Vinginevyo ( ) 10. Unapata shida yoyote katika kusikiliza vipindi vya radio SAUT? Ni shida gani? (a) Lugha ( ) (b) Masafu yake hayasikiki vizuri ( ) (c) Vipindi havina ubora ( ) (d) Kutokujua ( ) (e) Mengineyo ( ) 11. Ni shida gani kubwa mliyo nayo katika jamii yenu? (a) Fedha ( ) (b) Njaa ( ) (c) Shida za familia ( ) (d) Shida ya mawasiliano ( ) 12. Ungependa radio SAUT ifanye nini ili kutatua matatizo ya jamii yenu?
  • 39. 31 (a) Kututembelea wasikilizaji ( ) (b) Kuboresha vipindi has avya maendeleo ( ) (c) Kuboresha mawasiliano ( ) 13. Kulingana na wewe mtangazaji auapswa kuwa na sifa gani? (a) Matamshi mazuri ( ) (b) Mwenye upendo na anayekatibisha ( ) (c) Anayeweza kubadilika kuendana na wakati ( ) (d) Mwenye maadili mema ( ) 14. Unafikiri radio SAUT inawasaidia watu masikini wa wilaya hii ya nyamagana? (a) Kwa kutoa mawasiliano ( ) (b) Kuwaunganisha watu na serikali yao ( ) (c) Kukua kiroho ( ) (d) Burudani ( ) (e) Mwengineyo ( ) (f) Hakuna ( )
  • 40. 32 APPENDIX TWO Interview guide for managing director of radio SAUT 1. What is your age? 2. What is your position 3. What do you think are the priority goals of development as far as your radio station is concerned? 4. How do you see the role of your station in this process of development of programs? 5. How do programs producers implement these programs? 6. What do you think is the best way for effective communication to be used for;- 7. Do you have communication policy concerning the radio programming?
  • 41. 33 APPENDIX THREE Interview guide with program producers 1. Name of the program 2. Name of program producer 3. His/her profession 4. What criteria do you use in preparing your program? 5. How often the program is broadcast and at what time? 6. Does the program invite the participation of the audience in any way? Explain how? 7. What are the objectives of the program? 8. To what extent has the program achieve these objectives? 9. How do program directors gather data for program? 10. Which other media do you use to support radio strategies?