ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
Faculty of Social Sciences and Communications
Ethical Dilemma Facing Public Relations...
i
CERTIFICATION
This research report has been submitted with my approval as a University Supervisor
……………………………
Denis Mpag...
ii
DECLARATION
I, Juma Fariath, declare that this research paper is my own work and has not been submitted for
any other u...
iii
COPYRIGHT
This is the original work of Juma Fariath, all rights are reserved. No part of this research may be
reproduc...
iv
DEDICATION
I dedicate this research paper to my parents Juma Makoye and Fatuma Miniho.
v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank the Almighty God who kept me alive and healthy enough during my three
year course ...
vi
ABBREVIATION
PR – Public Relations
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................
viii
4.2 The Ethical dilemma ................................................................................................
ix
ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to find out ethical dilemmas facing PR practitioners. It was
guided by th...
1
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
This chapter include, background to the study, statement of the problem, research objective...
2
1.1.2 Historical background of Public Relations
The First World War stimulated the development of Public Relations as a ...
3
In Tanzania the practice of Public Relations was influenced by the coming of newspapers. The
monthly Mambo Leo was first...
4
most of professionals, PR included in the issue of ethical dilemma. This situation on whether to
stick on professional e...
5
1.6 Scope of the study
The researcher spent three weeks of July 2012 collecting data from PR practitioners in Arusha
6
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review
2.0 Introduction
This chapter discusses theoretical arguments, theoretical frame work, emp...
7
2.1.1 PR as professional
Fitzpatrick (2002) classified PR not under the umbrella of communicators, but rather as serving...
8
formal organization to decide who enters and who must exit the profession and by what
standards (Mpagaze 2012).
2.1.2 Co...
9
2.2 Theoretical Framework
This study is guided by Deontology Theory and ethical decision making. The theory was
develope...
10
Potter’s Box is a model for making ethical decisions developed by Ralph B. Potter in 2000. It is
commonly used by commu...
11
Potter’s Box is not a solution. It is just a process that helps Public Relations practitioners to
think about their opt...
12
2.3 Empirical Literature Review
Ethics is useful guide for PR practitioners as they carry ethical responsibilities. Eth...
13
PR practitioners must result in an audience with enough information to make an informed choice
on the issue being prese...
14
CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology
3.0 Introduction
This chapter discusses research design, population of the study, sa...
15
3.5 Validity and Reliability
The interview method of data collection was reliable and validity as per the study for the...
16
CHAPTER FOUR
Presentation of Findings
4.0 Introduction
This chapter presents and analyses findings from in-depth interv...
17
Also one of the respondents who had agreed to encounter an ethical dilemma admitted the
difficult to maintain objectivi...
18
Other staff members with different professional like engineering ignore PR and seems like there
is no need of them to b...
19
Table 4.2 shows that; 9 (90%) respondents agreed that there are causes of ethical dilemmas
whereby some are caused by t...
20
Government parastatals employ PR practitioners because of President Order; he ordered them to
employ the PR practitione...
21
Some of PR practitioners are facing ethical dilemma which led by organizations itself; example
top management denied PR...
22
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.0 Introduction
This chapter discusses the findings presented...
23
For the case, the researcher had observed several factors that cause PR Practitioners to face an
ethical dilemma while ...
24
Personal vendetta occurred between PR Practitioners and the top management; top management
does not help PR department ...
25
There should be the difference between the top management and PR Practitioners, this will help
top management not to en...
26
REFERENCES
Baker, S. & Martinson D. (2001), Journal of Mass media Ethics, the TARES test: Five principles
for ethical p...
27
Mpagaze D. (2012) Tanzanian Journalists Perception of Bribe Taking-Mind you that he who
pays for the piper calls the Tu...
28
APPENDIX I
Interview Guiding Questions for Public Relations Practitioners
1. What are the ethical dilemmas are you faci...
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Fariat Juma's work on, "Ethical Dilemma Facing Public Relations Practitioners in Tanzania A case Study of Public Relations Practitioners in Arusha"

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The main objective of this study was to find out ethical dilemmas facing PR practitioners. It was
guided by three key research questions such as: (1)What are the ethical dilemmas facing PR
Professional in Arusha, (2) What are the causes of ethical dilemmas facing PR Professionals in
Arusha and(3) How do PR Practitioners make ethical decisions when they face with ethical
dilemmas?
The study was guided by Deontology theory by Immanuel Kant which states people have the
duty to always obey moral rules, regardless of any positive outcomes that can come from
breaking them.
Interview was used to collect data from PR practitioners in Arusha.
The major findings show that that most of PR Practitioners facing ethical dilemmas caused by
the government and their organizations.
This research recommends that whatever the organizations are concerned must show their great
co operations to make sure PR Practitioners perform their duties to the best of their ability.

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Fariat Juma's work on, "Ethical Dilemma Facing Public Relations Practitioners in Tanzania A case Study of Public Relations Practitioners in Arusha"

  1. 1. ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA Faculty of Social Sciences and Communications Ethical Dilemma Facing Public Relations Practitioners in Tanzania A case Study of Public Relations Practitioners in Arusha A Research Report Submitted to the Department of Journalism and Mass communications as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of BA in Mass Communication Juma Fariath (BAMC 17779) June, 2013
  2. 2. i CERTIFICATION This research report has been submitted with my approval as a University Supervisor …………………………… Denis Mpagaze
  3. 3. ii DECLARATION I, Juma Fariath, declare that this research paper is my own work and has not been submitted for any other university or institution of higher learning the same award. …………………………………………….
  4. 4. iii COPYRIGHT This is the original work of Juma Fariath, all rights are reserved. No part of this research may be reproduced or copied without prior permission of the author. Copyright ©2013
  5. 5. iv DEDICATION I dedicate this research paper to my parents Juma Makoye and Fatuma Miniho.
  6. 6. v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank the Almighty God who kept me alive and healthy enough during my three year course of Bachelor of Arts in Mass Communication at St. Augustine University of Tanzania. I would like to extend my sincere and heartfelt gratitude to my supervisor Mr. Mpagaze for his advice, critique, tolerance and encouragement in accomplishing this research. I can say God will re-pay you for the culture of tolerance you have shown to me in preparing this work. Also, I am particularly grateful to all Public Relations practitioners in Arusha region who assisted me to smoothly collect data of this study Furthermore, I would like to give special thanks to Fidelis Raphael who has been extending a parental care to me.
  7. 7. vi ABBREVIATION PR – Public Relations
  8. 8. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................................. ix CHAPTER ONE.........................................................................................................................1 1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................1 1.1 Background to the study................................................................................................1 1.1.2 Historical background of Public Relations .................................................................2 1.2 Statement of the problem ..............................................................................................3 Research Objective..................................................................................................................4 1.3.2 Specific objectives.....................................................................................................4 1.4 Research questions.......................................................................................................4 1.5 Significance of the study...............................................................................................4 1.6 Scope of the study.........................................................................................................5 CHAPTER TWO ........................................................................................................................6 Literature Review........................................................................................................................6 2.0 Introduction ..................................................................................................................6 2.1 Theoretical Argument ...................................................................................................6 2.1.1 PR as professional .....................................................................................................7 2.2 Theoretical Framework .................................................................................................9 2.3 Empirical Literature Review .......................................................................................12 2.4 Research Gap..............................................................................................................13 CHAPTER THREE...................................................................................................................14 Research Methodology..............................................................................................................14 3.0 Introduction .....................................................................................................................14 3.1 Research Design ..............................................................................................................14 3.2 Population of the Study...............................................................................................14 3.3 Sampling Procedures and Sample Size.............................................................................14 3.3 Data Collection Procedures..............................................................................................14 3.5 Validity and Reliability....................................................................................................15 3.6 Data Analysis ..................................................................................................................15 CHAPTER FOUR.....................................................................................................................16 Presentation of Findings............................................................................................................16 4.0 Introduction ...............................................................................................................16 4.1 Demographic characteristics of the respondents. .........................................................16
  9. 9. viii 4.2 The Ethical dilemma ...................................................................................................16 CHAPTER FIVE ......................................................................................................................22 Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendations........................................................................22 5.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................22 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................24 Recommendations .................................................................................................................25 REFERENCES .........................................................................................................................26 APPENDIX I ............................................................................................................................28 Interview Guiding Questions for Public Relations Practitioners.................................................28
  10. 10. ix ABSTRACT The main objective of this study was to find out ethical dilemmas facing PR practitioners. It was guided by three key research questions such as: (1)What are the ethical dilemmas facing PR Professional in Arusha, (2) What are the causes of ethical dilemmas facing PR Professionals in Arusha and(3) How do PR Practitioners make ethical decisions when they face with ethical dilemmas? The study was guided by Deontology theory by Immanuel Kant which states people have the duty to always obey moral rules, regardless of any positive outcomes that can come from breaking them. Interview was used to collect data from PR practitioners in Arusha. The major findings show that that most of PR Practitioners facing ethical dilemmas caused by the government and their organizations. This research recommends that whatever the organizations are concerned must show their great co operations to make sure PR Practitioners perform their duties to the best of their ability.
  11. 11. 1 CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction This chapter include, background to the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, limitation, significance of the study and research questions. 1.1 Background to the study Ethical dilemmas among various professionals are inevitable because of the nature and conditions of the society they live. A dilemma occurs when person finds himself or herself between two choices with equal wait. Dilemmas at least to all professionals in this field of communication and Public Relations remain a common aspect. For example professional journalists are likely to find themselves in difficult situation of either taking bribe to feed their families because they are poorly paid or reject money and let their families die (Mpagaze 2012). Journalists enter into dilemmas because their profession does not allow any sort of professional incentive. Dilemmas are also found in other professionals such as medicine, law and business. For example importing of counterfeit brands has been putting the business men on dilemmas. If they talk the truth to their customers that their brands are fake, they will be thrown out of the business, but again hiding the truth is very unethical and threats to the consumers. . It is therefore believed that Public Relations being a profession might be facing similar dilemmas of which needs more attention to establish understanding of the kind of dilemma the discipline faces. This study is therefore sought to feel out the gap.
  12. 12. 2 1.1.2 Historical background of Public Relations The First World War stimulated the development of Public Relations as a profession. Many of the first Public Relations professionals got their start with the Committee on Public information which organized publicity on behalf of US objectives during First World War. Edward Bernays was the self appointed Father of Public Relations in describing the origin of the term Public Relations. Bernays decided to use the words Counsel on Public Relations instead of Propaganda because in Germany the term had bad connotation (www.larrylitwin.com.) Bernays saw Public Relations as an applied social science that uses insights from psychology, sociology and other disciplines to scientifically manage and manipulate the thinking and behavior of irrational and public (www.questia.com/PM.qst). In African Public Relations existed even before colonialism. The practice dates back to the beginning of the African civilization. But academia shows that Public Relations in Africa started in the 1949’s, during this time colonial governments dominated most African governments with the public information, growth of nationalism and the emergence of political leaders and practices fighting for independent (Fitzpatrick K. 2002). In 1950-1970 most of the countries having attained independence, the practice of Public Relations was more focused in term of intended audience, programmes and budgets (Fitzpatrick, 2002). During the 1980’s the Public Relations profession in Africa had no focus and was relegated to the lowest realms of management in most organizations.
  13. 13. 3 In Tanzania the practice of Public Relations was influenced by the coming of newspapers. The monthly Mambo Leo was first published in 1923 and aimed at the education of Africans. In 1949, the publication of Mambo Leo was taken over by the Public Relations department. To meet the African demands for reports on current affairs, the government launched Mwangaza in 1951 the only Swahili daily. Like Mambo Leo and Habari za Leo, Mwangaza was edited by the Public Relations Department which had replaced the information office in 1949. The primary function of the new department was to provide a regular flow of update and accurate information regarding the many activities of government (Sturmer, 2009). At the beginning the Public Relations Department issued official press communication unique and hand- outs but in July 1950, the scheme was replaced with the official publication Tanganyika News service of which 350 copies were distributed to all parts of world. In respect of the absence of an independent African press, the officials at the Public Relations Department were convinced that the people were generally satisfied with the status quo. The situation slightly changed when a small number of local papers appeared the early 1950’s, like Wangaluka edited in Swahili and Nyamwezi, Bukya by Munseri in Bukoba. Later in 1955 he launched the Swahili weekly Tanganyika Mpya edited in Bukoya. But then Munseri came under political pressure and was forced to give up the production of his periodicals. In returns, Tanganyika’s first president Julius Kambarage Nyerere, appointed him to a post in the Information Services (Sturmer, 2009). 1.2 Statement of the problem Public Relations practitioners are the key figures in any organizations because they are governed by ethical conducts like advocacy, honesty fairness and independence. The challenge that faces
  14. 14. 4 most of professionals, PR included in the issue of ethical dilemma. This situation on whether to stick on professional ethical tenet or abandon them creates difficult time to practitioners. This prompted the researcher to find out the ethical dilemmas facing Public Relations practitioners in Arusha and how do they overcome such dilemma. Research Objective 1.3.1 Main objective  To find out the ethical dilemma facing Public Relations practitioners in Arusha. 1.3.2 Specific objectives  To identify the kind of ethical dilemmas facing Public Relations practitioners.  To examine the causes of ethical dilemmas in Public Relations.  To find out how do Public Relations practitioners make ethical decisions. 1.4 Research questions 1. What are the ethical dilemmas facing Public Relations professional in Arusha? 1 What are the causes of ethical dilemmas facing Public Relation professionals in Arusha? 2 How do Public Relations practitioners make ethical decisions when encountered with ethical dilemmas? 1.5 Significance of the study Ethics is very important in any professional however, there is dilemma which faces every professional. This study will help the readers to know ethical dilemmas facing Public Relations practitioners and how to overcome them
  15. 15. 5 1.6 Scope of the study The researcher spent three weeks of July 2012 collecting data from PR practitioners in Arusha
  16. 16. 6 CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2.0 Introduction This chapter discusses theoretical arguments, theoretical frame work, empirical literature review; and research gap. 2.1 Theoretical Argument Kalupa (2009) defines ethical dilemma as any situation in which guiding moral principles cannot determine which course of action is right or wrong. Ethical dilemma is a complex situation that will often involve an apparent mental conflict between moral imperatives, in which to obey one would result in transgressing another retrieved on (www.friesian.com/dilema.html). Ethical dilemma can occur when someone needs to fulfill the work and then comes an obstacle which prevents him from conducting the duty accordingly. Ethical dilemmas often result from dealing with the variables, even the decision to service a client presents common ethical dilemmas facing PR agencies, serving a disreputable client can offer a valuable, albeit controversial, opinion into the market place of public opinion. The opinion also presents an equal possibility of causing more harm than good by providing the public with potentially harmful information (Council of Public Relations firms, 2003).
  17. 17. 7 2.1.1 PR as professional Fitzpatrick (2002) classified PR not under the umbrella of communicators, but rather as serving in a professional role with appropriate responsibilities derived from this alternate form of classification. The four criteria of this classification are;  Membership in a professional organization,  Specialized expertise  An orientation toward service and  Autonomy in operation According to Fitzpatrick and Gauthier, professional classification does not necessarily imply complete autonomy from performing responsible advocacy. They outlined three foundations of advocacy – related requirements for the PR practitioners as a professional (a) Persuasive communication should completely avoid or best minimize harm (b) Display respect for people and treat them with appropriate dignity (c) Communicate the benefits and burdens of an action or policy in as fair a manner as possible. Similarly, Day (2003) used Koehn’s (1994) classification of a professional to describe the PR vacation. According to Koehn a professional relationship maintains ethics through self – regulation. Unbridled loyalty to a single client or viewpoint effectively removes other members of the professional community as potential clients. Professionalism is the competence or skill of professionals; professionals are people with skills and competence on a particular discipline. Sociologist Wilbert Moore has articulated the contemporary elements of professionalism to be full – time work, specialized knowledge, a public service orientation, a code of ethical practice, a deep commitment by practitioners and a
  18. 18. 8 formal organization to decide who enters and who must exit the profession and by what standards (Mpagaze 2012). 2.1.2 Codes of Ethics of PR Practitioners This is according to Media Council of Tanzania (2010). Advocacy, PR practitioners serve the public interest by acting as responsible advocates for those he represent. He provides a voice in the market place of ideas, facts and viewpoints to aid informed public debate. Honesty, he adheres to the highest standards of accuracy and truth in advancing the interests of the people he represent and in communicating with the public. Expertise, the acquiring and responsibly use specialized knowledge and experience. He advances the profession through continued professional development, research and education. PR practitioner builds mutual understanding, credibility and relationships among a wide array of institutions and audiences. Independence, PR practitioner provides objective counsel to those he represent and he is accountable for his actions. Loyalty, PR is faithful to those he represents, while honoring his obligation to serve the public interest. Fairness, PR practitioner deal fairly with clients, employers, competitors, peers vendors, the media and the general public. He respects all opinions and supports the right of free expression.
  19. 19. 9 2.2 Theoretical Framework This study is guided by Deontology Theory and ethical decision making. The theory was developed by Immanuel Kant in 1930. The theory states that people should adhere to their obligations and duties when analyzing an ethics. This school of thought is based on the notion that people have the duty to always obey moral rules, regardless of any positive outcomes that can come from breaking them. The basis of deontology is to assess a parson’s character by how well he or she follows moral rules, even if by doing so, tragic results occur. To make the correct moral choices; one has to understand what his moral duties are and what correct rules exist to regulate those duties. When one has to follow his duty, he is behaving morally. When he fails to follow our duty he is behaving immorally. Deontological moral system typically stresses the reasons why certain actions, are performed. Simply following the correct moral rules is often not sufficient; instead the correct motivations are needed. This might allow a person to not be considered immoral even though they have broken a moral rule, but only so long as they were motivated to adhere to some correct moral duty. The theory relates to the study because it emphasizes the duties and responsibilities of the Public Relations practitioners. It needs the people to work accordingly without the excuse of presence of ethical dilemmas. This means that if the Public Relations practitioners go against ethics he or she is supposed to be punished because of delayed the responsibility. 2.2.1 Basic ethical decisions 2.2.1.1 Potter’s Box
  20. 20. 10 Potter’s Box is a model for making ethical decisions developed by Ralph B. Potter in 2000. It is commonly used by communication ethics scholars. Moral thinking should be a systematic process. A judgment is made and action is taken, how do one’s has to come to decisions must be based in some reasoning under four steps; facts, values, principles and loyalties (Christians et al 2001). 1. Facts, is where the analyst should set out all facts without making judgments or hiding any facts. 2. Values, at this stage the analyst should state and compare the merits of different values of acknowledge the influences on decision making. By referring to the specific concerns of the individuals involved. It allows the analyst to identify differences in perspectives. We may judge something according to aesthetic values. 3. Principles are ethical philosophies (modes of ethical reasoning that may be applicable to the situation. By considering the values stated above from several ethical philosophies, the decision maker is better equipped to understand the situation. 4. Loyalties, concern who the decision-maker has allegiances or loyalties, for example in journalism, the first allegiance is always to the public. Other allegiances a journalist might have would be to his or her employer, industry organization or co- workers. Fitzgerald S. et al, (1999). Public Relations practitioners are more concerned about being true to their own values or about the effectiveness of the campaign.
  21. 21. 11 Potter’s Box is not a solution. It is just a process that helps Public Relations practitioners to think about their options more clearly. It focuses on ethical or moral issues not pragmatic or legal ones. So Potter’s Box can help Public Relations practitioners think through what to do. 2.2.1.2 Veil of ignorance Veil of ignorance by John Rawls (2001) is method of determining the morality of a certain issues. As Rawls put it “no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status, nor does he know his fortune in the distribution of natural assets and abilities, his intelligence and strength, and the like the idea then, is to render moot those personal considerations that are morally irrelevant to the justice or injustice of principles meant to allocate the benefits of social cooperation. Example, in the imaginary society, one might or might not be intelligent rich, or born into a preferred class. Since one may occupy any position in the society one the veil is lifted, the device forces the parties to consider society from the perspective of the worst of members Rawls (2001). The veil of ignorance is part of the long tradition of thinking in terms of a social contract. Critics of Rawls argue that people behind the veil of ignorance would not in fact choose the rules. Rawls says they would as being as just and that even if they did, that is no independent argument for the rightness of such rules. Veil of ignorance asks someone him or herself to place in the position of the people which their decisions may influence Rawls (2001). In Public Relations as the Public Relations practitioners need to stand in his duty without put others intentions but to stick on his or her responsibilities.
  22. 22. 12 2.3 Empirical Literature Review Ethics is useful guide for PR practitioners as they carry ethical responsibilities. Ethics set the industry standard for the professional practice of PR. These values are the fundamental beliefs that guide our behaving and decision making process. Professional values are vital to the integrity of the professional as a whole. Baker (2001) suggested that professionals ought to understand their social responsibility as a fiduciary duty. This means that those who have voluntarily placed themselves in positions of trust concerning the interests of others must give careful consideration to those on interests. Truth is more than a bonus, it is tangible assets that must be created, sustained and build upon. To be a successful, PR practitioners are required to make intelligent, split – second decisions on situations laden with ethical dilemmas. This requirement is the same for practitioners in an agency, corporate, solo practitioner/consultant or government/public affairs in job setting. To further complicate matters, any decision made is expected to sustain an ongoing, delicate balance between serving the best interests of a client and that of overall society. Baker and Martinson (2001) outlined ethical expectations for the PR practitioners to consider when enacting persuasive communication campaign. There are five interconnected factors of ethical consideration:- - Truthfulness of the message - Authenticity of the persuader - Respect for the persuade - Equity of the appeal and social responsibility for the common good
  23. 23. 13 PR practitioners must result in an audience with enough information to make an informed choice on the issue being presented. PR practitioners need to ask themselves if the message will benefit someone other than the client. Respect demands that communicators perceive, the target audience is human beings and that messages are shaped and transmitted with equity calls for a responsibility by PR practitioners to avoid communication that intentionally takes advantage of the vulnerabilities of a specific audience (Fitzpatrict, 2002). 2.4 Research Gap The related research has indicated more on the ethics and communications of Public Relations Practitioners but they did not indicate the ethical dilemmas facing Public Relations practitioners. This study therefore sought to fill out the gap.
  24. 24. 14 CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology 3.0 Introduction This chapter discusses research design, population of the study, sampling procedures and sample size, data collection procedures, validity and reliability and data analysis. 3.1 Research Design As far as the study is concerned, a case study approach was used because it facilitates the collection of data from small unit. In a case study a particular individual, program or event is studied in-depth for a defined period of time. 3.2 Population of the Study Population of this study is all about Public Relations practitioners in Arusha since they have ability to answer my research questions. 3.3 Sampling Procedures and Sample Size Purposive sampling technique was used to select10 Public Relations practitioners from AICC, JIJI, RC, Atomic Energy, TANAPA, Ngorongoro, AUWASA, ICTR, EAC and African Court. 3.3 Data Collection Procedures The study used interview method of data collection due to the fact that face to face interview gave wider room for the researcher to get the facts by observing verbal and non-verbal communication.
  25. 25. 15 3.5 Validity and Reliability The interview method of data collection was reliable and validity as per the study for the small number of people who were involved in the study, unlike supplying questionnaires to that few number of the respondents involved in the study. 3.6 Data Analysis The researcher used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis in order to give explanations on the findings as well as the opinions from the Public Relations practitioners in ethical dilemma they face.
  26. 26. 16 CHAPTER FOUR Presentation of Findings 4.0 Introduction This chapter presents and analyses findings from in-depth interviews. 4.1 Demographic characteristics of the respondents. All 10 respondents were interviewed making of which seven were male respondents and three female respondents. Their level of education ranged from Bachelor’s Degree to Master’s Degree in Mass Communication and Public Relations. 4.2 The Ethical dilemma Table 4. 1 The ethical dilemma which face PR practitioners. Statement Measurements Responses Percentage Ethical dilemma Facing PR Practitioners Agree 9 90% Neutral 0 0% Disagree 1 10% Total 10 100% Source, Researcher 2013 The findings show that 9 (90%) of respondents agreed, 1 respondent (10%) disagreed that has never faced any kind of ethical dilemma. He said that he normally gets full cooperation’s from the staff members and when anything wrong occurs he immediately report to his colleagues. One Respond says If something happens what I do is to clarify and provide enough information concerning the problem to the media and without going beyond the organization policy
  27. 27. 17 Also one of the respondents who had agreed to encounter an ethical dilemma admitted the difficult to maintain objectivity especially he wants to maintain a good image of an institution that has for sometimes failed to fulfill the promise to the public. He says: In the year 2010 my organization organized a meeting with our surrounding villagers and upon that meeting it was agreed that our institution contracts a health centre for the villagers however, we have been unable to fill out this promise because of fund shortage. So the findings show that most of the PR practitioners are facing ethical dilemmas in the cause of performing their daily duties like; - Paying the media (corruption) Media is very fundamental towards the promotion and advertiser of our services to publics however the challenge I often faces is that journalists /media house always ask for brown envelope (bribe) in order to publish stories about our organization. Says PR practitioner from World Vision. - Confidentiality PR practitioners face this as dilemma since they have to judge before they speak to the public because they can say something which is beyond the government. Limited in providing information PR practitioners limited in providing full information to the public from top management. - Freedom of expression There is no right to speak as PR practitioners unless you get the permission from top management. - Professional ignore
  28. 28. 18 Other staff members with different professional like engineering ignore PR and seems like there is no need of them to be in the organization since the organization will proceed without the presence of PR practitioners. - Organizational factors Organization itself leads PR practitioners into ethical dilemmas since they employ workers out of enough tools like computers and cameras. - Language barrier PR practitioners from Africa Court face this as ethical dilemma since there are three language which organization bases on such as Arabic, French and English, so he doesn’t know Swahili language as much as those three languages; when journalist interview him they speak Swahili a situation that can sometime lead to dissemination of wrong information and leads to legal problem - Disclosure Nothing to talk before the top management because the organization is under the government, they report the issue in a different way and journalists report vice versa. Table 4.2 The Causes of ethical dilemmas Statement Measurements Responses Percentage The causes of ethical dilemma Agree 9 90% Neutral 0 0% Disagree 1 10% Total 10 100% Source, Researcher 2013
  29. 29. 19 Table 4.2 shows that; 9 (90%) respondents agreed that there are causes of ethical dilemmas whereby some are caused by the government and others by the organizations, and 1 (10%) disagreed since he has never faced any ethical dilemma. One of the PR practitioners from Arusha City Council said that; the PR profession is still new profession to the most governmental institutions. Most of the staff members don’t know the meaning of PR and what are the functions and roles of PR practitioners in an organization; due to the fact that; in previous I had no the place where I could report but at least now I do have places where I am able to report different issues. The findings show that the following are among the causes of ethical dilemmas - Lack of awareness from top management The top management does not have the awareness concerning PR as profession a situation that leads PR practitioners to have no job distribution. - Technician professionalism Other professional like science for stance engineer ignore the PR professional, this led to cause the dilemma due to PR practitioners perform their duties without peace of mind. - New profession in governmental institution PR profession is still new to governmental institutions compared to other professions like education; whereby in 2005 most of government offices started employing PR practitioners. - Poor preparation in the organization Most offices employ PR practitioners without providing education to staff members by telling them who is PR practitioner and reasons for organization to employ a PR practitioner. - Political influence
  30. 30. 20 Government parastatals employ PR practitioners because of President Order; he ordered them to employ the PR practitioners as main speaker of organizations. - Lack of training and skills As PR practitioners you need to attend trainings; inside training two times or one time per year depending on the organization and outside training one time per year. Most of PR practitioners failed to attend training due to organizational factors. Table 4.3 The decisions made by PR Practitioners Statement Measurements Response Percentage How do PR practitioners make ethical decisions when uncounted with ethical dilemma Ethical 5 50% Individual 3 30% Polite 2 20% Total 10 100% Source, researcher 2013 Table 4.3 shows that 5 (50%) of respondents make decisions by relying on professional ethical guidelines, where by 3 (30%) respondents said that they make decisions by applying to individual approach, by explaining the importance of PR practitioners in the organizations and 2 (20%) respondents find it difficult when encountered with dilemma by fearing the top management; they always remain silent for the sake of a job security. So the findings show that; solutions are found according to the problem one faces; not all the PR practitioners need to make decisions by relying on professional ethical guidelines. If one focuses on language problem and cultural differences one of ethical dilemma then he /she needed to learn as much as possible at least to speak the native language and also to learn the culture background in order to deal with the problems facing the community.
  31. 31. 21 Some of PR practitioners are facing ethical dilemma which led by organizations itself; example top management denied PR practitioner to speak up with publics concerning the problem and others by the government; example they employed PR practitioners because of the President order and not their will. So most of PR practitioners who work in the governmental institutions need to face the top management and other colleagues for advice when uncounted with ethical dilemma and for PR practitioners who work in the private institutions have a wide range of making decisions since they are free to whatever they do. The findings from interview show that not all PR practitioners who facing dilemmas of paying the media acting ethically when dealing with the situation. The PR practitioners from World Vision said that the big problem they are facing is paying the media / journalists in order to publish story but you may get yourself in trouble due to the fact that there is no budget from our company for journalists to be paid; and the issue is so important to be published. So what I have to do is to pay the journalists in order to publish the story with my own costs. But PR practitioners from Arusha Technical College (ATC) said; if I want the story to be published first I supposed to give the journalists allowance so they could publish it. So what I decided is to prepare the budget with high rate in order to get the money for journalists. But for now we own our newsletters so if journalists refuse, we write the story on our own.
  32. 32. 22 CHAPTER FIVE Discussions, Conclusion and Recommendations 5.0 Introduction This chapter discusses the findings presented in chapter four. In the course of collecting data and analyzing them it has been found out that PR Practitioners who are dependent on decisions faced a lot of challenges when it come the issue of performing their duties. Since top management are the ones who denied PR Practitioner to proving the facts. This discussion is therefore guided by three research questions; 1. What are the causes of ethical dilemma facing PR professional in Arusha? 2. What are the causes of ethical dilemma facing PR professional in Arusha? 3. How do PR professional Practitioners make ethical decisions when uncounted with ethical dilemma? For the case, the researcher observed some related (district) ethical dilemma between public institutions and private Public Relation Practitioners such a relationship is that of the commonly so called “brown envelope” payable to journalists so they are able to publish stories regarding their activities in a given institution. It was also found that those PR Practitioners in the public institutions if compared with private Public PR are so much limited by the so called confidentiality which interfere with their daily professional activities because confidentiality demands PR Practitioners not to revel information which in their professional reviews are necessary to the public to know.
  33. 33. 23 For the case, the researcher had observed several factors that cause PR Practitioners to face an ethical dilemma while performing their duties as to little awareness of what exactly PR is. This little awareness is attributed by the fact that PR is a new profession where by most officials doesn’t bother to get to know its importance and the duties it holds accountable to any given institute. As such becomes possible to interfere with the PR Practitioners. In addition, poor preparations becomes a cause for PR Practitioners because it bring misunderstanding within operational activities, where by the workers especially PR Practitioners will fail to reach conclusion for whatever arranged. Political influence also becomes a cause for PR Practitioners due to the organization to perform worse, due to political influence, many organizations employee a PR Practitioners regardless they need to employee that person or not, this become difficult for an organizations due to the employee PR Practitioners because of government order but not their will. The researcher had also found a mixed image when it comes to ethical decision making, like for example some PR Practitioners are firm to stand for professional guidelines no matter the consequences faced while others are able to allow external influences to interfere with professionalism. The other question was about the problem which PR Practitioners faced. This question was answered by PR Practitioners. There are different problems which PR Practitioners faced but the following seems to be the big one.
  34. 34. 24 Personal vendetta occurred between PR Practitioners and the top management; top management does not help PR department when they asked for help for the purpose of engaging in PR activities. According to a PR Practitioner in AUWSA said “if you need financial help for the purpose of PR activities, top management are the ones who refused our requesting due to her own reason which does not link to the office matters”. She added that due to this situation it led us not to practice our duties accordingly. Sponsor segregation this led to poor performance in PR professional. According to PR Practitioners in Atomic energy said; I failed to be sponsored at right time when I need to show my appearances in social activities due to the first priority are given to Human Resource department. Also he added that in my organization the priority are given a lot in Human Resources department more than PR department. It seems to be Human Resources department are the most important than Public Relation department. In addition to PR Practitioners from AUWSA said, “I don’t get a financial sponsor at a right time due to, in my organizations puts more priority on engineers more than us. This is due to the organizations are covered by science people a lot, compared to arts. Conclusion Generally speaking as the researcher, as the top management denied the PR Practitioner the freedom of expression led not to conduct their professional accordingly. Because top management involved into decisions of PR Practitioners, this led not to perform their duties and solve the problems concerning the publics
  35. 35. 25 There should be the difference between the top management and PR Practitioners, this will help top management not to engage into decisions made by PR Practitioners but to respect and give the support and cooperation’s. Also there should be training in the organizations which help the staff members to know the roles and functions of PR Practitioners. PR practitioners affected a lot when an organizations not showing their concern in PR department, and shows interest in Human Resources office. PR professional exists in our country since 1949 but the practice is still too low. It is time for us to know the roles and functions of PR Practitioners in the organization and supposed to draw line between Human Resource Officer and PR Practitioners. Recommendations 1. Organizations must show cooperation to make sure PR Practitioners are formed their duties accordingly. 2. The government should establish laws that should guide the praises of PR as it is in journalism 3. Top management should to interfere with decisions made by PR Practitioners. 4. Management should provide all the materials needed and cooperation, to PR practitioners 5. Seminars and workshops should be provided to PR practitioners 6. PR practitioners should establish association to solve their problems. 7. Staff members should show their respects to PR Practitioners as the important figure in an organization.
  36. 36. 26 REFERENCES Baker, S. & Martinson D. (2001), Journal of Mass media Ethics, the TARES test: Five principles for ethical persuasion. Council of Public Relations firms. (2002) Council of Public Relations firms: Industry rankings Day L. A. (2003) Ethics in Media Communications, Belmont, CA: Thompson wansworth Fitzgerald S. & Spagnolia, N. (1999) Public Relations Quarterly. Four predictions for PR practitioners in the new millennium. Fitzpatrick K. (2002) Journal of Mass media ethics Evolving standards in Public relations: A historical examination of PRSAs codes of Ethics. Frank B. Kalupa PhD, H. Frazier Moore. PhD (2009). Public Relations Principles, Cases and Problems. Koehn, Daryl (1994) The Ground of Professional Ethics, New York: Routledge. Kothari, C.R (2003). Research Methodology – Methods and Techniques Wishwa Prakashan, India. Lambert Academic Printed in the USA. Publishing (Saarbrücken Germany). Martin Sturmer (2009). The Media History of Tanzania. Printed in the USA. Publishing Saarbrücken Germany. Media Council of Tanzania (2010) Kanuni za maadili kwa wanahabari. By Media council of Tanzania. Dar es salaam Tanzania.
  37. 37. 27 Mpagaze D. (2012) Tanzanian Journalists Perception of Bribe Taking-Mind you that he who pays for the piper calls the Tune. Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice (Rev. ed ed) Cambridge, MA: Belknap Pres of Harvard University Press. Robert C. Health (2001). Handbook of Public Relations. USA. Revised Edition McGraw – Hill New York. Ronald D. Smith (2003). Becoming a Public Writer (2nd ed). USA. Revised Edition McGraw – Hill New York. Wright, D.K (1993) Public Relations Review Enforcement Dilemma: Voluntary nature of public relations codes.
  38. 38. 28 APPENDIX I Interview Guiding Questions for Public Relations Practitioners 1. What are the ethical dilemmas are you facing? 2. What are the causes of ethical dilemmas? 3. How do you make ethical decisions when you encountered with ethical dilemmas?

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