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  • 1. ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication The Impact of Facebook Usage on SAUT Youth Moral Behavior Research Paper on Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Bachelor Degree of Art in Public Relations and Marketing Submitted in the Department of Public Relations and Advertising Laurian Victor June, 2013
  • 2. i CERTIFICATION The undersigned certifies that this research paper titled, “The Impact of Facebook on SAUT Youth Moral Behavior” qualifies for submission in department of public relations and advertising of St Augustine university of Tanzania for the award of BA Public Relations and Marketing. Signed …………………………………………….Date ………………………………… Mr Denis Mpagaze (Research Supervisor)
  • 3. ii DECLARATION I, Laurian Victor, declare that this research paper is my original work and has not been submitted for Bachelor Degree or its equivalent in any other university or any other Higher learning institutions. Signature………………… Date…………………… Name LAURIAN Victor
  • 4. iii COPY RIGHT All rights of this research paper are reserved hence no one is allowed to reproduce or duplicate in one way or another without the permission of the author or St. Augustine University of Tanzania. ©Laurian (2013)
  • 5. iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, my thanks and appreciations are due to the Almighty God for the gift of life he bestowed onto me throughout this work. I will always sing His praises. My sincere gratitude should also go to my supervisor Mr. Denis Mpagaze for his tireless efforts and constructive guidance he offered to me. Many thanks go to the District Administrative Secretary of Nyamaganafor; he provided me permission to carry out this research. I do also appreciate Mrs. C. Mwidima for teaching me research methodology skills which enable be to fully engaged me in this study. Finally much appreciation is upon my friends; Peter, Melvin, Rose, James, Shaweji, Vienigan, Jackson, Karim, Chapile and others for their academic support during the research.
  • 6. v DEDICATION This work is dedicated to my beloved parents, Mr. and Mrs. L, Sanday for financial and moral support during my academic life.
  • 7. vi LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 1. SAUT - St. Augustine University of Tanzania. 2. HIV - Human Immunodeficiency Virus 3. AIDS - AcquiredImmuneDeficiencySyndrome 4. TSHs – Tanzania Shillings
  • 8. vii ABSTRACT The focus of this study was to find out the impacts of Facebook usage on youth moral behavior of SAUT. It was guided by the following key questions; what are the factors that influence youth to join Facebook? What kind of messages the youths are consuming in Facebook? Social cognitive theory which states that we learn behaviors through observation, modeling, and motivation such as positive reinforcement guided the researcher into this study Interview was used to collect data from 50 respondents studying at SAUT. The results revealed that friends, love affairs and mobile phone devices are the most influential things for students to join Facebook. The messages they consume include love affairs, political issues, religious, dressing style, abusive languages. The researcher recommends that; youth should use facebook constructively like in academic purposes.
  • 9. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS CERTIFICATION........................................................................................................... i DECLARATION............................................................................................................ ii COPY RIGHT............................................................................................................... iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................. iv DEDICATION ................................................................................................................v LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS........................................................................................ vi ABSTRACT................................................................................................................. vii CHAPTER ONE..............................................................................................................1 Problem Setting...............................................................................................................1 1.0 Introduction............................................................................................................1 1.1.1 Background of the study......................................................................................1 1.1.1.Historical Background of Facebook.....................................................................1 1.3Statement of problem ..............................................................................................3 1.4. Research objectives...............................................................................................3 1.5 Research Questions ................................................................................................3 1.6. Limitation of the study ..........................................................................................4 1.7.Significance of the study ........................................................................................4 1.8. Scope of the study.................................................................................................4 1.9. Definition of the key terms....................................................................................4 CHAPTER TWO.............................................................................................................6 Literature Review ............................................................................................................6 2.0 Introduction............................................................................................................6 2.1Theoretical Arguments............................................................................................6 2.2. Theoretical Framework .......................................................................................12 2.3 Empirical Literature .............................................................................................13 2.4 Research Gap .......................................................................................................14 CHAPTER THREE.......................................................................................................15 Methodology .................................................................................................................15 3.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................15 3.1 Research Design...................................................................................................15 3.2Population of the study..........................................................................................15 3.3 Sampling techniques ............................................................................................15 3.3.1Sample size ........................................................................................................15 3.4 Data collection techniques....................................................................................16
  • 10. ix 3.5 Validity and Reliability ........................................................................................16 3.6 Data Analysis.......................................................................................................17 CHAPTER FOUR .........................................................................................................18 Findings ........................................................................................................................18 4.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................18 CHAPTER FIVE...........................................................................................................24 Discussion.....................................................................................................................24 5.0 Introduction..........................................................................................................24 5.1 Discussion............................................................................................................24 5.2 Recommendations................................................................................................27 5.3 Conclusion...........................................................................................................28 REFERENCE................................................................................................................29 APPENDIX I.................................................................................................................31 Interview Guideline .......................................................................................................31 APPENDIX II ...............................................................................................................32 Mwongozo wa Dodoso..................................................................................................32
  • 11. 1 CHAPTER ONE Problem Setting 1.0 Introduction This chapter contains background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, research questions, limitation of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study; and definition of the key terms. 1.1.1 Background of the study Increase in peer cruelty, high taking of alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, extramarital sex, abortions, riots in universities and streets, disrespect of elders by the youth is an indicator that moral behavior of the youth is deteriorating. For example it hardly passes a year without witnessing riots from high learning institutions in Tanzania. False love among the youth has become common and abortion as its results has become fashion. Dressing styles also among the youth leaves a lot to be desired. Going half naked is the day of many youth in Tanzania. . Should we associate these increase in moral behaviors among the youth with the advancement of social media (Facebook). This doubt moved the researcher into this study. 1.1.1.Historical Background of Facebook Facebook started when a young Harvard psychology student, Mark Zuderberg, thought of a mechanism to bring all young Harvard students into knowing each other on February 4, 2004 the guy’s dream came into existence and facebook become popular. After few months Zuckerberg and his friends Dustin Moskowitz and Chris Hughes dropped out of
  • 12. 2 Harvard and moved to Polo Alto, California to run the website as their sole occupation that is www.facebook.com. .Today Facebook has more than 845 million active members. The Website is the most popular for uploading photos, with 50 billion uploaded cumulatively. Among these users mostly are youth and most of youth are still studying in high schools, colleges, universities and other are employed to different organizations Table of Facebook users by age AGE PERCENTAGE (100%) 13 -17 20% 18 - 25 26% 26 -34 26% 35 -44 15% 45 -54 08% 55 -64 05%
  • 13. 3 1.3Statement of problem The moral behavior of most of today’s youth is not pleasing for, most of them are engaged in drug abuse, abortion, abusive languages, disrespect to their parents, teachers, authority, riots and burglary .Worse, such immoral behaviors keep on increasing as the world keeps on witnessing the development of new technology. Such new technology facilitates youth interactions to such an extent it becomes easily for the youth to copy. For example today more than 52% of Facebook users are youths. So the researcher wanted to know whether facebook has any impact on youth moral behavior. 1.4. Research objectives 1.4.1. General objective To find out whether Facebook contributes to moral behavior of youth 1.4.2. Specific objectives 1) To find out the factors that influence youth to join and use Facebook. 2) To determine the kind of messages the youths consume in Facebook and how such message influence behavior change of the youth. 1.5 Research Questions 1) What are the factors that influence youth to join and use Facebook? 2) What kind of messages the youths are consuming in Facebook and how much do such messages influence their behavior change?
  • 14. 4 1.6. Limitation of the study The major limitation the researcher faced was that most of respondents were reluctant to engage in interview recording. 1.7. Significance of the study This research is important to the society because it insists on good behavior within the society especially youth. Also the research is useful to the youth because they will know what to take and what to leave when engaged with Facebook. 1.8. Scope of the study This study was conducted in Nyamagana District at Malimbe area. The researcher assessed the impact of Facebook on youth moral behavior at St. Augustine University of Tanzania. 1.9. Definition of the key terms a) Youth – is a time when a person is young especially the time before a child becomes an adult. (Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary7th edition) b) Moral – is the standards of behavior considered acceptable and right by group of people.(Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary7th edition ) c) Facebook – is a social networking website intended to connect friends, family, and business associates. It is the largest of the networking sites, with the runner up being MySpace. It began as a college networking website and has expanded to include anyone and everyone (www.wisegeek.com) d) Behavior – is the way somebody behave especially towards other people(Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary7th edition)
  • 15. 5 e) Moral behavior – is action or actions that produce good outcomes for individual as member of community or society. (www.answers.com)
  • 16. 6 CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2.0 Introduction This chapter of the study represents the literature review, theoretical framework, theoretical argument, empirical literature and research gap. 2.1Theoretical Arguments The rising youth violence, peer cruelty, coarsening of language, a declining work ethic, diminished personal and civic responsibility; escalating dishonesty, growing ethical illiteracy, and growing disrespect for parents, teachers, and other legitimate authority indicate the decline in moral behavior among the youth in Tanzania. Coles (1997) claims that at one time society takes for granted its responsibility to help children develop a conscience or moral compass instead social media especially Facebook has assumed this crucial role. Today Facebook allows youths to "find" friends of their interests without knowing their backgrounds. One of my favorite features of Facebook is that when someone joins the network and they have mutual friends of yours, Facebook posts these friends in the upper right hand corner of your page. It allows youths to see their pictures and decide if they can establish friendship (Shawna, 2009) Facebook makes it easy to upload and share photo albums with the world or just your "friends list" if you prefer. You never have to worry about misplacing your digital photos again and can organize them perfectly in the photo area. You can also instant upload pictures from your cell phone and make a comment (Shawna, 2009)
  • 17. 7 Recurrent incidents of uncaring, harmful and, often, violent behavior have caused many to wonder about a decline in morality in society (Zuckerman, 1994). Reports of unethical behavior are not limited to any one group. People from all levels of socio-economic classes, ages and prominence have been found to be involved in unlawful behavior (Beach, 1991; Halman, 1995). However, the concern over the increase in violence between youth, and the general decline in ethical behavior has forced people to question the moral development of youth and to try to find ways to discourage negative behaviors and encourage ethical, positive behavior from youth. It is believed that the more time spent on Facebook is related to a greater tendency toward narcissistic behaviors among teenagers. Also, it has been discovered that young adults that spend excessive amounts of time on Facebook show more signs of other psychological disorders, including antisocial behaviors, mania and aggressive tendencies. Additionally, studies have revealed that excessive daily use of social media can negatively affect the health of children, preteens and teenagers alike as they are more prone to anxiety, depression and other psychological disorders as well as more susceptible to future general health problems. The study by (Rosen, 2011) reports that school grades will suffer when spending too much time on Facebook as valuable study time is lost. Multiple negative psychological effects could result from spending too much time on Facebook and other social media sites. The study by Rosen (2011) reports the negative impacts of Facebook on youths
  • 18. 8 1. Teens that use Facebook frequently may become narcissistic. If you are not already familiar with that term, dictionary.com describes narcissism as an, "inordinate fascination with oneself; excessive self-love; vanity." Most likely these are not the character traits you desire for your child. 2. Teens who have a strong Facebook presence may display psychological disorders, such as anti-social behaviors, and mania & aggressive tendencies. An anti-social child often does not consider the effects their actions have on others. This can be quite dangerous, especially during the already-volatile teen years. Perhaps this should be termed the anti social media effect. 3. Educational Effects although this pretty much goes without saying, being connected to technology on an ongoing basis can seriously impact a teens and young adult's education. The negative educational impacts of regularly checking Facebook during Rosen's 15-minute observation of kids during study time. 4. Middle and high school students, as well as college students, who checked their Facebook once during the 15-minute study time, had lower test grades. Perhaps this is similar to being a distracted driver. During the 15-minute studying time research, those students who checked their Facebook most often also had the lowest rates of reading retention. This probably is not too surprising, but now it is a proven fact, in case you need to tell your kids. 5. The Facebook effect is real, but teens who "overdose" on technology daily, and this includes video games too, have higher absenteeism from school and are more likely to get stomach aches, have sleep issues, and feel more anxious and depressed.
  • 19. 9 Using Facebook takes time. Often, a lot of time! The greatest motivating factor for children to use technology in grades 7 and up is to connect to others; to socialize. Their irresistible need to connect with their peers, coupled with the development of 24/7 accessible technologies, can make the use of sites like Facebook all consuming. We have concerns for children and teens today growing up in a world where they are wired 24/7 without a break. For many of our kids there is little or no "down time." Some have difficulty disengaging from their social life. For some, it even raises their anxiety level to be without their cell phones for a few hours! We don't believe this is healthy for them. (Doug Fodeman & Marje Monroe, 2009). To our students using Facebook, there is a false sense of privacy. Couple this false sense of privacy with the feeling of anonymity and lack of social responsibility that often develops from using text-centered telecommunications, and we see that many students post embarrassing, humiliating, denigrating and hurtful content in both text, photos and videos. We need to teach them that nothing is private online, especially their social networks. We need to show them examples of the serious consequences that have occurred to those whose egregious online behavior has been made public. Students have been expelled from high schools and colleges. Students have been denied acceptances to intern programs, admission to independent high schools, colleges, and jobs at summer camps. Students, and their families, have been sued for slander and defamation of character (Doug Fodeman & Marje Monroe, 2009) We need to acknowledge that screens act as a moral disconnect for many of our students. Every day online there are thousands of kids who say mean and hurtful things because they can. They are increasingly living their social lives in a world without caring, loving
  • 20. 10 adults watching out for them, without expectations for their behavior, and without boundaries. Research shows that children grow up healthiest in a world with love, communication, structure and boundaries. These qualities hardly exist online for our children/teens. Instead, harassing language is normalized, and the lack of supervision creates an "anything goes" wild-wild-west. Here is a simple case in point. Would Texas Longhorn lineman, Buck Burnette, have said the same thing about President-Elect Obama if handed a microphone at a school assembly in front of hundreds of students? Would he have written his posted statement on a large poster and held it up in downtown Houston for a few hours? (Doug Fodeman & Marje Monroe, 2009) Symptoms of Facebook Addiction According to Thurs some symptoms of Facebook addiction are given below to help users in realizing whether they are really addicted to Facebook. 1. Users and their siblings communicate through Facebook wall and messages, even if they stay in same house. 2. Users check Facebook for updates and comments after every hour at their workstation or on their cell phone. 3. Users wake up in the morning, and log onto their Facebook account first. 4. Users’ Facebook wall is full of status updates, comments, and applications that they just used. 5. Users give priority to Facebook over their commitments in professional and personal life.
  • 21. 11 6. Users spend over an hour on Facebook at a stretch or in short episodes over regular intervals. 7. Users look forward to get home in the evening so that they can see what is happening in cyberspace. (on Facebook to be precise) 8. Users can not go for a day without using Facebook, and even this thought makes them go into sort of depression. 9. Users’ day ends with checking Facebook for that one last time bidding people 'good night' through their Facebook status update. If users are facing any of these activities, then they are suffering from Facebook addiction disorder. Facebook addiction disorder contains the tendency to affect some serious problem of their mental health and social life. Therefore they need to throw away this habit as soon as possible (Thurs 2011) Crime reports of crimes allegedly involving facebook have increased by 346 per cent in less than a year, and 540 percent in the last three years. At the end of 2010, crimes linked to facebook reached a staggering 100,000. Everyone knows about the husband who killed his wife for changing her relationship status to single on Facebook. (Thurs 2011) Concluding Thoughts about the Impact of Facebook on Teenagers Dr. Rosen's insights into the psychological and educational effects of Facebook, other technologies, and media on children is invaluable. Perhaps attentive parents have already noticed these impacts and have taken action. But, for those that have not, it is time to wake up to the consequences social media & technological devices and their overuse can have on our children and combat it.
  • 22. 12 2.2. Theoretical Framework 2.2.1 Social Cognitive Theory This study was guided by “social cognitive theory” which states that we learn behaviors through observation, modeling, and motivation such as positive reinforcement. Some influential psychologists of this theory were N.E. Miller and Albert Bandura. They found that this type of social learning was strengthened if the observer identified with their "model." This meant that children were more likely to repeat behaviors they had seen other children their age do, although they might model adults as well. Learning is also strengthened if someone models a behavior he or she has seen rewarded. This leads to a motivation for the person to model the behavior in order to get a similar reward. Bandura Social cognitive theory defines learning as an internal mental process that may or may not be reflected in immediate behavioral change. Bandura suggest Social cognitive learning theory highlights the idea that much of human learning occurs in a social environment. By observing others, people acquire knowledge of rules, skills, strategies, beliefs, and attitudes. Individuals also learn about the usefulness and appropriateness of behaviors by observing models and the consequences of modeled behaviors and they act in accordance with their beliefs concerning the expected outcomes of actions. Social cognitive theory is a direct response to Behaviorism. Bandura began building his theory of social learning by identifying 3 areas of weakness of Behaviorism: Assumptions / Basic Principles 1. People learn by observing others: Modeling (3 types of modeling). Generally, cognitive modeling involves modeled demonstrations, together with verbal descriptions of the model's thoughts and actions. 2. Learning is internal.
  • 23. 13 3. Learning is goal-directed behavior. Scope and application The “social cognitive theory” tries to show that people may learn behaviors through observation, modeling, and motivation such as positive reinforcement. Through the using of Facebook youth consume different messages. So this theory can help to find out if the youth consuming messages from Facebook lead to the changes of their behavior or not as theory state learning as an internal mental process that may or may not be reflected in immediate behavioral. 2.3 Empirical Literature The study by Sana Rouis, Moez Limayem and Esmail Salehi-Sangari Sweden-USA about “Impact of Facebook Usage on Students’ Academic Achievement: Roles of Self- Regulation and Trust” indicate that extensive use of Facebook by students with extraverted personalities leads to poor academic performance. However, students who are more self-regulated control their presence on these platforms more effectively. Trust in people does not influence their presence and interaction on the platform. Students’ cognitive absorption with Facebook is regulated only by their self-control and personality traits, which determine how much time they spend on Facebook. Multitasking skills moderate the effect to cognitive absorption on academic achievement, but they do not impede the time spent, frequency, or nature of use or their effect on academic results. Although students’ satisfaction with life significantly decline due to cognitive immersion with Facebook, it does not play a role for students’ academic achievement. However their performance goal orientation is a crucial determinant of university accomplishments, which would limit the critical effect of their presence on the Facebook platform.
  • 24. 14 Also the study by Fengshu Liu on “The norm of the ‘good’ netizen and the construction of the ‘proper’ wired self: The case of Chinese urban youth” report that young people’s relationship with the internet has become a major concern in China over the past years. The internet cafe has come to be seen as a ‘negative influence’ on the young. Both academic and lay discourses view internet addiction as a serious and widespread problem. 2.4 Research Gap The literature reviewed shows that most of the youths spent much of their time doing unnecessary activities and has different impact to them. Such studies did not show if this can lead to changes of their moral behavior. This study is therefore sought to fill in this gap.
  • 25. 15 CHAPTER THREE Methodology 3.0 Introduction This chapter presents research design, population of the study, sampling techniques and sample size, data collection techniques, reliability and validity and data analysis. 3.1 Research Design The researcher used a case study design to conduct an in depth investigation of an issue at a specific instance and location and normally focused on small units. 3.2Population of the study The researcher dealt with SAUT student’s population which consist about 15,000 students. Students from different programs were picked and provided a reliable data for the research. 3.3 Sampling techniques The researcher was used a snow ball technique to select his sample from SAUT students. Snow ball technique is the one where by a researcher gets data from one respondent and that respondent names other respondents who can give the same data that the researcher is seeking for. Through this a researcher was able to know students who have Facebook accounts. 3.3.1Sample size The researcher picked 50 students from different programs. The researcher used this technique in order to reduce bias and to make every unit in the target population to have
  • 26. 16 an equal chance of participating and providing information. The researcher here did so to get views from youth around SAUT. 3.4 Data collection techniques 3.4.1 Interview The researcher used interview with 50 students at SAUT. This research needs the deep information and its concern the personal behavior so interview was better when communicated with respondent because they gave an opportunity for the researcher to understand what respondents explained in relation to the topic and asked question for more elaboration. Also this gave respondents freedom and a relaxed mood in shared ideas with the researcher and be able to gave reliable information. Through interviews the researcher was also able to obtain different information from SAUT students. The interviews were structured and unstructured because it was an effective way for the researcher to communicate with the respondents. This gave a respondent an opportunity to be free and responded in a relaxed mood hence provided reliable information. The researcher interviewed 50 students from different programs SAUT and all interviews were recorded. 3.5 Validity and Reliability Data of this topic was reliable and valid because instruments used match with the principles of research. Data was relevant with that of literature concerning my topic.
  • 27. 17 3.6 Data Analysis The researcher used qualitative method that involves explanation and description of the findings. This is because my interview guide is open ended, that requires the respondents to be free to express what they have regarding the use of Facebook.
  • 28. 18 CHAPTER FOUR Findings 4.0 Introduction This chapter consists of the demographic characteristics of the respondents and the research findings. 4.1 Demographic Characteristics An in-depth interview was conducted with 50 students who are using Facebook at St. Augustine University of Tanzania about “the impact of Facebook on youth moral behavior”. 31 respondents were male and 19 were female. Those respondents have been used Facebook for at least two (2) to five (5) years. 4.2.1Reasons for joining Facebook among the students Establishing Friendship Most of the respondents said that they joined Facebook because their friends also use Facebook. During in-depth Interviews, one respond said: “Ni marafiki zangu walikuwa wamejiunga Facebook ikanibidi na mimi nijiunge pia” (My friends joined Facebook so I also decided to join). Love affairs
  • 29. 19 The findings of this study show that most of youth joined Facebook because they heard about forming love relationship between women and men. During interview, one respondent said: “Ni vitu nilivyokuwa nikiviona Facebook, wanawake wazuri sana na kwa kuwa mimi ni kijana nikaona angalau nijipatie hata wawili” (I saw various things in Facebook including beautiful ladies, that is why I decided to have at least two beautiful ladies). Accessible through mobile phones During interviews with students, respondents said that it has become easier to access internet since there are varieties of mobile phones which can access internet, this mostly influenced them to join Facebook because through those mobile phones any time any where they can use Facebook. One respondent said “Nilijiunga baada ya kurahisishwa kutumia facebook kupitia simu ya mkononi” (the accessing facebook through mobile phone influence me to be a member). 4.2.2 Kinds of messages consumed by youth in Facebook; False love messages The findings show that most of the massages youth consume from Facebook are based on love affairs. This means that Facebook is like a place where youth feel to do anything because they think that their parents are not using Facebook so no one can control them and as the Facebook status goes, “what is on your mind” One respondent said:
  • 30. 20 “Unajua Facebook huwa watu wanatabia ya kutongozatongoza alafu ni usumbufu sababu mtu hakujui haumjui” (In Facebook there are some people who even seduce others and it is a disturbance because these people they even don’t know each other). Posting of naked pictures The respondents said that in Facebook it is common thing to find the naked pictures. There are some pages which are posting these pictures and you find out that most of people like those pages, when they like means they are always updated every time about that page. One respondent said; “Kuna peji ambazo zipo facebook, watu mbalimbali wamezifungua kama vile “utamu unakuja utamu unakata,” utamu remix and peji zingine zinazoonyesha wanawake wako uchi’’ (People opening various pages on Facebook such as “utamu unakuja utamu unakata, utamu remix” and such other pages which show naked pictures). Abusive language (insults words) The study shows that the youth are using abusive language in expressing their stresses and anger. People use words which are not ethical to our society. One respondent said; “lugha za matusi zinatumika na zinachochea ugomvi baina ya watu kitu ambacho mi sikipendi” (There is flux use of abusive language ans insults which in one way or another incite conlicts in society members). Cheating and deceptions
  • 31. 21 The findings show that most of the youths provide false identify on their profile. One respondent said: “Unaweza kukuta mtu anachukua picha ya msanii kama Diamond akajiweka pale yaani yeye ni Diamond mtu akipritend, sababu Facebook mtu hawezi kuthibitisha kuwa huyu ni mtu fulani hivyo anaweza kudanganyika” (Yoo can find a person putting the photo of other celebrity Diamond on his profile picture). Politics and religions During interview respondents said that they use the Facebook for religious and political issues. They try to concentrate on some quotable scriptures from Holly Bible and political issues. One respondent said; “Napenda kufungua peji kama jamii forum na TB Joshua katika Facebook” (I When I brown on Facebook, I prefer to go to TB Joshua page and Jamii Forum). The TV Joshua deals with spiritual words of God and Jamii Forum deals with social and political issues. 4.2.3 Influences of messages consumed in Facebook to youths Influence on dressing code The findings show that dressing style of youth nowadays is affected by the use of Facebook. Face boo users adapt to every dressing code from Facebook Pictures. One respondent said
  • 32. 22 “Ninapotaka kuweka picha Facebook ama ninapopiga picha nawaza sana naona wacha nivae kama wale ninaowaona Facebook” (Because of the influence from the others whenever I want to upload a picture on Facebook I need to think twice as in order for my pictures to look nice like those I normally see on others’ Facebook). These pictures also influence a person dressing style. One respondent said; “Facebook imenibadilisha kimavazi, kuna picha naziona kule nami ninaiga hayo mavazi na kweli huwa hazipo kimaadili” (Facebook have changed my dressing styles) Influence on sexual behavior The findings show that because most of the youths are consuming most of messages concerning love affairs they engage themselves on relations with more than one person and they said this behavior is because they control their life rather than before when they were controlled by their parents. One respondent said; “Mwanzoni nilikuwa na msichana moja ila baada ya kuingia Facebook nimeshapata wasichana wengine wawili (Before I joined Facebook I had only one girl friend but after joining Faicebook I have more than three girl friends). These sexual behaviors also result to some sort of problem like spread in HIV/AIDS, un planned pregnancies, which lead to abortion or increase in street children.
  • 33. 23 Influence on conflicts The findings show that most of users of Facebook are engaged in conflicts especially with their partners. One respondent said: “Facebook imeniletea utofauti na mpenzi wangu, watu wananitag kwenye picha zao hasa wanaume ile inamuuzi yeye (Facebook has created misunderstanding with my boy friend because of tagging unlovely pictures on my wall which hurt my boy friend). Influence on poor academic performance This study finds out that the uses of Facebook leads to poor academic performance academics. Students use Facebook even in class through mobile phone devices and others use Facebook during the time for home works. One respondent said. Since I started using Facebook my academic time has become so low. I spent much of my time with Facebook. When I came to compare my academic result before I joined and now, my performance is not good and this is because I am using Facebook even at class. Influence on Facebook addiction During interview respondents said that they use most of time on Facebook day to day. It hardly passes a day without visiting Facebook. One respondent said; “Facebook inanifanya niwe addicted mwisho wa siku siwezi kulala bila kutumia Facebook japo hata kwa saa moja” (I am addicted with facebook and sometimes I cannot even sleep without visiting facebook for at least a single hour).
  • 34. 24 CHAPTER FIVE Discussion 5.0 Introduction This chapter presents the discussion of the findings from interviews. The researcher interprets the findings and gives out obtained number of recommendations. 5.1 Discussion One of favorite features of Facebook is that when someone joins the network and they have mutual friends of yours, Facebook posts these friends in the upper right hand corner of your page. It allows you to see their picture and decide if you should add them to your friends. This seems similar because most of youths who are using Facebook said that their friends are influential for them to join Facebook because in Facebook. This shows that for the coming days the uses of Facebook will increase more and more because as you get new friend who also has friends automatically they will get notification about your friendship in Facebook so there others who will possibly become your friends. Also Shawna, 2009) find out that Facebook has a great cell phone application that text you anytime you get an email or someone comments/writes on your wall. You can also reply directly to them from your cell phone and stay in touch no matter where you are. This study has relations whereby among the reason for youth to join Facebook is an easier accessibility of internet through mobile phone. Youth are enjoying to see what was posted on Facebook and other social networks so the device which is easily to carry, portable and able use anytime, everywhere. Youth seems that it is cheap to use cell phone because through they got multi-functional on air time whereby through TSHs 500/= they
  • 35. 25 will get talking minutes, text messages and mega byte. This shows that five years to come more people will use Facebook because now smart phones are increasing so it will be able for people to access internet wherever are they through cell phones. People also join Facebook because of some interesting things personally like love affairs. This is because they have been told that in Facebook or if they have Facebook account they will easier get beautiful girls or men who have a lot of money. In this situation it seems that there some pages link in Facebook which promote these love affairs and others use that opportunity to search for people who will fulfill their needs. For example a person of 18 years old because he/she know is not possible for his/her parents to be in Facebook they start to seduce their friends on Facebook especially boys and the bad thing is that he seducing more than three girls at the same time. If this situation will continue for five to ten years diseases like HIV/AIDS and other STDs will cost the life of youths to death. According to the study by Sana Rouis, Moez Limayem and Esmail Salehi-Sangari Sweden-USA about “Impact of Facebook Usage on Students’ Academic Achievement: Roles of Self-Regulation and Trust”. Their findings indicate that extensive use of Facebook by students with extraverted personalities leads to poor academic performance. This study is alike because findings show that most of youth or student use their most of time on Facebook. They use it even in class during lecture hours and not able to concentrate on studies hence lead them to poor performance in academic. Finding shows that comparing the performance of a person before and after using Facebook there is huge different the recent result is poor due to bad use of Facebook even at class, library or even
  • 36. 26 in group discussion. This shows that if this situation will not be handed, in five to ten years we will lose the professional experts because they did not concentrate during training. On the addiction of Facebook by (Thur, 2011) on the symptoms of Facebook addiction find that Users and their siblings communicate through Facebook wall and messages, even if they stay in same house. Also users wake up in the morning, and log onto their Facebook account first. This study is alike whereby findings show that most users of Facebook are addicted a person when is offline feels like something missing want to comment things on Facebook or want to see update on Facebook. The finding shows that the addicted users want at least single hour per day to surf on Facebook other mostly using night time. So if this continues the individual performance and development will be affected because during day hours you will fill tired you disturb your schedules and postpone some important things. According to (Rosen, 2011), use of Facebook allows children to develop their self- identity. Choosing a profile photo, listing likes and dislikes, favorites of this and that, quotations, and the like, all "force" your child to become more self aware. But from the findings show that youths are using false identity something which enables them to do wrong things without being identified. These people are encouraging riots, using abusive language against their teachers, leaders even other people who aged as their parents. So if the use false identity will continue the really meaning of Facebook will disappear and it will not be easily to find the good friends.
  • 37. 27 Under the “Social Cognitive Theory” which states that we learn behaviors through observation, modeling, and motivation such as positive reinforcement. They found that this type of social learning was strengthened if the observer identified with their "model." This meant that children were more likely to repeat behaviors they had seen other children of their age do, although they might model adults as well. From findings youth observes some pictures which are uploaded on Facebook are not ethical, there some naked pictures, girls wearing short skirts and using abusive language. Other users are tries to practice what they saw but after time you got a person was totally affects the behavior of concern person. As Bandura in Social cognitive theory defines learning as an internal mental process that may or may not be reflected in immediate behavioral change. There some youth who changed due to consuming such messages from Facebook like wearing short skirts, engaging in improper love affairs (sexual behavior), using abusive language, disrespect teachers, leaders and to other peoples and the bad result is that engaging in sexual behavior leads to diseases like HIV/AIDS, STDS, pregnant, abortion and risk their life to death. So if this situation will not controlled five years to come the coming generation will lean bad behavior from their sister and brothers so that problem will increase more and more. 5.2 Recommendations i. The users of Facebook should use it in a positive way rather than doing negative things. ii. Students should use Facebook at right time and right place rather than using it during class hours. iii. Parents should protect their children against Facebook usage.
  • 38. 28 iv. The University should provide education on proper use of social networks like Facebook so that they will know what to avoid. 5.3 Conclusion From the data collected from the field and how the author has explained about the study it shows that Facebook does have effects on youth moral behavior. Youths are practicing what they see from Facebook especially dressing style, false love affairs, abusive language and naked pictures hence this lead to changes of their behaviors. Societies have to accept the technological changes like Facebook, believing that is a way of socialization and communication not for destruction of their culture. This might be only possible in the presence of Facebook control.
  • 39. 29 REFERENCE Beach, W. (1991) Ethical education in our public schools: Crisis and opportunity Clearing House from www.ca4h.org/files/1334.pdf on 14/09/2012 17:47:00 Browne, B. A. (1998). Gender stereotypes in advertising on children’s television in the 1990s: a cross-national analysis. Journal of Advertising from www.idjrb.com/articlepdf/idjrb8n5.pdf on 09/10/2012 11:17:00 Fodeman D. & Monroe M. (2009) The Impact of Facebook on Our Students, article targets Facebook users from www.nais.org on 11/09/2012 09:20:00 Graves, S. B. (1999). Television and prejudice reduction: when does television as a vicarious experience make a difference? Journal of Social Issues from www.uned.es/472074/papers/Gomez on 20/10/2012 15:16:00 Halman, L. (1995). Is there a moral decline? A cross-national inquiry into morality in contemporary society. International Social Science Journal from www.ca4h.org/files/1334.pdf on 14/09/2012 18:20:00 Pechmann, C. and Shih, C. (1999). Smoking scenes in movies and antismoking advertisements before movies: effects on youth. Journal of Marketing from www.partnershipforbetterhealthanokacounty.com/.../uploads on 23/10/2012 22; 02:00 Saffer, H. & Dave, D. (2003). Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents from www.nber.org/reporter/winter04/saffer.html - 38k on 28/11/2012 12:13:00
  • 40. 30 Sinha, D. N. (2005). Gutka advertisement and smokeless tobacco use by adolescents in Sikkim, India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2784621 08/11/2012 23:01:00 Thurs Hub Pages (2011) negative effects of Facebook addiction from www.thurs.hubpages.com › ... › Social Networking › Facebook on 13/10/2012 21:37:00 Zuckerman, M.B. (1994,). Where have our values gone? U.S. News & World Report Coles, R. (1997). The moral intelligence of children: How to raise a moral child. New York: Dutton/Plume. Rosen, L. D. (2011). Effects of Facebook on Teenagers: Positive and Negative from www.ktrapp.hubpages.com › ... › Health › Mental Health on 12/09/2012 21:28:00 Shawna.S (2009) Reasons Why You Should Join Facebook from voices.yahoo.com/10- reasons-why-join-facebook-3984950.html - 40k on 29/08/2012 13:42:00 Kothari, C.R (2004), research methodology; methods and techniques, New Delhi. Damesh printer’s education, SAGE publication. California. SAUT, (2010-2011), prospectus; St. Augustine university of Tanzania Stephen F. D. Fostering Moral Behavior in Children from www.foreverfamilies.byu.edu/Article.aspx%3Fa%3D31 on 15/04/2012 09:28:00 Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary7th edition www.wisegeek.com data retrieved on 21st Aug. 2012 www.foreverfamilies.byu.ed/article.aspx data retrieved on 08th Aug.2012
  • 41. 31 APPENDIX I Interview Guideline 1) For how long you use Facebook? 2) What inspire you to use Facebook? 3) Can Facebook change a person? 4) How can Facebook changes’ you? 5) Why are you still using Facebook?
  • 42. 32 APPENDIX II Mwongozo wa Dodoso 1) Una muda gani toka uanze kutumia mtandao wa Facebook? 2) Ni nini kilikushawishi wewe kutumia Facebook? 3) Facebook inaweza kumbadilisha mtu kitabia? 4) Je Facebook imekubadilishaje wewe kitabia? 5) Kwa nini bado unatumia Facebook?