ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication
The Influence of Soap Operas on Youth Mo...
i
DECLARATION
I Liembe Ibrahim, declare that the research paper on the INFLUENCE OF SOAP
OPERA ON YOUTH MORAL BAHAVIOR IN ...
ii
COPYRIGHT
No part of this research can be printed, produced or photocopied in any way without the
prior permission of t...
iii
AKNOWLEDGEMENT
I wish to thank God the Almighty for providing me with the strength, courage and
perseverance to undert...
iv
DEDICATION
This research report is dedicated to my lovely sister, Mariam Mohamed.
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION..............................................................................................
vi
Questionnaire for universities and colleges students.................................................................34...
vii
ABSTRACT
Largely, the development of science and technology has brought a wide improvement in
communication context th...
1
CHAPTER ONE
General Introduction
1.0. Introduction
This chapter discusses much on the background of the study, statement...
2
In today’s world, growing up is not what it used to be. The lives of youth today present a
wide range of educational, fa...
3
1.3 Research objectives
1.3.1 The general objective of this study was:
To assess the influence of soap opera on youth mo...
4
1.5. Significance of the study.
To youth.
It will help to shape youth behaviors from copying everything displayed by med...
5
Considering the improvement in science and technology, this study has based on
Nyamagana and Ilemela districts, where me...
6
goes beyond that particular culture, that is youth doing things without considering or
adhering to the code of behavior....
7
1.8 Limitation of the study
The study was limited to youth and media executives in the study area. There has been
some r...
8
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review
2.0 Introduction
Under this chapter the review of literature consists of theoretical argum...
9
The church tacticians argue that the average Christian is almost undistinguishable from
the rest of society. Fundamental...
10
The prolonged viewing by children of violent programs is associated with more
aggressive behavior, such as getting into...
11
violence, sexual promiscuity, theft and greed in a variety of media outlets including
fictional programming, reality sh...
12
to waves of rebelliousness , violence and moral degradation .New media such as
video games and the internet inevitably ...
13
Accommodation theory asserts that people tend to copy and practice what is displayed in
the media .It argues, “When peo...
14
media stakeholders who took in celebrations to mark the world press freedom day held at
the regional level in Tanga cit...
15
Media production
behavior Today’s South African youth are called freedom generation demanding rights
but often shunning...
16
as causal, as when the national media recently focused on Hispanic youth in Los
Angeles, New York and New Jersey who ri...
17
2.3 Empirical literature review
According to Eron (2012) children who watched many hours of television violence when
th...
18
industry in Kenya, the attitude of the youth towards abstinence and sexual morality
continues to decline. In his study ...
19
By the age of seven, many of these young computers users are active users on network,
gaming sites by the time he/she r...
20
Recurrent representation of violence in the media desensitizes audience to violent
behavior and actions. The expansion ...
21
by conglomeration of media exposure of various soap opera, films, music videos and
internet.
2.5 Conclusion
It is there...
22
CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology
3.0 Research design
Refers to the structure of the research, it is the glue that hol...
23
3.1 Population of the study
The study involves fifty (50) respondents especially youth in Mwanza city particularly in
t...
24
3.4 Validity and reliability
During data collection a researcher took a high consideration on respondents that were
sup...
25
CHAPTER FOUR
Research Findings
4.0 Introduction
This chapter presents and analyses findings from self administered ques...
26
Left hand side of the above chart shows the percentage at which respondents watch soap
operas. And at the bottom is the...
27
4.3. Perception towards dressing style in soap operas
Chart 2. Dressing style in soap opera
In the above chart, vertica...
28
4.4. The comparison between smoking, drinking habit and love affairs among youth
in Mwanza and those in soap operas.
Th...
29
Music videos also play a big role in shaping youth behavior in Mwanza city. Nowadays
most youth in Mwanza and Tanzania ...
30
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion
5.0 Introduction
This chapter is about discussion of the findings. A researcher interprets the ...
31
Youth in Mwanza urban consume media in such a way that, it hampers and seizes
creativity to some extent. For instance, ...
32
5.2 Recommendations
 behavior Parents should monitor the media consumption of their children. They
should not allow th...
33
REFERENCES
Barbara, W. “Violence in children’s television programming: Assessing the risk,
“Journal of communication 52...
34
APPENDIX 1
Questionnaire for universities and colleges students
My name is Liembe Ibrahim, a third year student pursuin...
35
b) Secondary ( )
c) College ( )
d) University ( )
5. Do you watch soap opera in televisions? Yes/no ………………….
6. How oft...
36
9. Why do you prefer the soap opera mentioned above? Explain
…............................................................
37
APPENDIX 2
Questionnaire for secondary and high school respondents
My name is Liembe Ibrahim, a third year student purs...
38
g) College ( )
h) University ( )
i) None of the above ( )
5. Do you watch soap opera in televisions? Yes/no ………………….
6....
39
8. What is the name of that soap opera?............................................................................
9. ...
40
APPENDIX 3
Maswali dodoso kwa vijana wa jiji la mwanza
Jina langu ni Liembe, Ibrahim Mohamed. Mwanafunzi wa mwaka wa ta...
41
b) Sekondari ( )
c) Chuo ( )
d) Chuo kikuu ( )
5. Je ? huwa unaangalia tamthilia kwenye runinga. ndiyo/hapana…………
6. Ni...
42
8. Tamthilia unayoangalia inaitwaje?..................................................................................
...
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Liembe Ibrahim on, "The Influence of Soap Operas on Youth Moral Behavior in Mwanza City"

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Largely, the development of science and technology has brought a wide improvement in
communication context through various media formats. Because of this exponential
growth in media technology, the public consume a lot of soap operas across the country.
This being the case, this study sought to assess the influence of soap opera on youth
moral behavior in Mwanza city because youth have high attempts to adopt various
practices from the media beyond their culture.
Under this study, chapter one explains the background of the study, statement of the
problem, research objectives, significance of the study, scope of the study, definition of
the keys terms, limitation of the study, assumption and conclusion.
More over in chapter two under literature review, researcher discusses much on the
related literature that is portrayed by different schools of thought pertaining to influence
of media content on youth moral behavior..
More or less in chapter three, the study indicates the type of research implemented. In
this study, a quantitative research has been used to gather information through
observation and a random selection technique has been employed whereby questionnaire
was directed to fifty respondents for valid and reliable information.

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Liembe Ibrahim on, "The Influence of Soap Operas on Youth Moral Behavior in Mwanza City"

  1. 1. ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication The Influence of Soap Operas on Youth Moral Behavior in Mwanza City A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty of Social Sciences and Communication in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of Bachelor Degree of Arts in Public Relations and Marketing at Saint Augustine University of Tanzania. Liembe Ibrahim June, 2013
  2. 2. i DECLARATION I Liembe Ibrahim, declare that the research paper on the INFLUENCE OF SOAP OPERA ON YOUTH MORAL BAHAVIOR IN MWANZA CITY is my original work and that all the sources I have used or quoted have been identified and acknowledged by means of complete references. This research report has been approved by research supervisor. Name…………………………………………………………….. Signature …………………………………. Date ……………………… Saint Augustine University of Tanzania.
  3. 3. ii COPYRIGHT No part of this research can be printed, produced or photocopied in any way without the prior permission of the owner Mr. Liembe Ibrahim; however Saint Augustine University can give permission on behalf. All rights reserved Liembe Ibrahim © 2013
  4. 4. iii AKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to thank God the Almighty for providing me with the strength, courage and perseverance to undertake this research project. I wish to thank my supervisor Mr. Denis Mpagaze for his guidance, dedication, diligence and advice throughout this research project. Special words of thanks go to my friends, family and relatives for their assistance and encouragement during my studies, because without them my work wouldn’t have been possible. I especially wish to thank my beloved parents, Tatu Bakari and Mr. Mohamed. My brothers, Hussein and Abdallah, my lovely sister Mariam Mohamed, and the following friends for their valuable contribution, Ngailo Frank, Leka Kaikai, Geofrey Salamba, Toto Juma, Mbuga Daniel, Haule Dustan, Hassan Mussa, Tibaijuka Alfred, Cezalia Mwidima, Crispo Baraka and Joel Kiloma.
  5. 5. iv DEDICATION This research report is dedicated to my lovely sister, Mariam Mohamed.
  6. 6. v TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION..............................................................................................................................i COPYRIGHT................................................................................................................................. ii AKNOWLEDGEMENT.................................................................................................................. iii DEDICATION .............................................................................................................................. iv ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................. vii CHAPTER ONE.............................................................................................................................1 General Introduction...................................................................................................................1 1.0. Introduction .....................................................................................................................1 1.1 Background of the Study ...................................................................................................1 1.2. Statement of the problem ................................................................................................2 1.3 Research objectives...........................................................................................................3 1.3.1 The general objective of this study was: .........................................................................3 1.3.2 Specific objectives were: ................................................................................................3 1.4. Research questions: .........................................................................................................3 1.5. Significance of the study...................................................................................................4 1.7 Definition of the key terms and acronyms. ........................................................................5 1.8 Limitation of the study ......................................................................................................7 1.9 Assumptions......................................................................................................................7 1.9.1 Conclusion......................................................................................................................7 CHAPTER TWO............................................................................................................................8 Literature Review........................................................................................................................8 2.0 Introduction ......................................................................................................................8 2.1 Theoretical argument. .....................................................................................................8 2.2 Theoretical framework....................................................................................................12 2.3 Empirical literature review .............................................................................................. 17 2.4 Research gap...................................................................................................................20 2.5 Conclusion.......................................................................................................................21 CHAPTER THREE........................................................................................................................22 Research Methodology .............................................................................................................22 3.0 Research design ..............................................................................................................22 3.1 Population of the study ...................................................................................................23 3.2 Sampling procedure and sample size...............................................................................23 3.3 Data collection procedure ............................................................................................... 23 3.4 Validity and reliability......................................................................................................24 3.4 Data analysis ...................................................................................................................24 3.5 Conclusion.......................................................................................................................24 CHAPTER FOUR.........................................................................................................................25 Research Findings .....................................................................................................................25 4.0 Introduction ....................................................................................................................25 4.1 Demographic characteristics of respondents. ..................................................................25 CHAPTER FIVE...........................................................................................................................30 Discussion.................................................................................................................................30 5.0 Introduction ....................................................................................................................30 5.1 Discussion .......................................................................................................................30 5.2 Recommendations ..........................................................................................................32 5.3 Conclusions.....................................................................................................................32 APPENDIX 1 .............................................................................................................................. 34
  7. 7. vi Questionnaire for universities and colleges students.................................................................34 APPENDIX 2 .............................................................................................................................. 37 Questionnaire for secondary and high school respondents .......................................................37 APPENDIX 3 .............................................................................................................................. 40 Maswali dodoso kwa vijana wa jiji la mwanza ...........................................................................40 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 33
  8. 8. vii ABSTRACT Largely, the development of science and technology has brought a wide improvement in communication context through various media formats. Because of this exponential growth in media technology, the public consume a lot of soap operas across the country. This being the case, this study sought to assess the influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior in Mwanza city because youth have high attempts to adopt various practices from the media beyond their culture. Under this study, chapter one explains the background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, significance of the study, scope of the study, definition of the keys terms, limitation of the study, assumption and conclusion. More over in chapter two under literature review, researcher discusses much on the related literature that is portrayed by different schools of thought pertaining to influence of media content on youth moral behavior.. More or less in chapter three, the study indicates the type of research implemented. In this study, a quantitative research has been used to gather information through observation and a random selection technique has been employed whereby questionnaire was directed to fifty respondents for valid and reliable information.
  9. 9. 1 CHAPTER ONE General Introduction 1.0. Introduction This chapter discusses much on the background of the study, statement of the problem, research objectives, research questions, limitation of the study, assumptions, significance of the study; and definition of key terms. 1.1 Background of the Study Globalization of media brings opportunities to broaden youth’s outlooks and provide more access to information; also it threatens cultural identification and values. Technological advances bring the promise of new skills and greater youth participation in society, but also increase the risk of youth exploitation and informational divides. Arguably, the proliferation and globalization of media are among the key factors that have shaped and defined the current generation of young people, youth have access to a greater number of multimedia choices than ever before – convectional, satellite, and cable TV channels, radio stations, newspapers and magazine, the internet, computer and video games. Information, email and images flow around the world faster and more freely than ever before. Indeed mass media are making the world smaller, culture and media are increasingly inextricable, especially for young people (Susan, 2004). Since the advancement of science and technology in the media, youth moral behavior in Mwanza city has become a serious problem ,where by youth adopt various practices from soap opera , such as bad dressing code ,stealing ,too much alcohol drinking ,propensity toward violence ,prostitution ,smocking and drug abuse(Leonard, 2012).
  10. 10. 2 In today’s world, growing up is not what it used to be. The lives of youth today present a wide range of educational, family, employment and health experiences that depart in major ways from those of youth one or two generations ago. This different experience can be attributed to the effects of globalization, technological advances and widespread economic development (Rachel, 2006). Sexuality and sexual behavior of young people have highlighted the media as a significant source of information on reproductive and sexual health matters and an important influence in young people’s lives, particularly with respect to their interaction with the opposite sex (Akhila, 2004). A researcher focused on assessing the influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior in Mwanza city. 1.2. Statement of the problem As media content dissemination through various television stations, internet and newspapers in Tanzania, grow the moral behavior of the young people, by practicing things beyond their culture that is bad. One could make a conclusion that, this bad behavior of the youth such as dressing code, drinking, eating style, smocking, prostitution and drug abuse. Might be caused by conglomeration of media exposure of various soap operas, films and internet surfing. This study established the relationship between soap opera and behavior changes of the youth in the society particularly in Mwanza city.
  11. 11. 3 1.3 Research objectives 1.3.1 The general objective of this study was: To assess the influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior in Mwanza city 1.3.2 Specific objectives were: 1. To identify common soap operas run in Tanzania’s media. 2. To identify and compare the dressing style in soap operas versus dressing style of the youth in Mwanza city. 3. To compare smoking, drinking and love affairs among youth in Mwanza with those in the soap operas. 1.4. Research questions: To meet these objectives, researcher has used the following research questions: 1. What are the common soap operas found in Tanzania? 2. Is dressing style of youth in Mwanza city resembling with dressing style of actors in soap operas? 3. Do soap opera influence smoking, drinking and love affairs among youth in Mwanza?
  12. 12. 4 1.5. Significance of the study. To youth. It will help to shape youth behaviors from copying everything displayed by media (newspapers, radio, television, billboard as well as internet, films, computers and music To intellectuals It will help intellectuals especially SAUT students and lectures, to understand the impact of soap opera to youth. To the future parents It will help SAUT students to have good strategies in raising their family towards the impact of soap opera. To TCRA Those graduates that will be employed by TCRA will advice TCRA to amend or introduce some regulation that will help to preserve youth moral decay via media content. 1.6 Scope of the study Mwanza region has a population of 2,929,644 people in all its eight districts that is Ukerewe (to the north), Magu (to the east), Sengerema and Geita (to the west), Misungwi and Kwimba (to the south), Nyamagana and Ilemela (the region capital) – 2012 CENSUS.
  13. 13. 5 Considering the improvement in science and technology, this study has based on Nyamagana and Ilemela districts, where media has a wide coverage in terms of large number of radios, televisions, music, films, newspapers, as well as internet service. Moreover, the region current population has increased greatly from the figure at the last census. The study informs media influence on youth moral behavior and other member of the society. 1.7 Definition of the key terms and acronyms. Media A broad concept encompassing the whole infrastructure and establishment through which information is collected, processed and disseminated. There is electronic media that include the internet, telephone, radio and television. The print media include newspapers, pamphlets, billboard and books. Media content These are the information and experiences that may provide value for an end user/audience in specific contexts. Content may be delivered via any medium such as the internet, television and audio CD as well as live events such as conference and stage performances. The word is used to identify and quantify various formats and genres of information as manageable value adding components of media. Moral decay The situation where by in a contemporary society, the misconduct of culture practices by youth reaches the level of huge destruction, in the sense that , what practiced by youth
  14. 14. 6 goes beyond that particular culture, that is youth doing things without considering or adhering to the code of behavior. TCRA Tanzania Communication Regulation Authority, it involves with licensing and regulating the postal services, broadcasting services and electronic communication sector in the united republic of Tanzania. Propensity towards violence An inclination or tendency of hitting someone because they were angry in the past year that is threatening others may be by using guns or knife. Youth It is the time of life between childhood and adulthood, those persons between the age of fifteen (15) and twenty four (24). – United nations general assembly Soap opera According to Albert Moran, soap opera is that form of television that works with a continuing open narrative, each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode. Sometime is called “soap” for short, an ongoing, episodic work of dramatic fiction presented in serial format on radio or as television programming. The soap opera stems from the original dramatic serial broadcast on radio that had soap manufactures such as Dial Corporation, proctor and gamble, Colgate and lever brothers as sponsors and producers.
  15. 15. 7 1.8 Limitation of the study The study was limited to youth and media executives in the study area. There has been some reluctant of the respondents, especially youth in providing information about moral behavior. Researcher faced some challenges during data collection because there was no enough time considering that he was required to attend academic activities as well. 1.9 Assumptions The influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior in Mwanza city will be well comprehended. Also the alternatives that have to be implemented so as to make sure media as a whole do not impart any kind of misconduct to their audience will be discovered. 1.9.1 Conclusion It is therefore in this study, researcher explains the magnitude of the problem pertaining to the influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior in Mwanza city in terms of background of the study, statement of the problem, significance of the problem, the objectives of the study, where the study conducted, limitations as well as assumption.
  16. 16. 8 CHAPTER TWO Literature Review 2.0 Introduction Under this chapter the review of literature consists of theoretical argument, theoretical framework, and empirical literature review and research gap have been widely discussed. 2.1 Theoretical argument. Vander Bitt argues that, watching too much television could be hazardous to moral health. The report, the media assault on American values reveals that media messages appear to be undermining the pillars of America cultural edifice, strength of character, sexual morality and respect for god, the report is based on findings of a major scientific survey commissioned by Central Media Institute (C.M.I) a division of the media research centre. The national cultural values survey reveals a striking correlation between greater exposure to television and permissive moral views. Heavy television viewers ( four hours or more per evening ) are less committed to character virtues like honest and clarity and permissive about sex ,abortion and homosexuality .light television viewers (one hour or less per evening ) are more likely to attend religious services and live their lives by gods principles. (Brian, 2007) It is believed that, “some people observe information and activities in the media and then proceed to imitate what they see” (Wilson & Wilson, 1998, p. 411)
  17. 17. 9 The church tacticians argue that the average Christian is almost undistinguishable from the rest of society. Fundamental moral and ethical difference that Christ can make in how we live is missing. Our teens we claim to be served get pregnant and do drugs at the same rate as the general teenage population. Christians end cheat on their spouses at the same statistical level as those who say they are not Christians. It can be true that they have imitated what they are reading from news papers and act accordingly (George, 2007). The depravity exposed when a Vancouver teenage displayed photos on the internet of a gang rape has people shocked about the moral decline of today’s young people .But something this repugnant incident looms more important than a debate over what is about contemporary teens that lead a group of males to rape young women at a drug filled rave party in a Vancouver area field and graphically let others know about it. Tragically young people (an old) have done terrible things since human story began .at least since the time of ancient Greek philosopher Socrates ,adults have complained the current generation of teenagers was not as ethically upstanding as they themselves had been (The Vancouver sun, Monday 20th September, 2010) Cartoons portray the highest frequency of violent acts of all TV programs. He says, “ Children who grew up with unrestricted television viewing and particularly those who have been allowed to watch many hours of violent adventure programs are more likely to develop aggressive behavior” (Carmen, 1998, p. 25).He continues to argue that, “children can develop a sense of inferiority about their home when they compare them with those shown in commercials, since children tend to assign a strong reality factor to televisions verbal and visual messages” (Carmen, 1998, p .26).
  18. 18. 10 The prolonged viewing by children of violent programs is associated with more aggressive behavior, such as getting into fights and disrupting the play of others (Eldon, 1999). Television status are strongly criticized for their incentive programming that disregards the time when programs are aired , often inappropriate programs are aired during prime time when young children likely to watch ,it says liquor and cigarette commercials normally are featured in the evening news (The Majira News paper, 14th September, 2000). James Kent, a professor of public administration at Marist College, was convicted on 134 counts of processing child pornography on his computer. Most arguments against child pornography are based on the reasonable belief that it harms the children who do not only pose for the pornographers but are often rapped. The purpose of child pornography is keeping the rapists and abusers in business, without buyers and website visitors, only the most dedicated pedophiles would waste time and resources in creating and distributing their filth (Thomas, 2007) Professor in the department of speech communication – university of Illinois argues that 70% of American are very or somewhat worried that popular culture as portrayed in the television and movies is lowering moral standards in the united state of America .The concern is fuelled by the tremendous amount of time youth are spending with the media and by their easy access to explicit content. Children can readily find stories about
  19. 19. 11 violence, sexual promiscuity, theft and greed in a variety of media outlets including fictional programming, reality shows, rap music and the internet (Barbara, 2002) Children and youth are labeled as folk devils. The first part of this chapter mainly discusses Stanley’s Cohen’s book “folk devils and moral panic” and describe how moral panics cause fear, confusion, anger and intolerance in the public mind. This is understandable taking the England 2011 riots as an example, hundreds of young people took to the street of Liverpool, Manchester, Sanford, Nottingham, Birmingham and London, these young people looted shops before burning them down and abusing innocent pedestrians. Statistics from the BBC shows that over 50% of the rioters were between the age of 10 and 20, BBC 2012 providing in this case that youths were the main contributors to the riots (Charles, 2008). Even religious writing such as the bible have been the target of criticism ,from early Christian writings in the roman empire to native language translation of the bible in the late medieval period ,in fact the bible recently came back in the spot light with a study suggesting that reading passages from the bible with violent content provokes aggression in the same manner as violent video games or television alleged to (bushman ,ridge ,das , key and Busath, 2007) he continue by saying that the 20th century has seen many other examples from HARRY POTTER teaching witchcraft to the concern (largely evaporated) that playing dungeons and dragons would lead to Satanism or mental illness ,to the hays code “taming” of betty boop (which by forcing her to put on more clothes ,dormed the comic strip.) Concern have come and give that media such as comic books ,jazz , rock ,rap ,role playing games and books as well as television and movies , would lead
  20. 20. 12 to waves of rebelliousness , violence and moral degradation .New media such as video games and the internet inevitably stock the flames of fear with waves of advocates and politicians expressing concern over the fate of supposedly vulnerable children and teens. (Christopher, 2007, p.37). “Media violence effects have been conclusively demonstrated so much so that they certainly equal that of smoking and lung cancer” (Bushman & Anderson, 2001). Young people can learn about sexual activity behavior from media programs. In Kenya media has utilized the use of musicians to advertise the use of contraceptive, what the media fails to do is to remind the youth that these celebrities are mature enough to make proper sex decisions and are probably married. Young people listen to adverts, but they do not learn about the contexts in which the behavior depicted occurs (Galahs, 2005) 2.2 Theoretical framework This study is guided by critical theory and accommodation theory. A critical theory of media looks how the corporate ownership of media production and distribution affects society in all spheres. Media should be critical in disseminating information. “Criticism involves the application of principles or values in order to make judgment for the purpose of bringing about positive changes. Media needs to collect process and disseminate information by adhering to the code of behavior that is, the accepted morality of society has to be protected”, rather than creating product and campaigns targeted at a youth demographic. (John, 1992, p. 238).
  21. 21. 13 Accommodation theory asserts that people tend to copy and practice what is displayed in the media .It argues, “When people interact they adjust their speech, their moral pattern and their gestures to accommodate to others”. It explores the various reasons, why individuals emphasize or minimize the social differences between themselves and their interlocutors through verbal and non-verbal communication. This theory is concerned with the links between languages, context and identity, it focuses on both the intergroup and interpersonal factors that lead to accommodation as well as the ways in which power, and macro and micro context concerns affect communication behavior (Giles, 1973) In the media ownership, also known as media consolidation or media convergence, which means the process whereby progressively fewer individuals or organization, controls increasing shares of the mass media. Contemporary research demonstrates increasing levels of consolidation with many media industries already highly concentrated and dominated by a very small number of firms. Private media ownership can result in better quality products due to competition. The threat of losing market share to a competitor forces firms to put forth their best products. Furthermore large media firms achieve efficiencies due to economies of scale. (In micro economics, a situation in which a producers cost per unit of product falls as more of that product is produced.) Lastly the very fact that these firms are not owned by governments allows perspectives that dissent from official sources to be shared (John, 1992) On the other hand, private ownership leads to media firms placing profit above public interest. It can also lead to cultural decay in that popular media can become homogenized. Media owners and journalists in the country have been advised to establish special programs that would address moral decay in the society. The call was made by
  22. 22. 14 media stakeholders who took in celebrations to mark the world press freedom day held at the regional level in Tanga city. The stakeholders explained that moral decadence has been increasing and posed great danger to the nation, calling on media house owners to find ways of helping to address the problem. The only way to fight against moral decadence was using the mass media to show the society the effects of the situation. He also said that, if media houses would set aside space to address the problem and write about it, it would definitely be reduced as society would be transformed positively (Mramba, 2012). Advised the government to scrutinize news magazine that concentrate on publishing sexual related contents as they only contribute to undermining moral standards among the youth (Ali, 2012), the fact that the traditional method of educating the youth through folk tales told by elders by the fire side is no longer used, the media has taken the role and therefore it must ensure that it helps in improving the social fabric rather than destroying it. “The tales told by grandfathers and mothers, educated children and the youth on moral matters, building courage and how they could tackle problems”. This role now is in the hands of journalists, we should all make sure that we promote objective journalism (Doro, 2012, p. 4). The guest of honor, deputy minister for gender and children development, said the government valued the contribution of the media and that it would ensure that the industry would face the challenges effectively (Mwaimu, 2012).
  23. 23. 15 Media production behavior Today’s South African youth are called freedom generation demanding rights but often shunning responsibility, with parents and educators struggling to accommodate this new belief. While we do not deny the fact that every human being has basic rights, logo therapy’s call is to live your freedom responsibly. A freedom without something to respond to is an absurd freedom (Viktor, 2012). American cinema has increasingly provided a site of convergence for depicting both the inner city ‘reality’ of black on black youth violence and for promoting a renewed “acceptability and/or tolerance of straight forward racist doctrine”. Recent films focusing on black urban violence such as boy’s n the hood (1991), juice (1992), menace ll society (1993), sugar hill (1994) and fresh (1994) have attracted national media coverage because they do not simply represent contemporary urban realities but also reinforce the popular perception that everyday black urban life and violent crime mutually defined each other(Henry, 1995). “Cinema appears to be providing a new language and aesthetic in which the city becomes the central site for social disorder and violence and black youth in particular become agents of crime”(Wilcox, 2005, pp. 333-354). Real life and celluloid images blur as the representation of race and violence proliferate more broadly through the news media’s extensive coverage of youth violence not in frequently highlighting the core, guts, hysteria and other tawdry Hollywood effects to punctuate its sensationalist often racist commentary. The relationship between the everyday and cinematic representations is often taken up
  24. 24. 16 as causal, as when the national media recently focused on Hispanic youth in Los Angeles, New York and New Jersey who rioted or fought each other outside of the movie theatres in which black youth gangster films were being shown. In examining these real and symbolic representations of black on black violence, the popular press used the incident to link exposure to media violence with aggressive anti social behaviour in real life. The pres did not use these events to call public attention to the violence to the mind, body and spirit of crumbling, schools, low teacher expectations, unemployment and housing discrimination, racist dragnets and everyday looks of hate by people who find black youth guilty by suspicion. Instead of focusing on how larger social injustices and failed policies, especially those at the root of Americas system of inequality, contribute to a culture of violence that is a tragedy for all youth, the dominant media transformed the growing incidence of youth violence into a focus on black on black fratricide. In this particular instance, the representation of black youth was used as a vehicle to schematize the causal relationship between violence and the discourse of pathology. Such racially coded discourse serves to mobilize white fears and legitimate “drastic measure” in social policy in the name of crime reform. More over the discourse of race and violence provides a sense of social distance and moral privilege that places dominant white society outside of the web of violence and social responsibility (Laird, 2005, p. 350).
  25. 25. 17 2.3 Empirical literature review According to Eron (2012) children who watched many hours of television violence when they were in elementary school tended to show a higher level of aggressive behavior when they become teenagers, by observing these young people until they were 30 years old. Eron learned that the same group was prone to arrest because of violence crimes. Children (youth) do practice what they read from the tabloid news papers. She admits that the primary school children are attracted to buy these kinds of news papers because of pornographic pictures, half naked and sex stories. She recommends that pupils should not buy this kind of newspaper and she forgets that they are sold in low price that a pupil can afford to buy them through the money they are given by their parents for transport or for buying food, but other children get this news paper from their family members. She also says that the minister for information should be responsible for publication of such materials that can change the behavior yet she forgets that these news papers get license from the same ministry. The free trade liberalization that brought about privatization during the 1990’s promotes the production of these newspapers (Kimario, 2003). The local music industry has been used to sensitize the youth about the need for behavior change. This is largely because media is perceived as very important in shaping the youth need identity’s and defining important social and subculture boundaries (Christenson, 1990). Music also influences how young people view themselves and others, and how they act out of these views, in fact, it furnishes much of their slang dominates their conversation and provide the ambience at their social gathering. In spite of the efforts of the music
  26. 26. 18 industry in Kenya, the attitude of the youth towards abstinence and sexual morality continues to decline. In his study on five selected eastern Africa countries (O’toole, 1997). A note that an average of 90% of youth has heard about H.I.V/AIDS and knows ways of avoiding it, but a high percentage does not approve of abstinence; neither does it use condoms during sexual encounters (Bankole, 2004). Kenyan songs portray a skewed relationship between clear messages about safe sex and sex for sex sake. A critical look at the language in those songs levees a thin line between the two aspects. In jail for example, despite the fact that the artist is promoting the use of contraceptives, he is on the hand encouraging casual sex. He terms the bottoms of females as coming in all sizes and all prices. He says manyakee all sizes, manyakee all prices….. Juala ndio wahitaji. The artist commercialize sex and gives an ok to casual sex as long as the individuals involved have a condom, other song like “we kamu, kamata dame” “john nampenda john” among others primarily describe sex, in the song “we kamu” the artist uses graphic languages and glorifies promiscuity, the song delvers into bedroom matters describing a sexual encounter and leaves nothing to the imagination of its listeners (Chapin, 2000). More children are being exposed to more new digital media (NDM) at younger ages than ever before. According to a 2005 study by the Kaiser family foundation, 48% of American children, six and under were active computer users, 91% watched television and 89% watched videos or DVD’s.
  27. 27. 19 By the age of seven, many of these young computers users are active users on network, gaming sites by the time he/she reaches the age of 18, the average American youngster is consuming a varied diet of media, from television and DVD’s to podcasts, producing some media work of his or her own and using technology like texting and social networking sites to stay in touch with friends and family. A Kaiser family foundation study from 1999 states that “literally, hundreds of empirical studies conducted over the past half century leave little doughty that, given exposure, media content can and does influence youngster’s beliefs, attitude and behavior There is the sense that children are maturing faster and achieving more at younger ages (Rideout, 2003). 11 to 14 years old in the US spends about an hour a day playing video games, over an hour and a half listening to music, three hours watching television and an hour use the computer up from half an hour in the younger age group (Roberts, Foehr & Rideout, 2005). Also the media provide access to and construct social problems, large numbers of audiences throughout the world and in turn themselves have become a social problem in view of their multiple and complex effects, many negative. The media have been blamed by homophobia, ageism and other oppressive social phenomena. Social problems connected with the media also involve allegedly harmful media influences on children and youth, pornography and the degradation of women and sexuality, advertising manipulation and the promotion of excessive consumerism and materialism (Douglas, 2001).
  28. 28. 20 Recurrent representation of violence in the media desensitizes audience to violent behavior and actions. The expansion of youth violence throughout the world and media exploitation of sensational instances of teen killings in the US, Britain, France, Germany and elsewhere intensifies focus on the media and violence and the ways that rap music, video and computer games, television and film and other types of youth culture have promoted violence. (Eysenk, 1978).140 scenes taken from 47 films that portrayed drugs, alcohol, nicotine, gambling and sex. Some of these scenes concentrated more on use of drugs rather than addiction per se, so the final number of scenes was whittled down to 61. According to the findings, most of these films, for instance American beauty, tended to focus on the positive effects of addiction, for example contrasting the fun and enjoyment of taking drugs with the mundane nature of everyday life. 87 of the most popular films of the past twenty years use of cannabis featured in 8%, tobacco (68%) and drunken behavior (32%). Again they concluded that portrayal tended to be positive and the dangers of associate behaviors as unprotected sex were not considered. (Sulkunen, 2007) Many films do consider the negative effects, listing physical deterioration, prostitution and rape, theft and murder and moral decline such as stealing from friends and family (Grixti, 2008). 2.4 Research gap Globalization of media should go together with the provision of education on cultural values among youth; this will help to create awareness on the impact that caused by the free flow of information. The literature reviewed suggested that, the bad behavior of youth in terms of dressing style, eating style, smoking and drinking habit has been caused
  29. 29. 21 by conglomeration of media exposure of various soap opera, films, music videos and internet. 2.5 Conclusion It is therefore to be argued in this study that when media is not be critical in disseminating information by taking the consideration on ownership, production and distribution as well, the moral decays in Mwanza city to youth will not be successful protected. The application of principles and values should be employed to make judgment so as to bring about positive changes.
  30. 30. 22 CHAPTER THREE Research Methodology 3.0 Research design Refers to the structure of the research, it is the glue that holds the entire element in a research project (Comb and Tromp, 2006). This study has used quantitative research and content analysis to determine the influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior in Mwanza city and identifying the content of common soap operas, films, music videos and video games in terms of dressing code and living styles. Quantitative research is a positivistic approach where by a researcher has gathered data through observation and questionnaire .Moreover, the researcher had an opportunity to prove theories (critical theory of media and accommodation theory) that explains a phenomenon. Content analysis is a systematic qualitative description to examine the content of recorded information. Content analysis involves observation and detailed description of objects, define objectives and be analyzed quantitatively. Broadly defined, however, content analysis “is any technique for making inferences by systematically and objectively identifying special characteristics of messages” (Holsti, 1968, p. 608).From this perspective, photographs, video tapes or any item that can be made into text are amenable to content analysis.
  31. 31. 23 3.1 Population of the study The study involves fifty (50) respondents especially youth in Mwanza city particularly in the urban areas where media has a wide coverage. 3.2 Sampling procedure and sample size The sample for this research was selected using probability sampling where by respondents were selected randomly to provide the information pertaining to the influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior. Simple random technique provides equal chance to every member of the population to be included in the study (Mugenda and Mugenda, 1999). The researcher has used simple random technique to obtain twenty (20) respondents from universities and colleges based in Mwanza city, twenty (20) youth from Mwanza city particularly in the urban area and ten (10) respondents from high school and secondary school found in Mwanza city. 3.3 Data collection procedure Researcher gathered information from respondents through observation and questionnaire. More over the researcher employed a structured and unstructured questions technique of which helped him to provide a greater uniformity of response and answers. Through observation, a researcher had an opportunity to collect current information pertaining to the influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior.
  32. 32. 24 3.4 Validity and reliability During data collection a researcher took a high consideration on respondents that were supposed to provide information so as to avoid any kind of misleading. For instance, questionnaires were mostly directed to youth so as to gather valid and reliable information about youth moral decline influenced by soap opera in Mwanza city. Also in preparing questionnaire the researcher followed a systematic procedure in order to be sure that it fulfils broad objectives such as successful gathering information that answer each study question, motivate respondents to answer all questions to the best of their ability. Among of the procedure that has been employed by the researcher so as to gather valid and reliable information was to determine what information is needed, to select question type and structure, to select best wording of each question that is to look on clarity, brevity, simplicity, precision, freedom from bias and appropriateness. 3.4 Data analysis In descriptive analysis, researcher used a summary of key findings by presenting the frequent responses of the participants on various issues. Also the researcher presented the data and offered explanations to clarify more for the reader through presentation of statistical chart. 3.5 Conclusion The research methodology employed in this study towards data collection enables the reader to visualize and understand the data collected
  33. 33. 25 CHAPTER FOUR Research Findings 4.0 Introduction This chapter presents and analyses findings from self administered questionnaires and observation. 4.1 Demographic characteristics of respondents. Twenty questionnaire distributed to university students were returned., 13 questionnaires, out of 20 distributed to youth found in Mwanza urban were filled out and returned, 6 questionnaire were returned, out of 10 that were distributed to high school and secondary school making a total of 39 (78%) out of 50 questionnaires. There were 23 males and 16 females, whereas, their level of education ranged from primary to university level. In spite of watching soap opera, they do also watch movies and surfing the internet through their mobile phones. Moreover, there were 13 respondents who arguably said that, they do not use to watch soap operas rather they spend most of their refreshing time surfing the internet by communicating with friends via face book, twitter, watching music videos in the television, films and team drinking. 4.2 The common soap opera in Tanzania Chart 1. The common soap opera in Tanzania.
  34. 34. 26 Left hand side of the above chart shows the percentage at which respondents watch soap operas. And at the bottom is the list of TV channels that are most viewed by Mwanza’s youth. Due to the findings, the most viewed common soap opera in Mwanza urban are Isidingo the Need, La Revancha and Endless Love. The above chart shows that, out of 50 respondents 6% watch La Revancha via TBC, 6% watch Isidingo via ITV, and other 6% watch endless love via STAR TV. While two respondents watch timeless via STAR TV, which make a total of 11 respondents (22%).
  35. 35. 27 4.3. Perception towards dressing style in soap operas Chart 2. Dressing style in soap opera In the above chart, vertical line shows the percentage at which respondents perceive towards the dressing style in soap opera. The horizontal line indicates number of respondents. Where by 15 youth (30%), agree that, the dressing style in soap opera is attractive. And 7 respondents (14%) agree that, the dressing styles in soap opera are abusive while only 3 respondents (6%) out of 50 agree that the dressing style in soap opera are decent one. This brings an implication that, most youth in Mwanza urban adopt the dressing style in soap opera. Taking the consideration on the concept that, once one accepts the reality that means a particular thing is attractive or decent one. It is obviously that he/she will be forced to have that thing or having an access towards that thing.
  36. 36. 28 4.4. The comparison between smoking, drinking habit and love affairs among youth in Mwanza and those in soap operas. Through observation, a researcher has been able to identify various behavior portrayed by youth in Mwanza urban, such as the way youth put themselves into smoking habit, through watching soap opera, imitating a certain adorable character on what he/she does in the scene without recognizing the reality. However, there are some youth drugs themselves into smoking habit due to peer groups, or copying from the members of the family so as to feel prestigious without recognizing the consequences behavior. Further, out of 10 youth, 5 (50%) of their population dedicated much of their time watching soap operas. The way they do things on daily basis is quietly almost the same with what displayed in soap opera in terms of dressing code, eating style, talking style, love affairs and drug dealing. Some youth fight to their level best cognitively to be up to date, through putting on dresses that are very famous in soap operas. And the love affairs among youth in Mwanza urban resemble with the love affairs portrayed in soap operas, which is quietly beyond Tanzania culture. Recently, 30 percent of youth in Mwanza urban smoke marijuana. Researcher suggested that, this has been caused by some soap that displaying some character using marijuana, for instance, American movies and Jamaican movies. These kinds of movies encourage or convince youth to smoke marijuana. However, there some others who have been driven into drug addiction by peer- groups and life complications.
  37. 37. 29 Music videos also play a big role in shaping youth behavior in Mwanza city. Nowadays most youth in Mwanza and Tanzania as a whole spend much of their time in listening and watching music videos especially Bongo Flavour. This music videosshapeyouth behavior to a very damaging situation. For instance, in the national form four examination results of 2012. It happens to be a phenomenon where by majority candidates (60%) failed the exam. And during marking, examiners found some candidates wrote music lyrics in the answers sheet instead of what it was required. This proves that, Bongo Flavour though it entertains and educates, also it plays a big role in destroying youth moral behavior. 4.5 Conclusion Soap operas play a great role in shaping youth moral behavior. Most youth in Mwanza urban practice almost the same with what displayed in soap operas, movies, internet and other media.
  38. 38. 30 CHAPTER FIVE Discussion 5.0 Introduction This chapter is about discussion of the findings. A researcher interprets the data and gives out the opinion in relations to the data obtained. 5.1 Discussion Since the advancement of science and technology in the media industry, youth moral behavior has become a serious problem, where by youth adopt various practices from soap opera such as bad dressing code, stealing, and too much alcohol drinking, propensity toward violence, prostitution, smoking and drug abuse (Leonard, 2012) The proliferation and globalization of media are among of the key factors that have shaped and defined the current generation of young people in Mwanza urban. Youth in Mwanza have access to a greater number of multimedia choices than ever before such as satellite, cable TV channels, radio stations, and news paper, magazine, the internet, computer and video games. Information, emails and images flow around the world faster and more freely. Sexuality and sexual behavior of young people have highlighted the media as a significant source of information on reproductive and sexual health matters and an important influence in young people’s lives, particularly with respect to their interaction with the opposite sex (Akhila, 2004).
  39. 39. 31 Youth in Mwanza urban consume media in such a way that, it hampers and seizes creativity to some extent. For instance, they spend a lot of time socializing with friends via face book and twitter instead of going to library and come up with something new. Others became very aggressive and violently, acting the same as what happens in the movies and music videos. Cartoons portray the highest frequency of violent acts of all TV programs. “ children who grew up with unrestricted television viewing and particularly those who have been allowed to watch many hours of violent adventure programs are more likely to develop aggressive behavior” (Carmen, 1998, p. 25). In spite of the presence of TCRA, the information is flowing very fast with no borders or any kind of limitation due to globalization. So this being the case, it is quietly very difficult to stop or prevents the flow of information that might damage youth reputation. Music greatly influences how young people view themselves and others, and how they act out of these views. In fact, it furnishes much of their slang dominates their conversation and provide the ambience at their social gathering. The attitude of the youth towards abstinence and sexual morality continues to decline (O’toole, 1997) It is believed that, “some people observe information and activities in the media and then proceed to imitate what they see” (Wilson & Wilson, 1998, p. 411).
  40. 40. 32 5.2 Recommendations  behavior Parents should monitor the media consumption of their children. They should not allow them to spend a lot of time watching television programs. behavior  The Tanzania government should set a system to provide to the community on the negative impacts of media.  Youth should be able to differentiate between the reality and fictions as to avoid imitating everything displayed on the media.  Media should be critical in disseminating information. “Criticism involves the application of principles or values in order to make judgment for the purpose of bringing about positive changes. Behavior 5.3 Conclusions The advancement in science and technology has provide an opportunity to people to receive information from different part of the world via media like radio, televisions, computer, internet, mobile phones, news papers and magazines. This free flow of information has lead to the interaction of different culture among people across the world. It is quietly difficult to stop an individual/youth to consume media in the way he/she does. A researcher suggested that, the Tanzania government should set a system in place or an institution, that will be responsible for providing education to the community on the impact of technology and not only the positive outcomes. This will help youth in Mwanza and other member of society to protect our culture.
  41. 41. 33 REFERENCES Barbara, W. “Violence in children’s television programming: Assessing the risk, “Journal of communication 52, no. 1 (2002): 5-35. Bandura, A. (1971). Social learning theory. New York: General learning press. Bankole, A. (2004).Youth and hiv/aids in sub-Saharan. New York: The Allan Guttmacher institute. Bushman. & Anderson ,C. (2001). Media violence and the American public. American psychologist, 56, 477-489. Carmen L. (1998). Television and your child. New York: Oliveira books Chapin, R (2000). Adolescents, sex and mass media: dev.approach adolescents, vol 35(140) pp 799-811. Christenson, P. (1990). Adolescents on popular music in adolescence. Washington DC: Carnegie Council Medicine Christopher, F. (2007). Evidence of publication bias in video game violence effect literature: A meta analytic review. Aggression and violent behavior, 12, 470- 482. Douglas, G. “A normative study of family media habits, “Applied developmental psychology” 25 (2002): 157-78. Susan, F. (1996). Social cognition. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
  42. 42. 34 APPENDIX 1 Questionnaire for universities and colleges students My name is Liembe Ibrahim, a third year student pursuing Bachelor of Arts in Public Relations and Marketing at Saint Augustine University of Tanzania. I am conducting a research entitled “The influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior in Mwanza city. You are therefore kindly requested fill out the questionnaire. The information obtained will be treated confidentially. Thanks in advance for your kind corporation. 1. What is your name/gender? ................................................................. 2. How old are you? (Tick where appropriate) a) 10-15 ( ) b) 15-20 ( ) c) 20-25 ( ) d) 25-30 ( ) e) 30-35 ( ) 3. What is your occupation? .......................................................................................... 4. What is your education level (tick where appropriate) a) Primary ( )
  43. 43. 35 b) Secondary ( ) c) College ( ) d) University ( ) 5. Do you watch soap opera in televisions? Yes/no …………………. 6. How often do you watch soap opera? a) every day ( ) b) once a week ( ) c) twice a month ( ) d) twice a week ( ) e) once a year ( ) 7. In what television station does that soap opera is aired. a) ITV ( ) b) TBC ( ) c) STAR TV ( ) d) CHANEL TEN ( ) e) CAPITAL TV ( ) other station, mention here........................................................... 8. What is the name of that soap opera?................................................................................
  44. 44. 36 9. Why do you prefer the soap opera mentioned above? Explain …............................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................ 10. How do you find the dressing style in soap opera? a) Attractive ( ) b) Abusive ( ) c) Decent ( ) d) Discouraging ( )
  45. 45. 37 APPENDIX 2 Questionnaire for secondary and high school respondents My name is Liembe Ibrahim, a third year student pursuing Bachelor of Arts in Public Relations and Marketing at Saint Augustine University of Tanzania. I am conducting a research entitled “the influence of soap opera on youth moral behavior in Mwanza city. You are therefore kindly requested to fill out the questionnaire. The information obtained will be treated confidentially. Thanks in advance for your kind corporation. 1. What is your name/gender?............................................................................................... 2. How old are you? (Tick where appropriate) f) 10-15 ( ) g) 15-20 ( ) h) 20-25 ( ) i) 25-30 ( ) 3. What is your occupation?.............................................................................. 4. What is your education level (tick where appropriate) e) Primary ( ) f) Secondary ( )
  46. 46. 38 g) College ( ) h) University ( ) i) None of the above ( ) 5. Do you watch soap opera in televisions? Yes/no …………………. 6. How often do you watch soap opera? f) every day ( ) g) once a week ( ) h) twice a month ( ) i) twice a week ( ) j) once a year ( ) 7. In what television station does that soap opera is aired. f) ITV ( ) g) TBC ( ) h) STAR TV ( ) i) CHANEL TEN ( ) j) CAPITAL TV ( ) other station, mention here …………………………….
  47. 47. 39 8. What is the name of that soap opera?............................................................................ 9. Why do you prefer the soap opera mentioned above? Explain ................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................................................ 10. How do you find the dressing style in soap opera? e) Attractive ( ) f) Abusive ( ) g) Decent ( ) h) Discouraging ( )
  48. 48. 40 APPENDIX 3 Maswali dodoso kwa vijana wa jiji la mwanza Jina langu ni Liembe, Ibrahim Mohamed. Mwanafunzi wa mwaka wa tatu chuo kikuu cha mtakatifu Augustino, katika mafunzo ya shahada ya uhusiano wa jamii na masoko. Nafanya utafiti kuhusiana na “jinsi tamthilia inavochangia mabadiliko ya tabia za vijana katika jiji la Mwanza, kwa hiyo, kwa moyo mkunjufu kabisa unaombwa kusoma maswali yafuatayo kwa umakini na kuyajbu kwa ufasaha . Taarifa zote zitakazopatikana zitakuwa ni siri. Asante sana kwa ushirikiano wako. 1.Jina lako ni nani/jinsia?.......................................................................................... 2.Una umri gani? a) 10-15 ( ) b) 15-20 ( ) c) 20-25 ( ) d) 25-30 ( ) 3.Unafanya shughuli gani?............................................................................... 4. kiwango chako cha elimu ni kipi? a) Msingi ( )
  49. 49. 41 b) Sekondari ( ) c) Chuo ( ) d) Chuo kikuu ( ) 5. Je ? huwa unaangalia tamthilia kwenye runinga. ndiyo/hapana………… 6. Ni mara ngapi huwa unaangalia tamthilia? a) Kila siku ( ) b) Mara moja kwa wiki ( ) c) Mara mbili kwa mwezi ( ) d) Mara mbili kwa wiki ( ) e) Mara moja kwa mwaka ( ) 7. Ni katika kituo gani cha luninga huwa unaangalia tamthilia? a) TBC ( ) b) ITV ( ) c) Star TV ( ) d) Capital TV ( ) e) Channel ten ( )
  50. 50. 42 8. Tamthilia unayoangalia inaitwaje?.................................................................................. 9. Kwanini unaipenda hiyo tamthilia. ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………… 10. Unayachukuliaje mavazi yanayovaliwa na waigizaji kwenye tamthilia? a) Yanavutia ( ) b) Yanakiuka maadili ( ) c) Ni ya heshima ( ) d) Yanakatisha tama ( )

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