2. POSTCOLONIALISM is an intellectual direction (sometimesalso called an “era” or the “post-colonial theory”) that exists sincearound the middle of the 20th century.It developed from and mainly refers tothe time after colonialism.
3. DESCRIPTIONS Particular areas of emphasis includethe Indian subcontinent, northern andcentral Africa, and southeast Asia.These regions were under the controlof colonial powers like England, theUnited States, and France. also deals with literature written bycitizens of colonial countries thatportrays colonized people as itssubject matter.
4. DESCRIPTIONS deals with the conflicts between rulerand subject, mainstream andmarginalized, oppressors andoppressed and, at the sametime, celebrates the suppressed"other," challenging the dominantculture and questioning concepts ofestablished authority.
5. This literature that has been produced informer colonies reflects changes in thesocial, political, economic, and culturalpractices in freed regions and rebellionagainst anything that reminds of thecolonizer. Edward Said, Homi Bhabha, and GayatriChakravorty Spivak are importantexponents of postcolonial criticism.DESCRIPTIONS
6. CHARACTERISTICS An awareness of representations ofthe non-European as exotic orimmoral Other. An awareness of the tainted nature ofthe colonizers language (thus using itinvolves acquiescing to colonialstructures). An awareness of the double nature ofidentity of both colonizer andcolonized.
7. CHARACTERISTICS An awareness of cross-culturalinteractions as demonstrated in the threestages:1. Adopt European form and subjectmatter (similar to the feminine stage infeminism)2. Adapt European form to Africansubject matter (similar to the feministstage in feminism)3. Adept or independent form andsubject matter (similar to the femalestage in feminism)
8. What postcolonial critics do: Reject claims to universalism andseek to show its general inability toempathize across boundaries ofcultural and ethnic differences. Examine representation of othercultures in literature. Show how such literature is silent onmatters concerned with colonizationand imperialism.
9. Foreground questions of culturaldifference and diversity. Celebrate hybridity wherebyindividuals and groups belongsimultaneously to more than oneculture. See states of marginality, plurality andperceived Otherness" as sources ofenergy and potential change.What postcolonial critics do:
10. PURPOSES to find and re-establish their lostnational identity, history andliterature, and to define the authors‟relationship with the land andlanguage of their former masters. to open a space where the residualeffects of colonialism can be resisted.
11. Books that influencedpostcolonial criticism: 1961: Frantz Fanon‟s The Wretched ofthe Earth argues that the first term forcolonized to find voice is to reclaimtheir own past that has long beendevalued by European colonizers. 1978: Edward Said‟s Orientalismargues that the West identifies theEast as its „Other‟ and as such it isexotic, seductive, and feminine.