Sauna Academy:  international megatrends in mobility <br />Migration, integration and cohesion in the 21st century<br />Mi...
Migration, integration and cohesion in the 21st century: Global movements of people, national regimes of sovereignty, loca...
1. The world on the move?<br />
Contemporary migration and 20th century legacies: global flows and national sovereignties – the politics of scale <br />Gl...
Contemporary migration: 20th century legacies and 21st century drivers: global flows and national sovereignties – the poli...
2. Thinking about migration and the dynamics of social change: the case for and against migration<br />Globalisation’s sha...
14<br />Contrasting advocates<br />
15<br />Four falsehoods on UK immigration<br />BY MARTIN WOLF<br />PUBLISHED: APRIL 3 2008 18:45 | LAST UPDATED: APRIL 3 2...
16<br />This may be why the public are very concerned about “Race relations / immigration / immigrants”  - in 2006- and 20...
3. Social policy and migration: assimilation, multiculturalism, integration and cohesion:Receiving countries and migration...
3. Social policy and migration: assimilation, multiculturalism, integration and cohesion<br />Assimilation’s implicit tele...
Zygmunt Bauman<br />“The new migration casts a question mark upon the bond between identity and citizenship, individual an...
4. Dwelling and the creativity of of modern (migrant) life: so what is new?<br />The modern and the tradition of the bildu...
Accomodating migration: ghetto routes<br />
Migrant settlement: Fietas, Soweto, downtown Joburg<br />
International skilled labour and London’s machine for living<br />
Chengzhongcun &apos;villages in the city‘ migrant ‘handshake apartments’ <br />
civillagety<br />
The point here is to highlight the creativities of the attempts to make a home; the embossed realities of systemic injusti...
5. The UK Commission on Integration and Cohesion and its legacies<br />Periodising migration to the UK<br />From empire to...
From Cantle to 7/7<br />
The Commission on Integration and Cohesion’s uncertain genealogy<br />Tony Blair and the bombs<br />Charles Clarke (HO) an...
56<br />The Commission<br />Ruth Kelly launched the Commission on Integration and Cohesion on 24th August 2006, alongside ...
57<br />The terms of reference<br />The Commission was tasked with:<br />Examining the issues that raise tensions between ...
58<br />The nature of diversity is changing<br />
59<br />Migration to the UK has been increasing<br />Total International Migration (TIM) to/from the UK 1991-2004<br />sou...
60<br />Some evidence diversity does not correlate with lack of conviviality<br />
61<br />“Parallel lives” and the UK  “sleepwalking into segregation”? <br />Ted Cantle “Whilst the physical segregation of...
62<br />The final report new definition<br />An integrated and cohesive community is one where:<br />There is a clearly de...
63<br />Two chimera<br />Segregation  - and the Phillips debates<br />Multiculturalism debates – ‘the beginning’, the ‘end...
64<br />Structure of final report builds on themes and definition<br />1. INTRODUCTION<br />2. ANALYSIS<br />3.  A NEW DEF...
65<br />February 2008 response<br />Clarity<br />New definition<br />Human rights debates<br />National policy<br />Resour...
66<br />Fundamental principles<br />Shared futures; a sense of becoming over being; shared identifies looking forward that...
67<br />Emerging themesThe ‘place shaping’ agenda and regeneration<br />IT IS NOT JUST ABOUT EXTEREMISM AND / OR MIGRATION...
68<br />Rhetorics of partnership and new landscapes of neighbourhood governance<br />The pace, demographics and the econom...
The new ‘homes agency’
LABV’s
PCT’s, neighbourhood police,
The regional at the level of the local</li></li></ul><li>69<br />CRE, regeneration inquiry and the new homes agency<br />N...
70<br />New Housing Corporation Guidelines, October 2007<br />Community Cohesion and Housing: A good practice guide<br />S...
6. The roots of incommensurability and the pragmatics of the convivial: translating the details of receiving societiesTran...
The analytical incommensurabilities of the languages of rights and languages of belonging<br />Rights and the good life<br...
Cartographies of the modern<br />Identity, belonging and scale<br />Notions of identification and the local<br />The local...
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Professor Michael Keith: Cohesion, Integration and 21st Century Migration

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Professor Michael Keith, Director of University of Oxford´s COMPAS Research Center, spoke in Finland on global migration as the keynote speaker for the decision makers´ future course Sauna organised by Demos Helsinki and e2.

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Professor Michael Keith: Cohesion, Integration and 21st Century Migration

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Sauna Academy: international megatrends in mobility <br />Migration, integration and cohesion in the 21st century<br />Michael Keith, 26-27 August 2009 <br />Tuusula, Helsinki, Finland <br />
  3. 3. Migration, integration and cohesion in the 21st century: Global movements of people, national regimes of sovereignty, local impacts of social change<br />The world on the move: the scale of migration in the 21st century; global, European, Finland and UK<br />Thinking about migration and the dynamics of social change: the case for and against migration<br />Social policy and migration: assimilation, multiculturalism, integration, cohesion<br />Dwelling and the creativity of modern (migrant) life<br />The Commission on Integration and Cohesion and its legacies<br />The roots of incommensurability and the pragmatics of the convivial: translating the details of receiving societies<br />Conclusion<br />
  4. 4. 1. The world on the move?<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11. Contemporary migration and 20th century legacies: global flows and national sovereignties – the politics of scale <br />Global dynamics – mobility, cultures, family reunification, universal notions of human rights<br />National sovereignties – labour markets, skilled and unskilled labour demand, economic growth<br />Localised impacts – the metropolis, the neighbourhood, new destinations of migration<br />
  12. 12. Contemporary migration: 20th century legacies and 21st century drivers: global flows and national sovereignties – the politics of scale <br />Nations of migration – North America<br />Colonial legacies – North Europe<br />The urban age – China<br />Labour markets – the gulf, EC accession countries the A8<br />Universal constructions of human rights, the objective case for asylum and national regimes of migration – Denmark, Sweden, Finland? <br />
  13. 13. 2. Thinking about migration and the dynamics of social change: the case for and against migration<br />Globalisation’s shadow<br />The case for migration and the case against<br />National economic benefits, local impacts, neighbourhood change<br />Changing demography: ageing Europe<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Contrasting advocates<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Four falsehoods on UK immigration<br />BY MARTIN WOLF<br />PUBLISHED: APRIL 3 2008 18:45 | LAST UPDATED: APRIL 3 2008 18:45<br />WHAT WILL HISTORY JUDGE THE MOST IMPORTANT POLICY DECISION TAKEN BY THE LABOUR GOVERNMENT? IT WILL NOT, IN MY VIEW, BE THE WARS IN AFGHANISTAN AND IRAQ, INDEPENDENCE OF THE BANK OF ENGLAND OR REFUSING TO JOIN THE EURO. POLICY ON IMMIGRATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN ANY OF THESE, BECAUSE IT IS TRANSFORMING THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION. YET, ASTONISHINGLY, THE GOVERNMENT HAS NEVER MADE A SERIOUS ATTEMPT TO JUSTIFY MASS IMMIGRATION. WORSE, THE ARGUMENTS IT HAS USED ARE SPECIOUS.<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />This may be why the public are very concerned about “Race relations / immigration / immigrants” - in 2006- and 2007 it was in MORI polls “the top issue currently facing Britain”<br /><ul><li>MORI poll May 2006 – “race relations/immigration/immigrants” was the most commonly named main issue facing Britain today, named by 19% of people. As the graph below shows concern has been rising since 1997 – and this was the first time it had overtaken crime</li></ul>MORI, 2006<br />
  17. 17. 3. Social policy and migration: assimilation, multiculturalism, integration and cohesion:Receiving countries and migration<br />The civic nationalism of the USA<br />The multicultural pluralism of Canada<br />The urban rural divide and thehukou in China<br /> French republicanism<br />The German gasterbeiter and its demise<br />British accomodation from colonial legacy to cohesion and integration<br />
  18. 18. 3. Social policy and migration: assimilation, multiculturalism, integration and cohesion<br />Assimilation’s implicit teleology<br />Multiculturalism’s implicit geography<br />Cohesion and integration’s popularity <br />Against multiculturalism? “The usefulness of the concept of multiculturalism is now beginning to be questioned, however, in part because of the way in which it encompasses such a wide spectru of difference and fails to reconcile them within a societal framework” (Ted Cantle, 2008)<br />
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Zygmunt Bauman<br />“The new migration casts a question mark upon the bond between identity and citizenship, individual and place, neighbourhood and belonging”<br />Culture in a globalised city (July 2008)<br />
  22. 22. 4. Dwelling and the creativity of of modern (migrant) life: so what is new?<br />The modern and the tradition of the bildungsroman<br />The new and Zygmunt Bauman<br />“The new migration casts a question mark upon the bond between identity and citizenship, individual and place, neighbourhood and belonging”<br />Culture in a globalised city (July 2008)<br />Migrant life: living, dwelling, settling<br />Between belonging, citizenship, concentrations and community building<br />
  23. 23. Accomodating migration: ghetto routes<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Migrant settlement: Fietas, Soweto, downtown Joburg<br />
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42. International skilled labour and London’s machine for living<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Chengzhongcun &apos;villages in the city‘ migrant ‘handshake apartments’ <br />
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50.
  51. 51. civillagety<br />
  52. 52. The point here is to highlight the creativities of the attempts to make a home; the embossed realities of systemic injustices in the bricks and mortar of the process of settlement and the manner in which the political is realised in ways major and minor through the coming into being of new forms and accommodations of migrant (bare) life. <br />
  53. 53. 5. The UK Commission on Integration and Cohesion and its legacies<br />Periodising migration to the UK<br />From empire to Fordism – dissenting Britain to the mother country<br />The Windrush generation<br />From the 90s growth to selective migration <br />
  54. 54. From Cantle to 7/7<br />
  55. 55. The Commission on Integration and Cohesion’s uncertain genealogy<br />Tony Blair and the bombs<br />Charles Clarke (HO) and the place of faith<br />John Reid (HO) and terror<br />Ruth Kelly (DCLG) and Britishness<br />Hazel Blears (DCLG) and community power<br />
  56. 56. 56<br />The Commission<br />Ruth Kelly launched the Commission on Integration and Cohesion on 24th August 2006, alongside the appointment of the Chair, Darra Singh and 13 further Commissioners.<br />The Commission was a fixed term independent body that reported back to the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government in June 2007.<br />DCLG made an initial response to the Commission’s report in Autumn 2007 and a final policy response in February 2008<br />The Commission agreed to meet again on a single occasion to review progress 12 months after its final report<br />A formal letter was sent by the Secretary of State in response to the report in October 2007 with policy initiatives developed in response announced in early 2008<br />The Commission covered England only, but also considered issues which affect Scotland and Wales, and good practice from other countries. <br />The Commission undertook its work within the context of existing Government policy.<br />
  57. 57. 57<br />The terms of reference<br />The Commission was tasked with:<br />Examining the issues that raise tensions between different groups in different areas, and that lead to segregation and conflict; <br />Suggesting how local community and political leadership can push further against perceived barriers to cohesion and integration; <br />Looking at how local communities themselves can be empowered to tackle extremist ideologies; <br />Developing approaches that build local areas’ own capacity to prevent problems, and ensure they have the structures in place to recover from periods of tension<br />
  58. 58. 58<br />The nature of diversity is changing<br />
  59. 59. 59<br />Migration to the UK has been increasing<br />Total International Migration (TIM) to/from the UK 1991-2004<br />source ONS website<br />
  60. 60. 60<br />Some evidence diversity does not correlate with lack of conviviality<br />
  61. 61. 61<br />“Parallel lives” and the UK “sleepwalking into segregation”? <br />Ted Cantle “Whilst the physical segregation of housing estates and inner city areas came as no surprise, the team was particularly struck by the depth of polarisation of our towns and cities. The extent to which these physical divisions were compounded by so many other aspects of our daily lives, was very evident. Separate educational arrangements, community and voluntary bodies, employment, places of worship, language, social and cultural networks, means that many communities operate on the basis of a series of parallel lives. These lives often do not seem to touch at any point, let alone overlap and promote any meaningful interchanges. There is little wonder that the ignorance about each others’ communities can easily grow into fear; especially where this is exploited by extremist groups determined to undermine community harmony and foster divisions.” <br />Source: Building Cohesive Communities (Home Office 2001)<br />Trevor Phillips: “We are a society which, almost without noticing it, is becoming more divided by race and religion. …If we allow this to continue, we could end up …. living in a New Orleans-style Britain of passively co-existing ethnic and religious communities, eyeing each other uneasily over the fences of our differences…. we are sleepwalking our way to segregation. We are becoming strangers to each other, and we are leaving communities to be marooned outside the mainstream.”<br />Source speech of 22/09/05 from CRE website<br />
  62. 62. 62<br />The final report new definition<br />An integrated and cohesive community is one where:<br />There is a clearly defined and widely shared sense of the contribution of different individuals and different communities to a future vision for a neighbourhood, city, region or country <br />There is a strong sense of an individual’s rights and responsibilities when living in a particular place – people know what everyone expects of them, and what they can expect in turn. <br />Those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities, access to <br />services and treatment.<br />There is a strong sense of trust in institutions locally to act fairly in arbitrating between different interests and for their role and justifications to be subject to public scrutiny<br />There is a strong recognition of the contribution of both those who have newly arrived and those who already have deep attachments to a particular place, with a focus on what they have in common.<br />There are strong and positive relationships between people from different backgrounds in the workplace, in schools and other institutions within neighbourhoods.<br />
  63. 63. 63<br />Two chimera<br />Segregation - and the Phillips debates<br />Multiculturalism debates – ‘the beginning’, the ‘end’ and the middle of multiculturalism<br />
  64. 64. 64<br />Structure of final report builds on themes and definition<br />1. INTRODUCTION<br />2. ANALYSIS<br />3. A NEW DEFINITION OF INTEGRATION AND COHESION<br />4. DEVELOPING SHARED FUTURES<br />5. STRENGTHENING RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES<br />6. BUILDING MUTUAL RESPECT AND CIVILITY<br />7. MAKING SOCIAL JUSTICE VISIBLE<br />8. ACTING IN THE FOUR KEY SPHERES<br />
  65. 65. 65<br />February 2008 response<br />Clarity<br />New definition<br />Human rights debates<br />National policy<br />Resource<br />PSA with cohesion (PSA 21 – cross government PSA)<br />Local delivery<br />Principle – away from one size<br />Cohesion impact<br />Nationality and citizenship<br />Education (Ajegbo)<br />
  66. 66. 66<br />Fundamental principles<br />Shared futures; a sense of becoming over being; shared identifies looking forward that recognise diverse histories and identities looking backwards<br />A notion of citizenship that is fit for purpose for the 21st century and that accomodates different geographical scales of local, regional, national and transnational rights and responsibilities<br />An ethics of hospitality that recognises the value of the stranger and the newcomer within a framework of mutuality and civility<br />A sense of visible social justice that appeals not only to equality of opportunity and outcome but also to transparency of the decision making process<br />
  67. 67. 67<br />Emerging themesThe ‘place shaping’ agenda and regeneration<br />IT IS NOT JUST ABOUT EXTEREMISM AND / OR MIGRATION<br />The emergence of ‘fairness’ and forward thinking<br />Future thinking<br />Present rationing<br />Defining fairness<br />Place shaping and the new agenda: Homes Agency, CRE report, Housing Corporation work<br />The social engineers of place making<br />Housing and homes; who gets access to the new homes<br />Voice and choice in the new NHS<br />In whose image is the city (re)made; London’s regeneration agenda<br />
  68. 68. 68<br />Rhetorics of partnership and new landscapes of neighbourhood governance<br />The pace, demographics and the economics of local change<br />Between market and state, new structures of governance<br />The incommensurabilities of rational co-ordination of the public sector and particpatory democracy?<br />Understanding ‘place shaping’ and mapping power<br />Understanding the role of new social engineers<br /><ul><li>Housing associations / RSL’s
  69. 69. The new ‘homes agency’
  70. 70. LABV’s
  71. 71. PCT’s, neighbourhood police,
  72. 72. The regional at the level of the local</li></li></ul><li>69<br />CRE, regeneration inquiry and the new homes agency<br />No detailed impact assessment has yet been conducted of the plans for this new agency, although a very brief appendix to the current consultation document on the proposal contains what is described as a race equality assessment (CLG, 2007b); it is four paragraphs long and its claim that the new organisation will ‘have a positive impact on Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups’ is based on very little evidence. A manager for CLG assured us that a full race equality impact assessment would be carried out, but, as the CRE’s guidance (CRE, 2005b) urges: ‘as soon as you know you have to develop a particular policy or legislative proposal, one of your first questions should be: “what will the policy (or legislation) actually mean for people,depending on their racial group”?’ Had a race equality impact assessment been carried out when the proposals were first put forward, it could have informed the questions in the consultation document and provided valuable evidence for creating the new organisation. The danger of delaying the race equality impact assessment is that ideas become more firmly set and the assessment becomes an exercise in justifying the benefits of an approach that has already been decided upon, rather than examining its potential impact. <br />However, community cohesion has been absent from the approaches of many authorities and agencies working on sustainable development. In a report published in 2007 (Institute of Community Cohesion, 2007), ASC stated: There is little to indicate that [English Partnerships] has yet engaged with building cohesive communities. It could be making a significant contribution in this area through such programmes as Housing Market Renewal and Millennium Communities <br />Commission for Racial Equality, 2007<br />
  73. 73. 70<br />New Housing Corporation Guidelines, October 2007<br />Community Cohesion and Housing: A good practice guide<br />Shared Places: Community Cohesion Strategy<br />Working in partnership<br />Investing in cohesion<br />Shaping neighbourhoods Empowering local people<br />Enabling integrataion<br />Myth busting<br />“Method statements will, over time, provide evidence of how investment partners work with community partners, local or regeneration agencies.”<br />
  74. 74. 6. The roots of incommensurability and the pragmatics of the convivial: translating the details of receiving societiesTranslating Sonali Gardens<br />
  75. 75. The analytical incommensurabilities of the languages of rights and languages of belonging<br />Rights and the good life<br />A communitarian sense of belonging<br />The rationing of finite resources<br />Made more complex by plural temporalities and spatialities<br />
  76. 76. Cartographies of the modern<br />Identity, belonging and scale<br />Notions of identification and the local<br />The local and the elsewhere<br />Colonial histories and postcolonial presents<br />
  77. 77.
  78. 78.
  79. 79.
  80. 80.
  81. 81.
  82. 82.
  83. 83.
  84. 84.
  85. 85.
  86. 86. Sonali Gardens thematics: A complex assemblage of rights and belongings<br />The transnational and challenges to unitary citizenship<br />Ethnicity v faith; secularism and Islam <br />The politics of recognition, identity and the finite logics of the identitarian<br />Eligibility criteria; welfare reform, social services, Weber’s paradox<br />Land and property rights: the land deal, public ownership, private ownership : property as a bundle of rights<br />Voice and choice – social policy reform and modernisation language<br />Community power – networks and Sonali gardens as a vote bank. Balagonj, Bianibazar (Kalaziri)<br />The state, governance and hybrid institutional forms<br />Estate transfer and public debt<br />
  87. 87. 7. Conclusion<br />‘Acting globally, thinking locally’: the importance of geographical scale and tensions betweem<br />In the register of policy; from chaotic conceptualisation to pragmatic intervention. And the discursive nature of ‘conviviality’ – living through incommensurability<br />In the scholarly register and the dynamics of change: temporalities, cartographies and creativities of the multicultural present<br />

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