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Professor Michael Keith: Cohesion, Integration and 21st Century Migration
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Professor Michael Keith: Cohesion, Integration and 21st Century Migration

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Professor Michael Keith, Director of University of Oxford´s COMPAS Research Center, spoke in Finland on global migration as the keynote speaker for the decision makers´ future course Sauna organised ...

Professor Michael Keith, Director of University of Oxford´s COMPAS Research Center, spoke in Finland on global migration as the keynote speaker for the decision makers´ future course Sauna organised by Demos Helsinki and e2.

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Professor Michael Keith: Cohesion, Integration and 21st Century Migration Professor Michael Keith: Cohesion, Integration and 21st Century Migration Presentation Transcript

  • Sauna Academy: international megatrends in mobility
    Migration, integration and cohesion in the 21st century
    Michael Keith, 26-27 August 2009
    Tuusula, Helsinki, Finland
  • Migration, integration and cohesion in the 21st century: Global movements of people, national regimes of sovereignty, local impacts of social change
    The world on the move: the scale of migration in the 21st century; global, European, Finland and UK
    Thinking about migration and the dynamics of social change: the case for and against migration
    Social policy and migration: assimilation, multiculturalism, integration, cohesion
    Dwelling and the creativity of modern (migrant) life
    The Commission on Integration and Cohesion and its legacies
    The roots of incommensurability and the pragmatics of the convivial: translating the details of receiving societies
    Conclusion
  • 1. The world on the move?
  • Contemporary migration and 20th century legacies: global flows and national sovereignties – the politics of scale
    Global dynamics – mobility, cultures, family reunification, universal notions of human rights
    National sovereignties – labour markets, skilled and unskilled labour demand, economic growth
    Localised impacts – the metropolis, the neighbourhood, new destinations of migration
  • Contemporary migration: 20th century legacies and 21st century drivers: global flows and national sovereignties – the politics of scale
    Nations of migration – North America
    Colonial legacies – North Europe
    The urban age – China
    Labour markets – the gulf, EC accession countries the A8
    Universal constructions of human rights, the objective case for asylum and national regimes of migration – Denmark, Sweden, Finland?
  • 2. Thinking about migration and the dynamics of social change: the case for and against migration
    Globalisation’s shadow
    The case for migration and the case against
    National economic benefits, local impacts, neighbourhood change
    Changing demography: ageing Europe
  • 14
    Contrasting advocates
  • 15
    Four falsehoods on UK immigration
    BY MARTIN WOLF
    PUBLISHED: APRIL 3 2008 18:45 | LAST UPDATED: APRIL 3 2008 18:45
    WHAT WILL HISTORY JUDGE THE MOST IMPORTANT POLICY DECISION TAKEN BY THE LABOUR GOVERNMENT? IT WILL NOT, IN MY VIEW, BE THE WARS IN AFGHANISTAN AND IRAQ, INDEPENDENCE OF THE BANK OF ENGLAND OR REFUSING TO JOIN THE EURO. POLICY ON IMMIGRATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN ANY OF THESE, BECAUSE IT IS TRANSFORMING THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION. YET, ASTONISHINGLY, THE GOVERNMENT HAS NEVER MADE A SERIOUS ATTEMPT TO JUSTIFY MASS IMMIGRATION. WORSE, THE ARGUMENTS IT HAS USED ARE SPECIOUS.
  • 16
    This may be why the public are very concerned about “Race relations / immigration / immigrants” - in 2006- and 2007 it was in MORI polls “the top issue currently facing Britain”
    • MORI poll May 2006 – “race relations/immigration/immigrants” was the most commonly named main issue facing Britain today, named by 19% of people. As the graph below shows concern has been rising since 1997 – and this was the first time it had overtaken crime
    MORI, 2006
  • 3. Social policy and migration: assimilation, multiculturalism, integration and cohesion:Receiving countries and migration
    The civic nationalism of the USA
    The multicultural pluralism of Canada
    The urban rural divide and thehukou in China
    French republicanism
    The German gasterbeiter and its demise
    British accomodation from colonial legacy to cohesion and integration
  • 3. Social policy and migration: assimilation, multiculturalism, integration and cohesion
    Assimilation’s implicit teleology
    Multiculturalism’s implicit geography
    Cohesion and integration’s popularity
    Against multiculturalism? “The usefulness of the concept of multiculturalism is now beginning to be questioned, however, in part because of the way in which it encompasses such a wide spectru of difference and fails to reconcile them within a societal framework” (Ted Cantle, 2008)
  • Zygmunt Bauman
    “The new migration casts a question mark upon the bond between identity and citizenship, individual and place, neighbourhood and belonging”
    Culture in a globalised city (July 2008)
  • 4. Dwelling and the creativity of of modern (migrant) life: so what is new?
    The modern and the tradition of the bildungsroman
    The new and Zygmunt Bauman
    “The new migration casts a question mark upon the bond between identity and citizenship, individual and place, neighbourhood and belonging”
    Culture in a globalised city (July 2008)
    Migrant life: living, dwelling, settling
    Between belonging, citizenship, concentrations and community building
  • Accomodating migration: ghetto routes
  • Migrant settlement: Fietas, Soweto, downtown Joburg
  • International skilled labour and London’s machine for living
  • Chengzhongcun 'villages in the city‘ migrant ‘handshake apartments’
  • civillagety
  • The point here is to highlight the creativities of the attempts to make a home; the embossed realities of systemic injustices in the bricks and mortar of the process of settlement and the manner in which the political is realised in ways major and minor through the coming into being of new forms and accommodations of migrant (bare) life.
  • 5. The UK Commission on Integration and Cohesion and its legacies
    Periodising migration to the UK
    From empire to Fordism – dissenting Britain to the mother country
    The Windrush generation
    From the 90s growth to selective migration
  • From Cantle to 7/7
  • The Commission on Integration and Cohesion’s uncertain genealogy
    Tony Blair and the bombs
    Charles Clarke (HO) and the place of faith
    John Reid (HO) and terror
    Ruth Kelly (DCLG) and Britishness
    Hazel Blears (DCLG) and community power
  • 56
    The Commission
    Ruth Kelly launched the Commission on Integration and Cohesion on 24th August 2006, alongside the appointment of the Chair, Darra Singh and 13 further Commissioners.
    The Commission was a fixed term independent body that reported back to the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government in June 2007.
    DCLG made an initial response to the Commission’s report in Autumn 2007 and a final policy response in February 2008
    The Commission agreed to meet again on a single occasion to review progress 12 months after its final report
    A formal letter was sent by the Secretary of State in response to the report in October 2007 with policy initiatives developed in response announced in early 2008
    The Commission covered England only, but also considered issues which affect Scotland and Wales, and good practice from other countries.
    The Commission undertook its work within the context of existing Government policy.
  • 57
    The terms of reference
    The Commission was tasked with:
    Examining the issues that raise tensions between different groups in different areas, and that lead to segregation and conflict;
    Suggesting how local community and political leadership can push further against perceived barriers to cohesion and integration;
    Looking at how local communities themselves can be empowered to tackle extremist ideologies;
    Developing approaches that build local areas’ own capacity to prevent problems, and ensure they have the structures in place to recover from periods of tension
  • 58
    The nature of diversity is changing
  • 59
    Migration to the UK has been increasing
    Total International Migration (TIM) to/from the UK 1991-2004
    source ONS website
  • 60
    Some evidence diversity does not correlate with lack of conviviality
  • 61
    “Parallel lives” and the UK “sleepwalking into segregation”?
    Ted Cantle “Whilst the physical segregation of housing estates and inner city areas came as no surprise, the team was particularly struck by the depth of polarisation of our towns and cities. The extent to which these physical divisions were compounded by so many other aspects of our daily lives, was very evident. Separate educational arrangements, community and voluntary bodies, employment, places of worship, language, social and cultural networks, means that many communities operate on the basis of a series of parallel lives. These lives often do not seem to touch at any point, let alone overlap and promote any meaningful interchanges. There is little wonder that the ignorance about each others’ communities can easily grow into fear; especially where this is exploited by extremist groups determined to undermine community harmony and foster divisions.”
    Source: Building Cohesive Communities (Home Office 2001)
    Trevor Phillips: “We are a society which, almost without noticing it, is becoming more divided by race and religion. …If we allow this to continue, we could end up …. living in a New Orleans-style Britain of passively co-existing ethnic and religious communities, eyeing each other uneasily over the fences of our differences…. we are sleepwalking our way to segregation. We are becoming strangers to each other, and we are leaving communities to be marooned outside the mainstream.”
    Source speech of 22/09/05 from CRE website
  • 62
    The final report new definition
    An integrated and cohesive community is one where:
    There is a clearly defined and widely shared sense of the contribution of different individuals and different communities to a future vision for a neighbourhood, city, region or country
    There is a strong sense of an individual’s rights and responsibilities when living in a particular place – people know what everyone expects of them, and what they can expect in turn.
    Those from different backgrounds have similar life opportunities, access to
    services and treatment.
    There is a strong sense of trust in institutions locally to act fairly in arbitrating between different interests and for their role and justifications to be subject to public scrutiny
    There is a strong recognition of the contribution of both those who have newly arrived and those who already have deep attachments to a particular place, with a focus on what they have in common.
    There are strong and positive relationships between people from different backgrounds in the workplace, in schools and other institutions within neighbourhoods.
  • 63
    Two chimera
    Segregation - and the Phillips debates
    Multiculturalism debates – ‘the beginning’, the ‘end’ and the middle of multiculturalism
  • 64
    Structure of final report builds on themes and definition
    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. ANALYSIS
    3. A NEW DEFINITION OF INTEGRATION AND COHESION
    4. DEVELOPING SHARED FUTURES
    5. STRENGTHENING RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
    6. BUILDING MUTUAL RESPECT AND CIVILITY
    7. MAKING SOCIAL JUSTICE VISIBLE
    8. ACTING IN THE FOUR KEY SPHERES
  • 65
    February 2008 response
    Clarity
    New definition
    Human rights debates
    National policy
    Resource
    PSA with cohesion (PSA 21 – cross government PSA)
    Local delivery
    Principle – away from one size
    Cohesion impact
    Nationality and citizenship
    Education (Ajegbo)
  • 66
    Fundamental principles
    Shared futures; a sense of becoming over being; shared identifies looking forward that recognise diverse histories and identities looking backwards
    A notion of citizenship that is fit for purpose for the 21st century and that accomodates different geographical scales of local, regional, national and transnational rights and responsibilities
    An ethics of hospitality that recognises the value of the stranger and the newcomer within a framework of mutuality and civility
    A sense of visible social justice that appeals not only to equality of opportunity and outcome but also to transparency of the decision making process
  • 67
    Emerging themesThe ‘place shaping’ agenda and regeneration
    IT IS NOT JUST ABOUT EXTEREMISM AND / OR MIGRATION
    The emergence of ‘fairness’ and forward thinking
    Future thinking
    Present rationing
    Defining fairness
    Place shaping and the new agenda: Homes Agency, CRE report, Housing Corporation work
    The social engineers of place making
    Housing and homes; who gets access to the new homes
    Voice and choice in the new NHS
    In whose image is the city (re)made; London’s regeneration agenda
  • 68
    Rhetorics of partnership and new landscapes of neighbourhood governance
    The pace, demographics and the economics of local change
    Between market and state, new structures of governance
    The incommensurabilities of rational co-ordination of the public sector and particpatory democracy?
    Understanding ‘place shaping’ and mapping power
    Understanding the role of new social engineers
    • Housing associations / RSL’s
    • The new ‘homes agency’
    • LABV’s
    • PCT’s, neighbourhood police,
    • The regional at the level of the local
  • 69
    CRE, regeneration inquiry and the new homes agency
    No detailed impact assessment has yet been conducted of the plans for this new agency, although a very brief appendix to the current consultation document on the proposal contains what is described as a race equality assessment (CLG, 2007b); it is four paragraphs long and its claim that the new organisation will ‘have a positive impact on Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups’ is based on very little evidence. A manager for CLG assured us that a full race equality impact assessment would be carried out, but, as the CRE’s guidance (CRE, 2005b) urges: ‘as soon as you know you have to develop a particular policy or legislative proposal, one of your first questions should be: “what will the policy (or legislation) actually mean for people,depending on their racial group”?’ Had a race equality impact assessment been carried out when the proposals were first put forward, it could have informed the questions in the consultation document and provided valuable evidence for creating the new organisation. The danger of delaying the race equality impact assessment is that ideas become more firmly set and the assessment becomes an exercise in justifying the benefits of an approach that has already been decided upon, rather than examining its potential impact.
    However, community cohesion has been absent from the approaches of many authorities and agencies working on sustainable development. In a report published in 2007 (Institute of Community Cohesion, 2007), ASC stated: There is little to indicate that [English Partnerships] has yet engaged with building cohesive communities. It could be making a significant contribution in this area through such programmes as Housing Market Renewal and Millennium Communities
    Commission for Racial Equality, 2007
  • 70
    New Housing Corporation Guidelines, October 2007
    Community Cohesion and Housing: A good practice guide
    Shared Places: Community Cohesion Strategy
    Working in partnership
    Investing in cohesion
    Shaping neighbourhoods Empowering local people
    Enabling integrataion
    Myth busting
    “Method statements will, over time, provide evidence of how investment partners work with community partners, local or regeneration agencies.”
  • 6. The roots of incommensurability and the pragmatics of the convivial: translating the details of receiving societiesTranslating Sonali Gardens
  • The analytical incommensurabilities of the languages of rights and languages of belonging
    Rights and the good life
    A communitarian sense of belonging
    The rationing of finite resources
    Made more complex by plural temporalities and spatialities
  • Cartographies of the modern
    Identity, belonging and scale
    Notions of identification and the local
    The local and the elsewhere
    Colonial histories and postcolonial presents
  • Sonali Gardens thematics: A complex assemblage of rights and belongings
    The transnational and challenges to unitary citizenship
    Ethnicity v faith; secularism and Islam
    The politics of recognition, identity and the finite logics of the identitarian
    Eligibility criteria; welfare reform, social services, Weber’s paradox
    Land and property rights: the land deal, public ownership, private ownership : property as a bundle of rights
    Voice and choice – social policy reform and modernisation language
    Community power – networks and Sonali gardens as a vote bank. Balagonj, Bianibazar (Kalaziri)
    The state, governance and hybrid institutional forms
    Estate transfer and public debt
  • 7. Conclusion
    ‘Acting globally, thinking locally’: the importance of geographical scale and tensions betweem
    In the register of policy; from chaotic conceptualisation to pragmatic intervention. And the discursive nature of ‘conviviality’ – living through incommensurability
    In the scholarly register and the dynamics of change: temporalities, cartographies and creativities of the multicultural present