Leverage points for wicked problems

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What kind of different leverage points can we identify to assist design process in tackling wicked problems of humankind? This lecture is based on results and findings from Peloton and HOAS lab projects by Demos Helsinki. Both of these processes aim at creating consumer behavior change and empowering gatekeeper professionals to improve energy efficiency and overall quality of housing. The lecture was held at Chalmers Architecture course Design Systems on February 1st 2012.

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Leverage points for wicked problems

  1. 1. Wicked problems and their leverage points Design Systems SPRING 2012, Chalmers ArchitectureAleksi NeuvonenDemos Helsinkialeksi.neuvonen@demos.fiwww.demos.fi
  2. 2. Structure of the day:1. Peloton gatekeepers - example of a systemic intervention2.Design systems & wicked problems3.Design systems & leverage points
  3. 3. Peloton nudges the Finnish economy towards energy efficiencyPeloton is an initiative of Demos Helsinki with the support ofFinnish Innovation Fund Sitra.
  4. 4. task:design a campaign To reducecitizens energy consumption
  5. 5. Sitra’s energy program:Built environment + citizens = systemic change
  6. 6. Sitra’s energy program:Built environment + citizens = systemic change
  7. 7. Sitra’s energy program:Built environment + citizens = systemic change
  8. 8. Sitra’s energy program:Built environment + citizens = systemic change
  9. 9. Portinvartijat – ELI KUINKA TEHDÄ ENERGIANSÄÄSTÖSTÄ MAHDOLLISTA
  10. 10. Mistä suomalaisen hiilijalanjälki koostuu?!"#$%&()%$"(%*#+,-%.$/+0-$%.%#%10--%*-)0)$%.2 %%%34)0-5 Asuminen %%%6+#-)/+$ Liikkuminen %%%1& Ruoka Kuluttaminen 7-)48/9- Vapaa-aika %%%%%:(0)4+( Matkustaminen %%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%6+#;(< ‹#› Source: Envimat www.ympäristö.fi/syke/envimat
  11. 11. there is no point to influence peoplesattitude.80-90 % Finns think that climate change is a fact70-85% consider it a serious threat50-75 % ready to take actionYet, Finland #7 in per capita energy usage amongst OECD countries. Change ofattitudes has not significantly changed behavior. Energy consumption is rising,meat consumption is rising etc.Pro-environmental actions are moreimportant than values.
  12. 12. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  13. 13. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  14. 14. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) there, Nudge getPeer Action e to ess? Education e tim proc k e MediataCoverage s to -up th Social norms seempeed Subsidies but Chancewe s Feed-back Yes, do Convenience how LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  15. 15. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  16. 16. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  17. 17. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  18. 18. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience very? Legislation w, kno ing of deli to Marketing e timReduce Offering le seem e th RegulationComplexity eop mprov s ut p we i , b ld Price Yemodel Role cou Perceived Perceived how action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  19. 19. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  20. 20. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  21. 21. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  22. 22. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms day, Chance Subsidies the Feed-back ave Convenienceo n’t s Legislation es d hero evance? or 2 e reOfferingReduce 1 at l Marketing but ner es, ge Regulation Y toComplexity Price how Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  23. 23. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  24. 24. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  25. 25. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms Subsidies Chance Feed-back Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  26. 26. what influences behavior? (What are the leverage points?) NudgePeer Action Education Media Coverage Social norms whom? Subsidies , by Chance WhFeed-back en Convenience LegislationReduce Offering Marketing RegulationComplexity Price Role model Perceived Perceived action Opportunity to Price Convenience Test
  27. 27. conclusion:understand and influence thechoice environment consumers/citizens make their decisions in.
  28. 28. gatekeepers are key to behavior change1) Gatekeepers define the choice environments as they transform people´s needsand desires into choices and decisions. They enable or deny access to low-energybehavior. Peers and professionals close to the consumer do this in terms of energy-related practices.2) Previous research has considered legislators and green businesses asgatekeepers for energy consumption. This view tends to underestimate thecomplexity of the selling/purchasing process with its subtle factors leading to adecision. Therefore only a small part of energy gatekeepers have understood thatthey have this role.(Demos Helsinki 2009: Gatekeepers changing consumers behaviour in energy consumption)
  29. 29. gatekeepers change the choice environment Testing Products and Services Peer Production Cooperation with PioneersGatekeepers More and Better Products andNew Behavior Services Better Choice New Legislation Environment
  30. 30. Mistä suomalaisen hiilijalanjälki koostuu? !"#$%&()%$"(%*#+,-%.$/+0-$%.%#%10--%*-)0)$%.2 %%%34)0-5 Asuminen %%%6+#-)/+$ Liikkuminen %%%1& Ruoka Portin Kuluttaminen 7-)48/9- Vapaa-aika %%%%%:(0)4+( Matkustaminen %%%%%%%%%%%% %%%%%%%%%%%%%6+#;(<vartijat Source: Envimat www.ympäristö.fi/syke/envimat ‹#› – E L I K U I N K A T E H D Ä E N E R G I A N S Ä Ä S T Ö S T Ä M A H D O L L I S TA
  31. 31. [Peloton]! Peloton is the main group in a cycling tournament. In Peloton the competitors cycle close to each other to save energy and to gather strength for a break-out.! Peloton is a joint effort of Demos Helsinki and Sitra to boost new, greener tommi.laitio@demos.fi www.demos.fi economy.
  32. 32. how peloton works?We engage with gatekeeper communities on a human level.We use participatory future studies and design thinkingmethods in two-day intensive workshops.The workshops bring the competitors togethers. Companiessend people from every level of the organisation (altogether20–25 participants). By raising awareness of all competitorssimultaneously, we create hunger to be the first in executing agood idea. Low-energy future is tackled by creating ideas fornew products and services.In 2009–2011 we have done workshops for instance forparents of small children, hardware stores, lifestyle media,HR, domestic travel and hospitality, food journalists, homeeconomics teachers, social housing and house managers.
  33. 33. Our aim has been to...kickstart low-energy innovation and commercialisation in the most important consumer companies.We have been successful in...bringing new products and services out and adding value to old ones in most of the organisations wehave engaged with.
  34. 34. pelotongatekeepers2009–2012HR ProfessionalsGrocery stores Home economics teachersTransport professionals Lunch restaurant professionalsCommunications agencies Office canteen workersRegional decision-makers Hardware store professionalsBuilding managers Parents of small childrenDomestic travel providers Lifestyle media editorsFood journalists Women´s magazine editors
  35. 35. some results from peloton Exciting experiences (Nopsa Travels, Olivia Magazine)Startup and designer enthusiasm New servicesand new companies (Rautakesko´s(Peloton Innovation Camp) Energy Master service)
  36. 36. peloton innovation campIn November and December 2011 weorganised 2 two-day startup camps for low-energy business. Over 150 professionalsfrom various sectors worked voluntarily in 16teams to develop better services andproducts.winning concepts- Wasted Space: next generation real estatefirm utilising wasted and underused spaces- Weego: car-sharing service- Hyvikki: Rebranding food close to its lastdate of purchase- Powerhouse: app helping energycompanies reduce consumption peaks andconsumers to follow their usage
  37. 37. Teksti
  38. 38. Teksti
  39. 39. Teksti
  40. 40. gatekeepers change the choice environment Testing Products and Services Peer Production Cooperation with PioneersGatekeepers More and Better Products andNew Behavior Services Better Choice New Legislation Environment
  41. 41. PRAGMATIST APPROACH TO THE FUTURE emission limits, price for carbon, subsidies,...Climate Low-CarbonChallenge Society participation, social innovations, lifestyle changes,...
  42. 42. PRAGMATIST APPROACH TO THE FUTURE emission limits, price for carbon, subsidies,...Climate acceptance for Low-Carbon new regulationChallenge Society participation, social innovations, lifestyle changes,...
  43. 43. PRAGMATIST APPROACH TO THE FUTURE NAL NATIO(IN TER) POL ITICS emission limits, price for carbon, subsidies,... Climate acceptance for Low-Carbon new regulation Challenge Society participation, social innovations, lifestyle changes,...
  44. 44. PRAGMATIST APPROACH TO THE FUTURE NAL NATIO(IN TER) POL ITICS emission limits, price for carbon, subsidies,... Climate acceptance for Low-Carbon new regulation Challenge Society participation, social innovations, lifestyle changes,... CITIE S GRO , PEER UPS, COM PANI ES
  45. 45. Task 1:
  46. 46. Task 1:Think of your assignment.
  47. 47. Task 1:Think of your assignment.What are the behavior patternswe need to influence?
  48. 48. Task 1:Think of your assignment.What are the behavior patternswe need to influence?Who are the gatekeepers (orother parts of choiceenviroment) who shape peoplesbehavior?
  49. 49. "There is no spoon"
  50. 50. [Spoon as a metaphor for a result of a design process]The spoon can be seenthrough differentsystems.The work of a designeris to conjoin differentsystems.
  51. 51. waste repository energy resources mineral deposits NATURAL SYSTEMS SOCIAL SYSTEMSTECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS eating habitsmanufacturing washing work comerce cooking legistlation metal refining
  52. 52. waste repository energy resources mineral deposits NATURAL SYSTEMSCOGNITIVE SYSTEMS SOCIAL SYSTEMSTECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS eating habitsmanufacturing washing work comerce cooking legistlation metal refining
  53. 53. waste repository energy resources dissonance mineral deposits disliking liking NATURAL SYSTEMSbeliefs threats desiresCOGNITIVE SYSTEMS SOCIAL SYSTEMSTECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS eating habits manufacturing washing work comerce cooking legistlation metal refining
  54. 54. waste repository energy resourcesAnticipation mineral deposits dissonance disliking liking NATURAL SYSTEMSbeliefs threats desiresCOGNITIVE SYSTEMS SOCIAL SYSTEMSTECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS eating habits manufacturing washing work comerce cooking legistlation metal refining
  55. 55. waste repository Future horizons energy resourcesAnticipation mineral deposits dissonance disliking liking NATURAL SYSTEMSbeliefs threats desiresCOGNITIVE SYSTEMS SOCIAL SYSTEMSTECHNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS eating habits manufacturing washing work comerce cooking legistlation metal refining
  56. 56. Changes in technology, culture,environment, economy, politics increase complexity
  57. 57. Changes in technology, culture,environment, economy, politics increase complexitySolutions
  58. 58. Changes in technology, culture,environment, economy, politics increase complexitySolutions Problems
  59. 59. Changes in technology, culture,environment, economy, politics increase complexitySolutions Problems Wicked problems
  60. 60. How to cut CO2 emissions?What will be valuable in the future?Who will take care of the elderly people?What will the elderly people want to do?How can people learn to employ themselves in mids ofconstant economic change?How can get people to do something like sports?What does it mean when rest of the world joins the internet?How do we restore energy to feed the world?
  61. 61. Wicked ProblemsHow to cut CO2 emissions?What will be valuable in the future?Who will take care of the elderly people?What will the elderly people want to do?How can people learn to employ themselves in mids ofconstant economic change?How can get people to do something like sports?What does it mean when rest of the world joins the internet?How do we restore energy to feed the world?
  62. 62. Child Obesity
  63. 63. More wealth MoreEnough food temptations More cokeBetter food More hamburgers Child ObesityMore computer games Vending machines at shoolsMore cars, less walking Free Less upbringing regulation Stronger industry lobby
  64. 64. More wealth MoreEnough food temptations More cokeBetter food More hamburgers Child ObesityMore computer games Vending machines at shoolsMore cars, less walking Free Less upbringing regulation Stronger industry lobby
  65. 65. Wicked Problems are problems of our era1.There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem (defining wicked problems is a problem).2.Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse.3.There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem.4.Wicked problems do not have an enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into the plan.5.Every wicked problem is essentially unique.6.Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem.7.The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problems resolution.8.The planner has no right to be wrong (planners are liable for the consequences of the actions they generate) Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber.
  66. 66. Wicked Problems are problems of our era1.There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem (defining wicked problems is a problem).2.Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse. ndl , ess3.There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem. n e ons es a(or an ati4.Wicked problems do not haveeq R uir an enumerable ovexhaustively iis n describable) set of potential solutions, nor nthere a well-described set oincorporatedmpthe , f ts plan. of permissible operations thatowbe fl may s, atte into nge ion mic cha act ste5.Every wicked problem is essentially unique. . sy e-scale6.Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another i.e problem. rg d la aur chan e. gcan be an7.The existence of a discrepancy representing wicked problem of o explained in numerous ways. The choiceviexplanation determines the b nature of the problems resolution.eha8.The planner has no right to be wrong (planners are liable for the consequences of the actions they generate) Horst Rittel and Melvin Webber.
  67. 67. The spoon can be seenthrough different systems.The work of a designer isto conjoin differentsystems....and by that, to identifyleverage points and waysof manipulating them.
  68. 68. What were the leverage points Peloton process reacher for? How did the gatekeepers change the system? Create new enabling infrastructure, alter old (services, buildings, shop concepts) Link wicked problems with everyday practices (show how megatrends and policies evolve) Create and proof economic benefits (new business, new competitive assets) Improve feed-back channels, make it ”at the point of delivery” (service concept) Revise policies to support emerging practices (regulation, R&D funds) Form new stakeholder groups (start-ups, professionals) Create new sources of motivation (employee engagement, shared value)Meadows, Donella: ”Leverage Points – Places to intervene in a system”,The Sustainability institute, 1999.
  69. 69. What were the leverage points Peloton process reacher for? How did the gatekeepers change the system? Create new enabling infrastructure, alter old (services, buildings, shop concepts) Link wicked problems with everyday practices (show how megatrends and policies evolve) Create and proof economic benefits (new business, new competitive assets) Improve feed-back channels, make it ”at the point of delivery” (service concept) Revise policies to support emerging practices (regulation, R&D funds) Form new stakeholder groups (start-ups, professionals) Create new sources of motivation (employee engagement, shared value)Meadows, Donella: ”Leverage Points – Places to intervene in a system”,The Sustainability institute, 1999.
  70. 70. What were the leverage points Peloton process reacher for? How did the gatekeepers change the system? Create new enabling infrastructure, alter old (services, buildings, shop concepts) Link wicked problems with everyday practices (show how megatrends and policies evolve) Create and proof economic benefits (new business, new competitive assets) Improve feed-back channels, make it ”at the point of delivery” (service concept) Revise policies to support emerging practices (regulation, R&D funds) Form new stakeholder groups (start-ups, professionals) Create new sources of motivation (employee engagement, shared value)Meadows, Donella: ”Leverage Points – Places to intervene in a system”,The Sustainability institute, 1999.
  71. 71. What were the leverage points Peloton process reacher for? How did the gatekeepers change the system? Create new enabling infrastructure, alter old (services, buildings, shop concepts) Link wicked problems with everyday practices (show how megatrends and policies evolve) Create and proof economic benefits (new business, new competitive assets) Improve feed-back channels, make it ”at the point of delivery” (service concept) Revise policies to support emerging practices (regulation, R&D funds) Form new stakeholder groups (start-ups, professionals) Create new sources of motivation (employee engagement, shared value)Meadows, Donella: ”Leverage Points – Places to intervene in a system”,The Sustainability institute, 1999.
  72. 72. What were the leverage points Peloton process reacher for? How did the gatekeepers change the system? Create new enabling infrastructure, alter old (services, buildings, shop concepts) Link wicked problems with everyday practices (show how megatrends and policies evolve) Create and proof economic benefits (new business, new competitive assets) Improve feed-back channels, make it ”at the point of delivery” (service concept) Revise policies to support emerging practices (regulation, R&D funds) Form new stakeholder groups (start-ups, professionals) Create new sources of motivation (employee engagement, shared value)Meadows, Donella: ”Leverage Points – Places to intervene in a system”,The Sustainability institute, 1999.
  73. 73. What were the leverage points Peloton process reacher for? How did the gatekeepers change the system? Create new enabling infrastructure, alter old (services, buildings, shop concepts) Link wicked problems with everyday practices (show how megatrends and policies evolve) Create and proof economic benefits (new business, new competitive assets) Improve feed-back channels, make it ”at the point of delivery” (service concept) Revise policies to support emerging practices (regulation, R&D funds) Form new stakeholder groups (start-ups, professionals) Create new sources of motivation (employee engagement, shared value)Meadows, Donella: ”Leverage Points – Places to intervene in a system”,The Sustainability institute, 1999.
  74. 74. What were the leverage points Peloton process reacher for? How did the gatekeepers change the system? Create new enabling infrastructure, alter old (services, buildings, shop concepts) Link wicked problems with everyday practices (show how megatrends and policies evolve) Create and proof economic benefits (new business, new competitive assets) Improve feed-back channels, make it ”at the point of delivery” (service concept) Revise policies to support emerging practices (regulation, R&D funds) Form new stakeholder groups (start-ups, professionals) Create new sources of motivation (employee engagement, shared value)Meadows, Donella: ”Leverage Points – Places to intervene in a system”,The Sustainability institute, 1999.
  75. 75. What were the leverage points Peloton process reacher for? How did the gatekeepers change the system? Create new enabling infrastructure, alter old (services, buildings, shop concepts) Link wicked problems with everyday practices (show how megatrends and policies evolve) Create and proof economic benefits (new business, new competitive assets) Improve feed-back channels, make it ”at the point of delivery” (service concept) Revise policies to support emerging practices (regulation, R&D funds) Form new stakeholder groups (start-ups, professionals) Create new sources of motivation (employee engagement, shared value)Meadows, Donella: ”Leverage Points – Places to intervene in a system”,The Sustainability institute, 1999.
  76. 76. Example of a design system tackling wicked problems:
  77. 77. Example of a design system tackling wicked problems: HOAS Lab
  78. 78. Example: HOAS Lab System: Stu den Stu tu Stu den nio den tu ns tu Stu nio nio den ns ns t un io ns Mu Em Building stock (ho nic plo u sin g& ipa yee p lan liti s Mu nin gp es Sub -co Dwellers (ho nic oli cie s) ntr u sin g& ipa act p lan liti ors Oth Un nin gp oli es er ive cie s) Mu sim rsi n ila tie (ho usi icip rc s ng& pla ali om nn ing tie pan pol icie s ies s)ChallengesEroding valueOutdated practices of co-housingImperative for energy smart housingWeak customer relationship
  79. 79. Kuva: Janne Salovaara HOAS lab develops dweller-/user-led concepts for co-housing and responsibility
  80. 80. Kuva: Janne Salovaara Turning smart behavior patterns convenient
  81. 81. Empovering skilled and active student dwellers
  82. 82. Convenient forms of co-housing
  83. 83. Kuva: Janne Salovaara Hoas renewing is not solely a student issue. In the future current dwellers turn into tenants, property owners and people who comission construction work. On average they are more international, better educated and more apt for experimenting than average dwellers. Therefore, HOAS is expected to be a forerunner. Kuva: Janne Salovaara
  84. 84. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project TekstiProperty owner House manager Neighbours
  85. 85. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project TekstiProperty owner House manager Neighbours
  86. 86. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ningR e Gard Property owner House manager Neighbours
  87. 87. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ningR e Gard Property owner House manager Neighbours
  88. 88. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com Neighbours
  89. 89. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com Neighbours
  90. 90. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed Neighbours
  91. 91. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed Neighbours
  92. 92. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed nsation e l Neighbours compenergy bil Rent rate Sepa
  93. 93. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed nsation e l Neighbours compenergy bil Rent rate Sepa
  94. 94. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed nsation e l Neighbours compenergy bil Rent rate emes Sepa pping sch Swa
  95. 95. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed nsation e l Neighbours compenergy bil Rent rate emes Sepa pping sch Swa
  96. 96. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed nsation e l Neighbours compenergy bil Rent rate emes Sepa pping sch Swa s statu Imp roved
  97. 97. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed nsation e l Neighbours compenergy bil Rent rate emes Sepa pping sch Swa s statu Imp roved
  98. 98. Gatekeepers and leverage points identified in HOAS lab project Teksti g fittin plots ertro ning R e Gard Property owner House manager n se of ved se mpro unityI m com ring Mete back Feed nsation e l Neighbours compenergy bil Rent rate emes Sepa pping sch Swa s statu Imp roved ru nner Fore cator Edu
  99. 99. Task 2:Think of your assignment again.Through what types of leveragepoints do the gatekeepersoperate?Who/what shape theirpractices?(What kind of levers are we able to identify?)

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