Regional variation


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Regional variation

  1. 1. Language Variation Group 6: • Delvi • Devlia Mona riza •Syidrati Mona
  2. 2. Regional variation Regional dialects  a variation in speaking a language associated with place and it is an easy way of observing variety in language.
  3. 3. Regional Variation Traditional study of Dialect • Speakers distance themselves from one another over time and over space. • Dialects become new languages • unintelligible to one another E.g., Latin became French in Frances, Spanish in Spain, Italian in Italy. Historical Linguistics how language changes over time and how languages relate to one another.
  4. 4. Traditional Model of Linguistic Change • Family Tree e.g., Latin has branched into French, Spanish, and Italian • Phonemic „split‟ e.g., English /f/ and /v/ are distinctive sounds • the „comparative method‟ of reconstruction e.g., English Knave and German Knabe come from the same source • „ Internal reconstruction „ e.g., mouse and mice have different vowel sounds
  5. 5. Dialect Atlases “Try to show the geographical boundaries of the distribution of a particular linguistic feature by drawing a line on a map” Such a line is called an isogloss – On one side of the line people say one thing, on the other they say a different thing.
  6. 6. Isogloss The geographical boundary or delineation of a certain linguistic feature Ex: the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature A line on a map enclosing an area within which a particular linguistic feature is found Various types of isogloss are distinguished: an isophone is a feature of pronunciation, an isolex an item of vocabulary, an isomorph a feature of wordformation, and an isoseme a particular word meaning
  7. 7. The isoglosses show a considerable amount of crisscrossing caused a number of coincide. The coincide called a bundle of isoglosses. A bundle is often said to marks a dialect boundary
  8. 8. The Rhenish Fan  A transitional area between High German and Low German, defined by the divergence of a series of isoglosses
  9. 9. Relic areas, Focal Areas, and Transition areas A focal area  an area whose dialect has exerted influence on the dialects of surrounding areas, as reflected in a set of is oglosses more or less concentrically surrounding it. e.g., Beverly Hills affect LA called 'coke' with 'soda'
  10. 10. Relic area  an area isolated from the influences of any focal area and preserving older linguistic forms that have b een lost in other regions. e.g., Antelope Valley still calls bubbly with 'coke', although other regions have changed the mention of 'coke' with 'soda', then the AV is called the relic area.
  11. 11. A transition area  an area whose dialect has been influenced by the dialect of one or more neighboring focal areas. e.g., The neighboring areas of Beverly Hills, such as Watts influenced LA called 'coke' rather than 'soda' . LA called a transition area.