Session 6 learning


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Session 6 learning

  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>1. Learning is modification of behaviour through practices, training or experience. It is an important input in individual behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Four theories explain how learning takes place. The four models are - classical conditioning, operant conditioning, cognitive learning, and social learning. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Learning principles need to be observed in any training programme. The principles are - motivation, reinforcement, learning curves, meaningfulness of material and learning styles. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Learning is an important component of OB because of its impact on individual behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>5. Just as there is learning by an individual, there is organizational learning too. </li></ul>
  3. 3. LEARNING <ul><li>“ Learning may be defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of prior experience”. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is described as the process of having one’s behavior modified , more or less permanently by what he does and the consequences of his action or by what he observes”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. LEARNING <ul><li>“ Learning can be defined as relatively permanent change in behavior potentiality that results from reinforced practice or experience ( acquired directly through observation or practice)”. </li></ul><ul><li>If we want to explain and predict behavior , we need to understand how people learn. </li></ul>
  5. 5. LEARNING – EXPLICIT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>When employee learn , they acquire both explicit and tacit knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit knowledge is organized and can be communicated from one person to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit knowledge can be written down and given to others . However this knowledge is only a small portion of the total knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: the information a student receives in a class room is mainly an explicit knowledge because the professor discussions consciously transfers it to the students. </li></ul>
  6. 6. LEARNING – EXPLICIT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>TACIT KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>Tacit knowledge is the idea that one knows more than what he or she tell . </li></ul><ul><li>Implied/Tacit knowledge is embedded in our actions and the ways of thinking , but not clearly understood and therefore cannot be communicated explicitly. </li></ul><ul><li>Tacit knowledge is acquired through observation and direct experience. Ex: truck driver not by lectures but thru experiment. </li></ul>
  7. 7. LEARNING – EXPLICIT AND TACIT KNOWLEDGE <ul><li>Organizations acquire tacit knowledge when employees experiment with new technologies or work on unique problems for clients. </li></ul><ul><li>Most knowledge in organizations is tacit and one of the challenges is to make implicit knowledge explicit , so it may be stored and shared more easily. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Learning Theories <ul><li>Behavioral Theories: Theories based on the premise that learning takes place as the result of observable responses to external stimuli. Also known as stimulus response theory . </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Theories: A theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning Processes <ul><li>Intentional : learning acquired as a result of a careful search for information </li></ul><ul><li>Incidental : learning acquired by accident or without much effort </li></ul>
  11. 11. Theories of Learning
  12. 12. Classical Conditioning A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone.
  13. 13. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING <ul><li>The classical conditioning explains only respondent ( reflexing ) behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>In organizational setting , we can see classical conditioning operating . Ex: Administrative offices – a visit by top management (which went for years ), people had learnt to associate the cleaning of the windows with the visit from the head office. Ex: police department </li></ul>
  14. 14. Classical Conditioning
  15. 15. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING <ul><li>Pavlov skinner felt that the more complex human behaviors cannot be explained by classical conditioning alone – he felt that most human behavior affects or operates in the environment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process, with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.
  17. 17. OPERANT CONDITIONING <ul><li>Operant conditioning , also called instrumental conditioning refers to the process that our behavior produces certain consequences and how we behave in the future will depend on what those consequences are. </li></ul><ul><li>If our actions have pleasant effects , then we will be more likely to repeat them in the future . </li></ul><ul><li>If our actions have unpleasant effects, we are less likely to repeat them in future. </li></ul>
  18. 18. OPERANT CONDITIONING <ul><li>According to this theory , behavior is the function of its consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning emphasis voluntary behaviors – they make the environment respond in ways that we want. Ex: coffee vending machine. </li></ul>
  19. 19. OPERANT CONDITIONING <ul><li>BEHAVIORS </li></ul><ul><li>Works </li></ul><ul><li>Talks to others </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a restaurant </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a library </li></ul><ul><li>Increases productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Completes a difficult assignments </li></ul><ul><li>CONSEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>Is paid </li></ul><ul><li>Meets more people </li></ul><ul><li>Obtains food </li></ul><ul><li>Finds a book </li></ul><ul><li>Receives merit pay </li></ul><ul><li>Receives praise and promotion </li></ul>
  20. 20. OPERANT CONDITIONING <ul><li>Operant conditioning refers to the process that our behavior produces certain consequences and how we behave in the future will depend on what those consequences are. </li></ul>
  21. 21. COGNITIVE THOERY OF LEARNING <ul><li>Cognitive process assumes that people are conscious, active participants in how they learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive theory of various assumes that the organism , learns the meaning of various objects and events and learned responses depending on the meaning assigned to stimuli . </li></ul><ul><li>The cognitive theory of learning is relevant in the contemporary managerial practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior learning  behavioral choice  perceived consequences. </li></ul>
  22. 22. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY <ul><li>Also called observational learning , social learning theory emphasizes the ability of an individual to learn by observing others. </li></ul><ul><li>The important models may include parents, teachers, peers , motion pictures, TV artists, bosses and others. </li></ul>
  23. 23. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY <ul><li>An individual acquires new knowledge by observing what happens to his or her model. this is known as vicarious learning. </li></ul><ul><li>A learner acquires tacit knowledge and skills through vicarious learning. </li></ul>
  24. 24. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY <ul><li>Social learning has considerable relevance in OB . A great deal of what is learned about how to behave in organizations can be explained as the result of the process of observational learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning is also valuable because it enhances the self-efficacy of the learner and also people gain self-confidence after observing some one else do it than if they are simply told what to do and also helps employees to shape behaviors that benefit the organization. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Observational Learning: An overview
  26. 26. Learning Principles <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement, punishment and extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Whole versus part learning </li></ul><ul><li>Learning curves </li></ul><ul><li>Meaningfulness of material </li></ul><ul><li>Learning styles </li></ul>
  27. 27. Comparison of Schedules of Reinforcement <ul><li>Schedules Description Example Influence on performance Effect on behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed interval Reinforcers Pay cheque at the Average and irregular Fast extinction of </li></ul><ul><li>administered after end of each performance behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>a constant amount month </li></ul><ul><li>of time has </li></ul><ul><li>elapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Variable Reinforcers Boss passes by Leads to moderately Slow extinction </li></ul><ul><li>interval administered after employees desks high and stable of behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>a variable amount at different times performance </li></ul><ul><li>of time has elapsed on different days </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed ratio Reinforcers Piece rating of Leads quickly to very Moderately fast </li></ul><ul><li>schedule administered after wages or bonus high and stable extinction of </li></ul><ul><li>a constant number for every given performance behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>of actions performed amount of sales. </li></ul><ul><li>Variable ratio Reinforcers A slot machine Leads to very high Very slow </li></ul><ul><li>schedule administered after pays a jackpot, performance extinction </li></ul><ul><li>a variable number on average, one of behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>of actions performed time per million </li></ul><ul><li>plays </li></ul>
  28. 28. Negative Effects of Punishment
  29. 29. Learning Styles
  30. 30. Stimulus Generalisation and Discrimination
  32. 32. LEARNING ?????? <ul><li>Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. </li></ul>
  33. 33. LEARNING THEORIES <ul><li>Behavioristic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>1) Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>2) Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Social learning </li></ul>
  34. 34. Behavior Learning <ul><li>Learning occurs when employees are able to provide the proper response to the given stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Methods include the use of instructional cues, reinforcement and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee learn basic skills before moving to more complex processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional goal – elicit the desired response from the learner who is presented with a garget stimulus </li></ul>
  35. 35. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Learning on the basis of some observation </li></ul><ul><li>which effect the behavior of an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Classical conditioning can be defined as a process in which a formerly neutral stimulus, when paired with an unconditional stimulus, becomes a conditional stimulus that elicits response” </li></ul>
  36. 36. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>Operant conditioning is concerned primarily with learning that occurs as a consequence of behavior. It is not concerned with the eliciting causes of behavior as classic or respondent conditioning is. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Cognitive Theories <ul><li>“ Cognitive learning consists of a relationship between cognitive environmental cues and expectation.” </li></ul><ul><li>Edward Tolman </li></ul>
  38. 38. Social Learning <ul><li>Social learning theory combines and integrates both behaviorist and cognitive concepts and emphasize the interactive, reciprocal nature of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental determination. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Principles of learning are highly useful for trainer in order to impart maximum knowledge and skills to the trainees. Blind adherence to these principles can cause more harm than good. Each principle should, therefore, be interpreted and applied carefully in full consideration of the particular task being learned and the context in which the learning takes place. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Principles of learning are many but the most important of them are: </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>punishment </li></ul><ul><li>meaningfulness of material </li></ul><ul><li>learning styles </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of motivation is basic because, without motivation learning does not take place. Motivation may be seen at different levels of complexity of a situation. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behaviour. Positive reinforcement strengthens and enhances behaviour by the presentation of positive reinforcers. In Negative Reinforcement an unpleasant event that precedes a behaviour is removed when the desired behaviour occurs. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment is the attempt to eliminate or weaken an undesirable behaviour. It is used in two ways. One way to punish a person is to apply a negative consequences called punishers following an undesirable behaviour. The other way to punish a person is to withhold a positive consequence following an undesirable behaviour. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Meaningfulness of Material </li></ul><ul><li>The more meaningful the material, the better does learning proceed. Learning of nonsense syllables proceeds more slowly than that of prose or poetry. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Learning style refers to the ability of an individual to learn. There are four styles people use when learning: </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodator: An accommodator learns by doing and feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Diverger: A diverger learns by observing and feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Converger: A converger learns by doing and thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilator: An assimilator learns by observing and thinking. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li> Feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodator Diverger </li></ul><ul><li>Doing Observing </li></ul><ul><li> Converger Assimilator </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul>