Concept of Job Analysis• Definition : Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and skill requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.• Organizations consist of positions that have to be staffed. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of these positions and the characteristics of the people who should be hired for them.• The analysis produces information on job requirements, which is then used for developing job descriptions (what the job entails) and job specifications (what kind of people to hire for the job).
Job Analysis: A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Human Resource Tasks Responsibilities Duties Planning Recruitment Selection Training and Job Development Descriptions Job Performance AppraisalAnalysis Compensation and Job Specifications Benefits Safety and Health Employee and Labor RelationsKnowledge Skills Abilities Legal Considerations Job Analysis for Teams 3
Definitions• Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals• Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization 4
Definitions (Continued)• Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization• Job description – document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job• Job specification – minimum qualifications to perform a particular job 5
Job Design• Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization• Job enrichment - Basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job, so as to provide greater challenge to the worker 6
Job Design• Job enlargement - Changes in the scope of a job to provide greater variety to the worker• Job Rotation – Job rotation is a management approach where employees are shifted between two or more assignments or jobs at regular intervals of time in order to expose them to all verticals of organisation• Reengineering – Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed 7
Job rotation• Job rotation involves moving employees from job to job so as to give them more variety. – Job rotation requires that employees have relatively broad skills. • This means the supervisor and organization must provide for cross-training or training in the skills required to perform more than one job. • The opportunity to learn new skills can in itself motivate employees.
Job enlargement• Job enlargement means that duties are added to a job. – For example, in a factory a machine operator may be given the added task of setting up the machine.
Job enrichment• Job enrichment is the incorporation of motivating factors into a job. – The kinds of factors that are considered to enrich a job are the ones Herzberg called motivators. • Specific factors include – giving employees more responsibility to make decisions, – more recognition for good performance, and – making jobs more challenging.
Sources of job analysis information• Manager• Incumbent• SME ( Subject Matter Expert )• Job analyst• DOT (Dictionary of Occupational Titles )• O*NET ( O*NET OnLine has detailed descriptions of the world of work for use by job seekers, workforce development and HR professionals, students, researchers, and more! ) 11
Timeliness of Job Analysis Rapid pace of technological change makes need for accurate job analysis even more important now and in the future. 13
Job Analysis and the Law • Fair Labor Standards Act – employees categorized as exempt or nonexempt • Equal Pay Act – similar pay must be provided if jobs are not substantially different as shown in job descriptions 14
Job Analysis and the Law (Continued)• Civil Rights Act – basis for adequate defenses against unfair discriminations charges in selection, promotion, and other areas of HR administration• Occupational Safety and Health Act – specify job elements that endanger health or are considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by most people• Americans with Disabilities Act – make reasonable accommodations for disabled workers 15
Types of Information Collected Work activities Human Human requirements behaviors Information Collected Via Job Analysis Machines, tools, Job equipment, and context work aids Performance standards4–16
Summary of Types of Data Collected Through Job Analysis• Work Activities – work activities and processes; activity records (in film form, for example); procedures used; personal responsibility• Worker-oriented activities – human behaviors, such as physical actions and communicating on the job; elemental motions for methods analysis; personal job demands, such as energy expenditure• Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids used• Job-related tangibles and intangibles – knowledge dealt with or applied (as in accounting); materials processed; products made or services performed• Work performance – error analysis; work standards; work measurements, such as time taken for a task• Job context – work schedule; financial and nonfinancial incentives; physical working conditions; organizational and social contexts• Personal requirements for the job – personal attributes such as personality and interests; education and training required; work experience 17
Use of Job Analysis Information Recruitment and Selection Legal Compliance Compensation Information Collected Via Discovering Job Analysis Performance Unassigned Appraisal Duties Training4–18
FIGURE 4–1 Uses of Job Analysis Information4–19
FIGURE 4–2 Process Chart for Analyzing a Job’s Workflow Source: Compensation Management: Rewarding Performance by Richard J. Henderson. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ.4–20
Steps in Job Analysis Steps in doing a job analysis: 1 Decide how you’ll use the information. 2 Review relevant background information. 3 Select representative positions. 4 Actually analyze the job. 5 Verify the job analysis information. 6 Develop a job description and job specification.4–21
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: The Interview• Information Sources • Interview Formats – Individual employees – Structured (Checklist) – Groups of employees – Unstructured – Supervisors with knowledge of the job• Advantages – Quick, direct way to find overlooked information• Disadvantages – Distorted information4–22
FIGURE 4–3 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents, or have them fill it out.Source: www.hr.blr.com. Reprinted withpermission of the publisher, Business and LegalReports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT 4–23
FIGURE 4–3 Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions (continued) Note: Use a questionnaire like this to interview job incumbents, or have them fill it out.Source: www.hr.blr.com. Reprinted withpermission of the publisher, Business and LegalReports, Inc., Old Saybrook, CT 4–24
Job Analysis: Interviewing Guidelines• The job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best.• It is advisable to quickly establish rapport with the interviewee.• Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists open- ended questions and provides space for answers.• Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence.• After completing the interview, review and verify the data.4–25
Methods of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Questionnaires• Information Source • Advantages – Have employees fill out – Quick and efficient way to questionnaires to describe gather information from their job-related duties and large numbers of employees responsibilities • Disadvantages• Questionnaire Formats – Expense and time consumed – Structured checklists in preparing and testing the – Open-ended questions questionnaire4–26
Areas in which Job Analysis Information is used• Recruitment and Selection : Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to carry out these activities. Such job description and job specification information is used to decide what sort of people to recruit and hire.• Compensation : Job analysis information is also essential for estimating the value of and appropriate compensation for each job. This is so because compensation. (such as salary and bonus) usually depends on the jobs required skill and education level, safety hazards, degree of responsibility and so on-all factors that are assessed through job analysis. Job analysis provides the information determining the relative worth of each job so that each job can be classified.• .
Areas in which Job Analysis Information is used• Ensure Complete Assignment of Duties : The job analysis is also useful for ensuring that all the duties that have to be done are in fact assigned to particular positions. For example, in analyzing the current job of your companys production manager, you may find she reports herself as being responsible for two dozen or so specific duties including planning weekly production schedules, purchasing raw materials, and supervising the daily activities of each of her first-line supervisors.• Training & Development : Job analysis information is also used for designing training and development programs because the analysis and resulting job description show the skills-and therefore training-that are required.• Performance Appraisal : A performance appraisal compares each employees actual performance with his or her performance standards. It is often through job analysis that experts determine the standards to be achieved and the specific activities to be performed.
Areas in which Job Analysis Information is used• Promotion and Transfer• Preventing Dissatisfaction• Compensation Management• Health & Safety• Induction• Industrial Relations• Career Planning• Succession Planning