Quality first chapter for classPresentation Transcript
Concepts of Quality
ASQ - “quality is a subjective term for which each person has his or her own definition”
What is Quality:
The best money can buy
Meeting a specification or conformance to specifications
The degree of excellence that an item possesses.
No more than 1% defective lot
Anything Japanese or German.
Webster’s Dictionary 1977 defines Quality as
that which belongs to something and makes or helps to make it what it is: characteristic element: any character or characteristic which may make an object good or bad; the degree of excellence which a thing possesses.
Quality as per ISO (International Standard Organisation)
The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.
Definition of Quality
John Rabbitt defines Quality as:
The ability to exceed a customer’s expectations while maintaining a cost competitive market positions.
Definition of Quality
Based on Holistic approach
Based on Product perspective
Based on Producer’s perspective
Based on customer perspective
Based on Value
Quality is the total of the characteristics that describe the overall object or service.
The assumption is that “ you will recognize quality when you see it.”
Product quality is represented by the total of a set of precise and measurable characteristics or components of a finished products.
Quality is defined as consistent conformance to specifications and standards.
When a product meets a company’s standards and specifications; it has achieved a desired quality level.
Philip Crosby, a well known quality expert, states that quality is FREE.
He means that the production costs are the same for FIRST quality products or for the SUBSTANDARD products.
Quality depends on the dimensions of a product or service that are of importance to that user.
Factors that influence consumers’ perception of quality
Deming’s Management principle
According to W. Edwards Deming who maintained that quality is the responsibility of management.
It concentrates on eliminating the few sources that cause majority of problems.
The focus is on:
Communication within the company
Communication with customers and
This focus on customers and their satisfaction is a basic underlying principle of Total Quality Management.
In TQM, all of the company’s actions are directed towards
producing a quality product for the target market,
satisfying the target market and
meeting the company’s business objectives.
Value based perspective
Winchester,1994 defines quality products are those that perform at acceptable prices or conform at acceptable costs.
Silverman and Propst,1996 expand the scope and define value as the customer’s perception of total lifetime benefits minus total lifetime costs.
Quality should not be confused with Grade.
Grade is defined as
A category or rank indicator of the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service intended for the same functional use or purpose, oriented at a specified cost related consumer/user market.
Foreign markets have grown
Import barriers and protection are not the answer.
Consumers are offered more choices
They have become more discriminating.
Consumers are more sophisticated
They demand new and better products.
Less rework, fewer mistakes, fewer delays, and better use of time and materials.
15 to 20% of the production costs are incurred in finding and correcting mistakes.
How the organizations compete
Most common competitive measures:
Quality (both real and perceived)
Delivery (lead time and accuracy)
product development (time-to-market, innovative products)