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Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships
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Developments in new hull forms and concepts for ships

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A presentation prepared by Deltamarin for Lloyd’s Maritime Academy’s recent Hull Management and Performance seminar in London. The presentation titled “Developments in new hull forms and concepts” …

A presentation prepared by Deltamarin for Lloyd’s Maritime Academy’s recent Hull Management and Performance seminar in London. The presentation titled “Developments in new hull forms and concepts” gives an overview of the recent hull form development for several ship types.

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  • 1. Developments in new hullforms and conceptsHull Management and PerformanceLondon 11.6.201311.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 2. Contents> Basic parameters and hull form characteristics> Case B.Delta – the most fuel efficient bulk carrierdesign on the market> Air lubrication – short overview> Conclusions11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 3. Basic Parameters11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 4. Basic Parameters> Purpose of ship hull: carry definedload with given transport task.> Efficient hull form consists of greatnumber of parameters and conditionsto be considered.> Trends– higher capacity with bulkier ships above andunder waterline (higher block coefficient)– Speed: higher speed in the 1990’s and early2000, but lately tendency has been forlower speeds.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. HaukilehtoL, B, L/BT, B/T & L/TCB=Δ/LBTCM=AM/BTCP=CB/CMCW=AW/LB
  • 5. Basic Parameters> Main dimension ratios have changed:– length-beam ratio has decreased even below 5– the beam-draught ratio has increased: forexample for ro-ro passenger ferries from 3.0-3.5up to 4.5-5.0.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto> General tendency is to increase the earning capability in comparisonwith price. Length is one of the main parameters in the pricedefinition, and restricted due to harbour and route limitations.– Beam and block coefficient have been increased, but limits may have been met.
  • 6. Basic ParametersTankers and Bulk Carriers> Block coefficient (CB) has increased for chemical and productcarriers below 40,000 dwt to 0.80 and above.> Block coefficient for bulk carriers has increased close to 0.90 andeven over / higher.> Looking for minimum fuel economy may change this developmentand CB will actually be reduced in the future.> Pram type hull form has allowed a shift of longitudinal centre ofbuoyancy (LCB) aftwards enabling smoother forward shoulders andlower waterline entrance angle => decreased resistance.– Typical figures today vary between -1.8%…+1.0% of LCB aft or forward ofLPP/2.– Design waterline angle can be reduced at the same time with 1.5…2.5 degrees.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 7. Basic ParametersRoRo and RoPax> Typical conventional ferries– L/B ratio from 4.8 up to 6.5– Draught between 5 and 6.8 meters– B/T ratio as high as 4.8…5.0– Block coefficient is between 0.64 and 0.72– Recommendable midship section coefficient is 0.985.– Good LCB value for a ferry with full-length superstructure is between -3.7 and -4.7%, and for a ferry with a forward superstructure onlybetween -2.5 and -3.2%.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 8. Basic ParametersCruise Vessels> Passenger cruise vessels have quite standard main dimensionratios: L/B from 7.0 up to 8.4, and B/T between 4.0 and 4.5.> The block coefficient varies from 0.62 up to 0.71, LCB from -3% upto -5.1%, and midship section coefficient from 0.88 up to 0.985.> Good experience gained with CB of 0.65, LCB -3.7% and CM of 0.98for a typical Panamax size vessel with trial speed of 23-25 knots.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 9. Basic ParametersTwin Screw Possibility> Wide, shallow draft twin screw vessel (LNG,crude, product tankers) with limited lengthoffers interesting configuration.> Twin skeg arrangement is extremely simplebarge-type hull form with excellentmanoeuvrability, high power availability andmore efficient cargo volume.> Simple hull form supports also simple,standardised hull structure but is moreexpensive to build and maintain.> Successfully applied in LNG tankers. Underconstruction in large container vessels.> Benefit in powering, from 8 to 16% dependingon the final design, i.e. with LCB moved moreaft and forward part made more slender higherpower saving can be reached.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 10. Design is the Basis for the Lifetime> Hull form of a new vessel is marriagefor lifetime, even though some smallmodifications could be carried outlater on.> It is advisable to invest inoptimisation process of hull lines forresistance and propulsion as well asfor seakeeping and manoeuvring; itwill pay off quickly.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 11. Hull Form Characteristics11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 12. Hull Form CharacteristicsBulbous Bow> Effect of bulbous bow in required propulsion power typically from -8% up to-15%, depending on speed.> Typical bulbous bow today is a so-called ‘goose-neck’ bulb with an upsidedown drop form for ships operating above Froude number of 0.16. (Fn =𝑉𝑔𝑔,V = speed in m/s, g = specific gravity m/s2, L = waterline length)> Length of the bulb is 4-4.5% of waterline length but surprisingly good resultshave been reached with length of up to 5% and above, especially for Froudenumbers above 0.30.> Sectional area of the bulb is between 6 and 11%, 9% being a typical value.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto> Bulbous bow was introducedpractically to all kinds of ships inthe late 70’s – early 80’s, even onrather low speed vessels.
  • 13. Hull Form CharacteristicsBow without Bulbous Bow> Vessels with low speed and/or Froude number below 0.16 are goodcandidates for bow without bulb, especially bulk carriers andtankers.> Modern bulk carriers and tankers, so called Eco-Designs, are builtwith vertical stern, maximised waterline length and someintegrated shape in both vertical and horizontal direction.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 14. Hull Form CharacteristicsRules of Thumb> Good combination should be found, but increase of sectional areaof bulbous bow can at least partly compensate high waterlineentrance angle, if not otherwise possible.> Bow with bulb or not, critical Fn 0.16.> Low waterline entrance angle.> Avoid forward shoulder and take note on aft shoulder.> Select waterline shape to avoid high flow over bilge to flatbottom.> Smooth transition over bilge.> Use CFD to analyse pressure gradients, area of low pressure anddynamic sinkage and trim.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 15. Case B.Delta11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 16. Example Eco-Design:B.Delta Bulk Carrier11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 17. Focus on B.DeltasMain Features> Compact and shallow draft ship> High deadweight (higher block coefficient than typical) and highcargo cubic> High degree of manoeuvrability and course stability, compliancewith latest IMO recommendations> Unique power / speed performance and very low fuel oilconsumption, including operation in heavy seas> Efficient use of potential and RANS code Computer Fluid Dynamics(CFD) tools11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 18. Focus on B.DeltasMain ParticularsHandysize B.Delta37, 40,000 tdw> Length overall 179.99 m> Breadth 30.00 m> Draught (design) 9.50 m> Service speed 14.0 kn> Cargo cubic 50,000 m3> Daily fuel oil consumption 17.6tonnes/day (ISO)Supramax B.Delta64, 64,000 tdw> Length overall 199.99 m> Breadth 32.26 m> Draught (design) 11.30 m> Service speed 14.5 kn> Cargo cubic 78,000 m3> Daily fuel oil consumption 24.1tonnes/day (ISO)B.Delta3711.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 19. B.Delta and EEDI11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 20. Energy Efficiency Design IndexEEDI by IMO MEPC> Required for newbuildings 1.1.2013 onwards in conventional shipcategories> ”Efficiency” of a vessel is calculated with following formula:> Reference line (to which the ships are compared) defined by the IMObased on vessels built 1999-2009> Reference line will be tightened in steps:– -10% in 2015– -20% in 2020– -30% in 202511.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. HaukilehtoEEDI =EmissionsBenefit for the society
  • 21. EEDI Legislative Principle11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. HaukilehtoEEDIDWTBASELINENOT ACCEPTED!ACCEPTED12,89,5
  • 22. B.Delta37 EEDI Estimates Based onModel Tests11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. HaukilehtoEEDI baselines according to MEPC 62/6/4B.Delta37 open hatch version;17.5% under the baselineXX B.Delta37, bulk version, higher dwtB.Delta37 abt. 30% underbaseline, open hatch version, lower dwtB.Delta37 ICE 1B 0.1%under the baseline
  • 23. Focus on B.Delta11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 24. Focus on B.DeltasRevolutionary Design> No tricks, only state of the art Naval Architecture> No single contributor: effort carried out across the spectrum ofnaval architecture;(1) hull form(2) propeller(3) rudder(4) main engine> Large series of model tests carried out.> Two Panamax size vessels already delivered to the specifiedperformance.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 25. Focus on B.DeltasHull Form Principles> Good flow over bilge and transition area to buttock> Even flow to propeller11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 26. Focus on B.DeltasSaving in Propulsion Power via Efficient Hull Form> New Efficient Bow Shape– Low bow wave– Low viscous pressure resistance, reduced dynamic sinkage and trim– Low forward shoulder wave> Improved Aftship Shape– Smooth transition from flat bottom and sides to buttocks– Reduced shoulder wave– Reduced viscous pressure resistance11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 27. Focus on B.DeltasSaving in Propulsion Power, Aft Ship> Aft Ship Waterlines– No diverging waves– Reduced transom wave system> New Skeg Configuration– Excellent flow to the propeller,especially to the upper sector– Adequate space and volume formain engine and equipment11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 28. Focus on B.DeltasPropeller> Extremely good and even wake field> Larger propeller diameter and lower rpm possible> Two pre-swirl stators> Two competitive propellerdesigns for final propeller> High propulsion efficiencyachieved; 0.808 instead oftypical 0.70 to 0.75 at the best11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 29. Focus on B.DeltasPropeller CavitationTest> Video prints ofCavitation Phenomena> Very minor cavitation.> No risk for propellerinduced vibrations.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 30. Focus on B.DeltasRudder and Manoeuvrability> Tailored profile, based on NACA 6-series profiles> Rudder bulb with hub cap to improve efficiency> Large area for better manoeuvrability and directional stability– Important at sea for fuel efficiency in head and quartering seas and winds> Very slender profile to enhance propulsive efficiency11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto> Structure meets CSRrequirements> Rudder angle up to 70 degr. toimprove harbour manoeuvrability– Extremely important for safenavigation under economical speedand shallow port entrances
  • 31. Focus on B.DeltasMain Engine> De-rated main engine> Design point L4 in the engine layout diagram allowing low rpm forpropeller> Lower SFOC11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 32. Results Gained in 2008 with Reference toJapan, Europe, Korea and China> B.Delta37 was the first Eco-Design onthe market> Higher (5 …15%) deadweight, shallowdraft> Higher (10…15%) cubic capacity> Lower (25….45%) fuel consumption11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto> Standard simple structure and geometry> Compliance with IMO course stability requirements!> Full scale trial prediction based on HSVA standard method with 150 micronhull roughness> First full scale references of Panamax SUL and Laker Algoma Marinerperforming as per or even better than full scale prediction of HSVA
  • 33. Air Lubrication11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 34. Air Lubrication Overview> Target: reduce friction resistance ofa vessel by introducing air to theboundary layer between ship’s hulland water.– Old idea, first patents from thebeginning of 20th century.> Mainly applicable to flat bottomarea where air can be controlled.– FB area 20..50% of total wettedsurface area, depending on vesseltype.11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. HaukilehtoPicture source: MARIN publication
  • 35. Air Lubrication Technologies11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. HaukilehtoPicture source: DNV, DK-Group, MARIN publication
  • 36. Conclusions11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. Haukilehto
  • 37. Hull Form of a Vessel is Marriage forLifetime> Efficient hull form is a sum of multiple variables andcompromises need to be made.> Quantum leaps require innovative, open-mindeddevelopment work combined with understanding ofthe big picture.> Our quantum leap: the extremely low fuelconsumption of B.Delta37.– At scantling draft of 10.50/10.7 m – daily FOC 19.57 / 19.9 mt– At ballast draft of 4.78/6.38 m – daily FOC 17.27 mt– Economical speeds of 10/12 kn at design draft – daily FOC11.3 mt11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. HaukilehtoL, B, L/BT, B/T & L/TCB=Δ/LBTCM=AM/BTCP=CB/CMCW=AW/LB
  • 38. 11.6.2013 New hull forms and concepts / M. Kanerva & J. HaukilehtoThank You!

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