Watson theory


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Watson theory

  2. 2. THEORIES DEFINITION: Theories are invented to assist in describing, explaining, predicting and understanding phenomena of concern. In relation to research theory helps us to interpret scientific findings. In a meaningful and general sable way [ Moody 1990].
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF NURSING THEORIES  Assist the nursing discipline in clarifying beliefs, values, and goals.  Help to define the unique contribution of nursing in the care of clients.  Standards of clinical practice are developed out of nursing theories
  4. 4. IMPORTANCE OF NURSING THEORIES  Assist the nursing discipline in clarifying beliefs, values, and goals.  Help to define the unique contribution of nursing in the care of clients.  Standards of clinical practice are developed out of nursing theories
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION  Born: West Virginia  Educated:  BSN, University of Colorado, 1964,  MS, University of Colorado, 1966, [psychiatric-mental health nursing]  PhD, University of Colorado, 1973 [educational psychology and counseling]  Dr. Jean Watson is Distinguished Professor of Nursing and holds an endowed Chair in Caring Science at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.
  6. 6.  She served as Dean of Nursing at the University Health Sciences Center and is a Past President of the National League for Nursing  She is a widely published author and recipient of several awards and honors, including an international Kellogg Fellowship in Australia, a Fulbright Research Award in Sweden and six (6) Honorary Doctoral Degrees, including 3 International Honorary Doctorates (Sweden, United Kingdom, Quebec, Canada).
  7. 7.  The foundation of Jean Watson’s theory of nursing was published in 1979 in nursing: “The philosophy and science of caring”  In 1988, her theory was published in “nursing: human science and human care”.
  8. 8. “Caring is a global ontology of relation” •Way of being •Commitment •Intentionality •Consciousness
  9. 9. THE SEVEN ASSUMPTIONS  Watson proposes even assumptions about the science of caring. The basic assumptions are:  Caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally.  Caring consists of carative factors that result in the satisfaction of certain human needs.  Effective caring promotes health and individual or family growth.
  10. 10. THE SEVEN ASSUMPTIONS CONTD.,  Caring responses accept person not only as he or she is now but as what he or she may become.  A caring environment is one that offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given point in time.  Caring is more “ healthogenic” than is curing. A science of caring is complementary to the science of curing.  The practice of caring is central to nursing.
  12. 12. 1. The formation of a humanistic- altruistic system of values  Begins developmentally at an early age with values shared with the parents.  Mediated through ones own life experiences, the learning one gains and exposure to the humanities.  Is perceived as necessary to the nurse’s own maturation which then promotes altruistic behavior towards others.
  13. 13. 2. Faith-hope  Is essential to both the carative and the curative processes.  When modern science has nothing further to offer the person, the nurse can continue to use faith- hope to provide a sense of well-being through beliefs which are meaningful to the individual.
  14. 14. 3. Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others  Explores the need of the nurse to begin to feel an emotion as it presents itself.  Development of one’s own feeling is needed to interact genuinely and sensitively with others.  Striving to become sensitive, makes the nurse more authentic, which encourages self-growth and self-actualization, in both the nurse and those with whom the nurse interacts.  The nurses promote health and higher level functioning only when they form person to person relationship.
  15. 15. 4. Establishing a helping-trust relationship  Strongest tool is the mode of communication, which establishes rapport and caring.  She has defined the characteristics needed to in the helping-trust relationship. These are:  Congruence  Empathy  Warmth  Communication includes verbal, nonverbal and listening in a manner which connotes empathetic understanding.
  16. 16. 5. The expression of feelings, both positive and negative  According to Watson, “feelings alter thoughts and behavior, and they need to be considered and allowed for in a caring relationship”.  According to her such expression improves one’s level of awareness.  Awareness of the feelings helps to understand the behavior it engenders.
  17. 17. 6. The systematic use of the scientific problem-solving method for decision making  According to Watson, the scientific problem- solving method is the only method that allows for control and prediction, and that permits self-correction.  She also values the relative nature of nursing and supports the need to examine and develop the other methods of knowing to provide an holistic perspective.  The science of caring should not be always neutral and objective.
  18. 18. 7. Promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning  The caring nurse must focus on the learning process as much as the teaching process.  Understanding the person’s perception of the situation assist the nurse to prepare a cognitive plan.
  19. 19. 8. Provision for a supportive, protective and /or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and spiritual environment  Watson divides these into eternal and internal variables, which the nurse manipulates in order to provide support and protection for the person’s mental and physical well-being.  The external and internal environments are interdependent.  Watson suggests that the nurse also must provide comfort, privacy and safety as a part of this carative factor.
  20. 20. 9. Assistance with the gratification of human needs  It is grounded in a hierarchy of need similar to that of the Maslow’s.  She has created a hierarchy which she believes is relevant to the science of caring in nursing.  According to her each need is equally important for quality nursing care and the promotion of optimal health. All the needs deserve to be attended to and valued.
  21. 21. 10. Allowance for existential- phenomenological forces  Phenomenology is a way of understanding people from the way things appear to them, from their frame of reference.  Existential psychology is the study of human existence using phenomenological analysis.  This factor helps the nurse to reconcile and mediate the incongruity of viewing the person holistically while at the same time attending to the hierarchical ordering of needs.  Thus the nurse assists the person to find the strength or courage to confront life or death.
  23. 23. WATSON’S THEORY AND THE FOUR MAJOR CONCEPTS  1. Human being  She adopts a view of the human being as: “….. a valued person in and of him or herself to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted; in general a philosophical view of a person as a fully functional integrated self. He, human is viewed as greater than and different from, the sum of his or her parts”. 
  24. 24. 2.Health  Watson believes that there are other factors that are needed to be included in the WHO definition of health. She adds the following three elements:  A high level of overall physical, mental and social functioning  A general adaptive-maintenance level of daily functioning  The absence of illness (or the presence of efforts that leads its absence)
  25. 25. 3.Environment/society  According to Watson caring (and nursing) has existed in every society. A caring attitude is not transmitted from generation to generation. It is transmitted by the culture of the profession as a unique way of coping with its environment.
  26. 26. 4. Nursing  According to Watson “ nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick and restoring health”.  It focuses on health promotion and treatment of disease. She believes that holistic health care is central to the practice of caring in nursing.  She defines nursing as….. “A human science of persons and human health- illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic and ethical human transactions”.
  27. 27. WATSON’S THEORY AND NURSING PROCESS  Watson points out that nursing process contains the same steps as the scientific research process. They both try to solve a problem. Both provide a framework for decision making. Watson elaborates the two processes as:
  28. 28. 1.Assessment  Involves observation, identification and review of the problem; use of applicable knowledge in literature.  Also includes conceptual knowledge for the formulation and conceptualization of framework.  Includes the formulation of hypothesis; defining variables that will be examined in solving the problem.
  29. 29. 2.Plan  It helps to determine how variables would be examined or measured; includes a conceptual approach or design for problem solving. It determines what data would be collected and how on whom.
  30. 30. 3.Intervention  It is the direct action and implementation of the plan.  It includes the collection of the data.
  31. 31. 4.Evaluation  Analysis of the data as well as the examination of the effects of interventions based on the data. Includes the interpretation of the results, the degree to which positive outcome has occurred and whether the result can be generalized.  It may also generate additional hypothesis or may even lead to the generation of a nursing theory.
  32. 32. WATSON’S WORK AND THE CHARACTERISTIC OF A THEORY  Theories must be logical in nature  Theories should be relatively simple yet generalizable  Theories can be the basis for hypotheses that can be tested  Theories can be utilized by practitioners to guide and improve their practice
  33. 33. STRENGTHS  Besides assisting in providing the quality of care that client ought to receive, it also provides the soul satisfying care for which many nurses enter the profession.  The client is placed in the context of the family, the community and the culture.  It places the client as the focus of practice rather than the technology
  34. 34. LIMITATIONS  Given the acuity of illness that leads to hospitalization, the short length stay , and the increasing complex technology, such quality of care may be deemed impossible to give in the hospital.  While Watson acknowledges the need for biophysical base to nursing, this area receives little attention in her writings.
  35. 35. LIMITATIONS CONTD.,  The ten caratiive factors primarily delineate the psychosocial needs of the person.  While the carative factors have a sound foundation based on other disciplines, they need further research in nursing to demonstrate their application to practice
  37. 37. Thank You