LDR 625 M7 RED TEAM CLC Assignment with Notes


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LDR 625 M7 RED TEAM CLC Assignment with Notes

  1. 1. Grand Canyon UniversityLDR 625 Organizational Cultural & Team Leadership M7 Red Team CLC Happy Hearth Foundation Chefs on Wheels Community Project Danielle Crisp Marcie Jenkins-Williams Jody Martinez Mohamed Soliman April 04, 2012 1
  2. 2. The Happy Hearth Foundation is a not for profit serviceorganization where we will bring together numerousimpoverished families and community volunteers including:chefs, cooks, culinary students, restaurateurs, educators,nutritionists in an effort to combat hunger, and malnutritionthrough education and volunteerism in effort to buildrelationships within the family and within communities.The Happy Hearth Foundation will raise money to support it’sfirst initiative, Chefs on Wheels. Where great chefs, culinaryexperts, restaurant industry and home cooks will come to thehomes of impoverished families with good quality foods, andfresh produce from local growers and community gardens tocook with those families, teach them about food and nutrition,and sit with them to eat the meal they prepared. There will beopportunities to provide information about where to find goodquality food from local growers, and tips to prepare healthy,nutritious, good tasting meals.Family members of all ages can learn that eating a homecooked meal can be yummy, fun, and good for the tummy!Parents and care givers can be introduced to produce that theymay not be aware from home delivery food services, localfarmers, food cooperatives, and community gardens. Food canbe just as affordable as unhealthy processed foods. 2
  3. 3. Families will also be given information on how to pay forward their knowledge andexperience, and to encourage volunteerism in their own community garden.Information and assistance will be provided to match families with other families whocan work together to support each other in building a healthy community garden anda healthy community. 2
  4. 4. According to 2012 World Hunger and Poverty Facts andStatistics and the World Hunger Education Service:Hunger is a term which has three meanings (Oxford EnglishDictionary 1971)the uneasy or painful sensation caused by want of food; cravingappetite. Also the exhausted condition caused by want of foodthe want or scarcity of food in a country. A strong desire orcraving.World hunger refers to the second definition, aggregated tothe world level. The related technical term (in this caseoperationalized in medicine) is malnutrition.1Malnutrition is a general term that indicates a lack of some orall nutritional elements necessary for human health (MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia).There are two basic types of malnutrition. The first and mostimportant is protein-energy malnutrition--the lack of enoughprotein (from meat and other sources) and food that providesenergy (measured in calories) which all of the basic food 3groups provide. This is the type of malnutrition that is referred
  5. 5. to when world hunger is discussed. The second type of malnutrition, also veryimportant, is micronutrient (vitamin and mineral) deficiency. This is not the type ofmalnutrition that is referred to when world hunger is discussed, though it is certainlyvery important.[Recently there has also been a move to include obesity as a third form ofmalnutrition. Considering obesity as malnutrition expands the previous usualmeaning of the term which referred to poor nutrition due to lack of food inputs. 2 It ispoor nutrition, but it is certainly not typically due to a lack of calories, but rather toomany (although poor food choices, often due to poverty, are part of the problem).Obesity will not be considered here, although obesity is certainly a health problemand is increasingly considered as a type of malnutrition.]Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is the most lethal form of malnutrition/hunger. Itis basically a lack of calories and protein. Food is converted into energy by humans,and the energy contained in food is measured by calories. Protein is necessary forkey body functions including provision of essential amino acids and development andmaintenance of muscles.Number of hungry people in the world… 25 million hungry people in 2010No one really knows how many people are malnourished. The statistic mostfrequently cited is that of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization,which measures undernutrition. The FAO did not publish an estimate in its mostrecent publication, The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2011 as it isundertaking a major revision of how it estimates food insecurity (FAO 2011 p.10). The 2010 estimate, the most recent, says that 925 million people wereundernourished in 2010 (FAO 2010). As the figure below shows, the number ofhungry people has increased since 1995-97.. The increase has been due to threefactors: 1) neglect of agriculture relevant to very poor people by governments andinternational agencies; 2) the current worldwide economic crisis, and 3) thesignificant increase of food prices in the last several years which has been devastatingto those with only a few dollars a day to spend. 925 million people is 13.6 percent ofthe estimated world population of 6.8 billion. Nearly all of the undernourished are indeveloping countries.Number of hungry people, 1969-2010Source: FAO 3
  6. 6. In round numbers there are 7 billion people in the world. Thus, with an estimated 925million hungry people in the world, 13.1 percent, or almost 1 in 7 people are hungry.The FAO estimate is based on statistical aggregates. The FAO first estimates the totalfood supply of a country and derives the average per capita daily food intake fromthat. The distribution of average food intake for people in the country is thenestimated from surveys measuring food expenditure. Using this information, andminimum food energy requirements, FAO estimates how many people are likely toreceive such a low level of food intake that they are undernourished.3Under-nutrition is a relatively new concept, but is increasingly used. It should betaken as similar to malnutrition. (It should be said as an aside, that the idea ofundernourishment, its relationship to malnutrition, and the reasons for its emergenceas a concept is not clear to Hunger Notes.)Children are the most visible victims of under-nutrition. Children who are poorlynourished suffer up to 160 days of illness each year. Poor nutrition plays a role in atleast half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year--five milliondeaths. Undernutrition magnifies the effect of every disease, including measles andmalaria. The estimated proportions of deaths in which undernutrition is anunderlying cause are roughly similar for diarrhea (61%), malaria (57%), pneumonia(52%), and measles (45%) (Black 2003, Bryce 2005). Malnutrition can also be causedby diseases, such as the diseases that cause diarrhea, by reducing the bodys ability toconvert food into usable nutrients.According to the most recent estimate that Hunger Notes could find, malnutrition, asmeasured by stunting, affects 32.5 percent of children in developing countries--one ofthree (de Onis 2000). Geographically, more than 70 percent of malnourished childrenlive in Asia, 26 percent in Africa and 4 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean. Inmany cases, their plight began even before birth with a malnourished mother. Under-nutrition among pregnant women in developing countries leads to 1 out of 6 infantsborn with low birth weight. This is not only a risk factor for neonatal deaths, but alsocauses learning disabilities, mental, retardation, poor health, blindness andpremature death.Does the world produce enough food to feed everyone?The world produces enough food to feed everyone. World agriculture produces 17percent more calories per person today than it did 30 years ago, despite a 70 percent 3
  7. 7. population increase. This is enough to provide everyone in the world with at least2,720 kilocalories (kcal) per person per day according to the most recent estimatethat we could find.(FAO 2002, p.9). The principal problem is that many people in theworld do not have sufficient land to grow, or income to purchase, enough food.What are the causes of hunger?What are the causes of hunger is a fundamental question, with varied answers.Poverty is the principal cause of hunger.The causes of poverty include poor peoples lack of resources, an extremely unequalincome distribution in the world and within specific countries, conflict, and hungeritself. As of 2008 (2005 statistics), the World Bank has estimated that there were anestimated 1,345 million poor people in developing countries who live on $1.25 a dayor less.3 This compares to the later FAO estimate of 1.02 billion undernourishedpeople. Extreme poverty remains an alarming problem in the world’s developingregions, despite some progress that reduced "dollar--now $1.25-- a day" poverty from(an estimated) 1900 million people in 1981, a reduction of 29 percent over theperiod. Progress in poverty reduction has been concentrated in Asia, and especially,East Asia, with the major improvement occurring in China. In Sub-Saharan Africa, thenumber of people in extreme poverty has increased. The statement that poverty isthe principal cause of hunger is, though correct, unsatisfying. Why then are (somany) people poor? The next section summarizes Hunger Notes answer.Harmful economic systems are the principal cause of poverty and hunger.Hunger Notes believes that the principal underlying cause of poverty and hunger isthe ordinary operation of the economic and political systems in the world. Essentiallycontrol over resources and income is based on military, political and economic powerthat typically ends up in the hands of a minority, who live well, while those at thebottom barely survive, if they do. We have described the operation of this system inmore detail in our special section on Harmful economic systems.Conflict as a cause of hunger and poverty.At the end of 2005, the global number of refugees was at its lowest level in almost a 3
  8. 8. quarter of a century. Despite some large-scale repatriation movements, the last threeyears have witnessed a significant increase in refugee numbers, due primarily to theviolence taking place in Iraq and Somalia. By the end of 2008, the total number ofrefugees under UNHCR’s mandate exceeded 10 million. The number of conflict-induced internally displaced persons (IDPs) reached some 26 million worldwide at theend of the year . Providing exact figures on the number of stateless people isextremely difficult But, important, (relatively) visible though it is, and anguishing forthose involved conflict is less important as poverty (and its causes) as a cause ofhunger. (Using the statistics above 1.02 billion people suffer from chronic hungerwhile 36 million people are displaced [UNHCR 2008])Hunger is also a cause of poverty, and thus of hunger.By causing poor health, low levels of energy, and even mental impairment, hungercan lead to even greater poverty by reducing peoples ability to work and learn, thusleading to even greater hunger.Climate changeClimate change is increasingly viewed as a current and future cause of hunger andpoverty. Increasing drought, flooding, and changing climatic patterns requiring a shiftin crops and farming practices that may not be easily accomplished are three keyissues. See the Hunger Notes special report: Hunger, the environment, and climatechange for further information, especially articles in the section: Climate change,global warming and the effect on poor people such as Global warming causes300,000 deaths a year, study says and Could food shortages bring down civilization?Progress in reducing the number of hungry people:The target set at the 1996 World Food Summit was to halve the number ofundernourished people by 2015 from their number in 1990-92. (FAO uses three yearaverages in its calculation of undernourished people.) The (estimated) number ofundernourished people in developing countries was 824 million in 1990-92. In 2010,the number had climbed to 925 million people. The WFS goal is a global goaladopted by the nations of the world; the present outcome indicates how marginalthe efforts were in face of the real need. 3
  9. 9. So, overall, the world is not making progress toward the world food summit goal,although there has been progress in Asia, and in Latin America and the Caribbean.MicronutrientsQuite a few trace elements or micronutrients--vitamins and minerals--are importantfor health. 1 out of 3 people in developing countries are affected by vitamin andmineral deficiencies, according to the World Health Organization. Three, perhaps themost important in terms of health consequences for poor people in developingcountries, are:Vitamin A Vitamin A deficiency can cause night blindness and reduces the bodysresistance to disease. In children Vitamin A deficiency can also cause growthretardation. Between 100 and 140 million children are vitamin A deficient. Anestimated 250,000 to 500 000 vitamin A-deficient children become blind every year,half of them dying within 12 months of losing their sight. (World Health Organization)Iron deficiency is a principal cause of anemia. Two billion people—over 30 percent ofthe world’s population—are anemic, mainly due to iron deficiency, and, in developingcountries, frequently exacerbated by malaria and worm infections. For children,health consequences include premature birth, low birth weight, infections, andelevated risk of death. Later, physical and cognitive development are impaired,resulting in lowered school performance. For pregnant women, anemia contributesto 20 percent of all maternal deaths (World Health Organization).Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) jeopardize children´s mental health– often their verylives. Serious iodine deficiency during pregnancy may result in stillbirths, abortionsand congenital abnormalities such as cretinism, a grave, irreversible form of mentalretardation that affects people living in iodine-deficient areas of Africa and Asia. IDDalso causes mental impairment that lowers intellectual prowess at home, at school,and at work. IDD affects over 740 million people, 13 percent of the world’spopulation. Fifty million people have some degree of mental impairment caused byIDD (World Health Organization).(Updated December 4, 2011)Footnotes1. The relation between hunger, malnutrition, and other terms such as under- 3
  10. 10. nutrition is not perfectly clear, so we have attempted to spell them out briefly in"World Hunger Facts."2. For example, the Oxford English Dictionary (1971 edition) has insufficientnutrition as the only meaning for malnutrition.3. For discussions of measuring hunger see Califero 2011, Headey 2011 and Masset,in press.4. The table used to calculate this number.Region % in $1.25 a day poverty Population (millions) Pop. in $1 a day poverty(millions) East Asia and Pacific 16.8 1,884 316 Latin America and the Caribbean 8.2550 45 South Asia 40.4 1,476 596 Sub-Saharan Africa 50.9 763 388 Total Developingcountries 28,8 4673 1345 Europe and Central Asia 0.04 473 17 Middle East and NorthAfrica 0.04 305 11 Total 5451 1372 Source: See World Bank PovcalNet "Replicatethe World Banks Regional Aggregation" athttp://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/povDuplic.html (accessed May 7,2010). Also see World Bank "PovcalNet" athttp://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTPROGRAMS/EXTPOVRES/EXTPOVCALNET/0,,contentMDK:21867101~pagePK:64168427~piPK:64168435~theSitePK:5280443,00.htmlBibliographyBlack RE, Morris SS, Bryce J. "Where and why are 10 million children dying everyyear?" Lancet. 2003 Jun 28;361(9376):2226-34.Black, Robert E, Lindsay H Allen, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Laura E Caulfield, Mercedes deOnis, Majid Ezzati, Colin Mathers, Juan Rivera, for the Maternal and ChildUndernutrition Study Group Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regionalexposures and health consequences. (Article access may require registration) TheLancet Vol. 371, Issue 9608, 19 January 2008, 243-260.Jennifer Bryce, Cynthia Boschi-Pinto, Kenji Shibuya, Robert E. Black, and the WHOChild Health Epidemiology Reference Group. 2005. "WHO estimates of the causes ofdeath in children." Lancet ; 365: 1147–52.Cafiero, Carlo and Pietro Gennari. 2011. The FAO indicator of the prevalence ofundernourishment FAOCaulfield LE, de Onis M, Blössner M, Black RE. Undernutrition as an underlying causeof child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles. AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition 2004; 80: 193–98.Shaohua Chen and Martin Ravallion. June 2004. "How have the world’s poorest faredsince the early 1980s?" World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3341 Washington:World Bank.de Onis, Mercedes, Edward A. Frongillo and Monika Blossner. 2000. "Is malnutrition 3
  11. 11. declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980." Bulletinof the World Health Organization 2000, : 1222–1233.Food and Agriculture Organization, International Fund for Agricultural Development,World Food Program. 2002 "Reducing Poverty and Hunger, the Critical Role ofFinancing for Food, Agriculture, and Rural Development."Food and Agriculture Organization. 2006. State of World Food Insecurity 2006Food and Agriculture Organization. 2010. The State of Food Insecurity in the World2010 http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1683e/i1683e.pdfFood and Agriculture Organization. 2011. "The State of Food Insecurity in the World2011" http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1683e/i1683e.pdfHeadey, Derek. 2011. “Was the Global Food Crisis Really a Crisis? Simulations versusSelf-Reporting”, IFPRI Discussion Paper 01087.International Food Policy Research Institute. 2010. 2010 Global Hunger IndexMasset, Edoardo. 2011 In Press. A review of hunger indices and methods to monitorcountry commitment to fighting hunger Food Policy.Oxford University Press. 1971. Oxford English Dictionary. Definition for malnutrition.Pelletier DL, Frongillo EA Jr, Schroeder D, Habicht JP. The effects of malnutrition onchild mortality in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization1995; 73: 443–48.United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees. 2007. Statistical Yearbook 2006"Main Findings"UNHCR 2008 Global Report 2008 "The Year in Review"http://www.unhcr.org/4a2d0b1d2.pdfWorld Bank. Understanding Poverty websiteWorld Health Organization Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Childhood andMaternal UndernutitionLearn About Hunger Page Hunger Notes Home Page Referenceswww.worldhungerord. Retrieved April 1, 2012 fromhttp://www.worldhunger.org/articles/Learn/world%20hunger% 20facts%202002.htm 3
  12. 12. The Happy Hearth Foundation will build collaborativerelationships with several local and multinational organizationsto roll out the Chefs on Wheels initiative. According to experts,“Complex social problems - global poverty, racial inequality,and environmental degradation, for example… involve sets ofinterconnected problems that resist simple solutions byindependent organizations…. Cross-sector strategies areincreasingly assumed to be superior to – or more desirablethan – independent approaches when it comes to working onthe public agenda…. There is a growing perception that[collaboration is] necessary for the effective resolution ofsocial ills…. Collaboration refers to ‘the linking or sharing ofinformation, resources, activities, and capabilities’” (Knapp &Siegel, 2009, p. 38-9). ReferencesKnapp, J. C., & Siegel, D. J. (2009). The Business of highereducation. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group 4
  13. 13. Due to the need around the world to meet our goals, theremust be a leadership structure and style that is focused onbuilding teams around the world in several communities whobest know how to meet the needs of their stakeholders. Theseteams can share best practices that they’ve learned over theway with new leaders and new communities that theorganization will spread to.The organization must establish connections with thoseinterested in becoming volunteers. Leaders must do the legwork in finding local growers, cooperatives, and foodmanufacturers who are interested in supporting the effort tobring healthy, nutritious food to impoverished members of thecommunity who have had limited access to good food.The number of employees will be limited to those who canfundraise, collaborate, and bring volunteers together withfamilies in need.Employee roles will be in clusters of communities around theworld and will include:Board of Directors Executive Director Fundraising Manager 5 Budget & Finance Manager
  14. 14. Public Relations Manager Advertising & Marketing ManagerOffice ManagerWeb Master Events Manager Human Resources ManagerVolunteer CoordinatorsIntake CoordinatorsCommunity AdvisorsDevelopment NutritionAccountingDrivers 5
  15. 15. Organizational Plan for Happy Hearth Foundation and Chefs onWheelsChefs on Wheels is a nonprofit organization committed toreducing hunger among poor families in America and aroundthe World. Its primary goals are to provide free or low costfood to needy families, to educate family members aboutnutrition and to bring families and the community togetherover healthy and affordable meals.Leadership will include the Director and a governing board. Theboard of Chefs on Wheels will be made up of volunteers whoare committed to the vision and mission and are collaborativepartners in achieving the goals of the project. Each boardmember will serve as head of a committee made up ofvolunteers. These committees will include such things asvolunteer services, finance, physical resources, family contact,and project evaluation. The Board will do a feasibility study todetermine needs of the community, explore available resourcesand develop a data base of eligible families. An important stepwill be to contact other service organizations to determinecurrently available services (find a need-fill it) The board willexplore possible free services/donations such as facilities, food, 6transportation, printing, nutritionists, medical personal, drivers,
  16. 16. etc. to develop a pool or human and physical resources available to move the projectforward.Once the need has been established, the next step is to explore possible sources offunding such as grants, donations, sponsorships or service organizations. The financecommittee will be formed to determine project services and costs and develop abudget based on needs and available funds.A human resources committee will canvas for volunteers to support the organizationand develop a data base of volunteers’ time and expertise as well as determining thenumber necessary to provide services. This committee will be responsible forcoordinating eligible families with services provided. They will determine how manymembers in the family, what are their dietary requirements, how often will foodservices be provided, how will families be connected to community gardens andvolunteer chefs.A committee will plan ways to advertise the service – pamphlets, brochures, letters,etc. that can be mailed or placed in clinics and hospitals. This committee will alsodevelop a survey to determine clients’ satisfaction and get feedback on services,quality of food, timeliness, etc. 6
  17. 17. According to Cornell Education:A non-profit organization is a group organized for purposesother than generating profit and in which no part of theorganizations income is distributed to its members, directors,or officers. Non-profit corporations are often termed "non-stock corporations." They can take the form of a corporation,an individual enterprise (for example, individual charitablecontributions), unincorporated association, partnership,foundation (distinguished by its endowment by a founder, ittakes the form of a trusteeship), or condominium (jointownership of common areas by owners of adjacent individualunits incorporated under state condominium acts). Non-profitorganizations must be designated as nonprofit when createdand may only pursue purposes permitted by statutes for non-profit organizations. Non-profit organizations include churches,public schools, public charities, public clinics and hospitals,political organizations, legal aid societies, volunteer servicesorganizations, labor unions, professional associations, researchinstitutes, museums, and some governmental agencies.Non-profit entities are organized under state law. For non-profit corporations, some states have adopted the RevisedModel Non-Profit Corporation Act (1986). For non-profitassociations, a few states have adopted the UniformUnincorporated Non-Profit Association Act (See Colorado §§ 7- 730-101 to 7-30-119). Some states exempt non-profit
  18. 18. organizations from state tax and state employment programs such as unemploymentcompensation contribution. Some states give non-profit organizations immunity fromtort liability (see Massachusetts law giving immunity to a narrow group of non-profitorganizations) and other states limit tort liability by enacting a damage cap. State lawalso governs solicitation privileges and accreditations requirements such as licensesand permits. Each state defines non-profit differently. Some states make distinctionsbetween organizations not operated for profit without charitable goals (like a sportsor professional association) and charitable associations in order to determine whatlegal privileges the respective organizations will be given.For federal tax purposes, an organization is exempt from taxation if it is organized andoperated exclusively for religious, charitable, scientific, public safety, literary,educational, prevention of cruelty to children or animals, and/or to develop nationalor international sports. Social security tax is also currently optional although 80percent of the organizations elect to participate. ReferencesNon-profit organizations: an overview. Retrieved April 01, 2012 fromhttp://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/Non-profit_organizations 7
  19. 19. According to Hunger Action Center:Child HungerAlthough the United States is the wealthiest nation in theworld, millions of children in our nation are food insecure,meaning they are either currently hungry or nearing hunger.Children who are undernourished are at greater risk for serioushealth, social, and educational problems. Today, many publicfood-assistance programs and private organizations strive tomeet the nutritional needs of vulnerable children, but moreneeds to be done to fight child hunger.The Impact of Child HungerChild hunger affects many aspects of children’s lives, fromphysical and mental development to emotional well being.Below are some of the issues associated with childhoodhunger.Health Risks Associated with Undernourishment 8Children from many poor families receive less than 70 percent
  20. 20. of the recommended daily intake of major nutrients. This deficiency translates intoincreased risk for serious and costly health problems, including anemia, impairedcognitive development, and stunted growth. Children suffering from hunger or nearhunger are also less likely to have access to sufficient medical care.Behavioral and Social DevelopmentFood insufficiency also hinders children’s social development. Studies show that childhunger may be linked to behavioral problems, delayed social development, anxiety,and other emotional problems.EducationFor emotional, cognitive, and physical reasons, a hungry or undernourished childfaces significant educational challenges. School attendance and academicperformance both suffer due to student undernourishment. Food insufficiency—often caused by missed breakfast—diminishes a child’s ability to retain knowledge,concentrate, and develop language and math skills.Policy Recommendations to Fight Child HungerEnding childhood hunger is an important battle. The challenges our children facetoday impact how well they’re able to achieve their full potential. Below are some ofthe ways we’re fighting to end hunger for America’s children:Ensure that Children Have the Nutrition They Need at SchoolChildren need nutrition to help them grow and learn. Established in 1946, theNational School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast Program weredesigned to help fill this need. These programs play critical roles in providing qualitynutritious meals to millions of children every day for free or at a reduced cost.Children from families at or below 130 percent of the poverty level qualify for freemeals, and children from families between 130 and 185 percent of the poverty levelqualify for meals at a reduced price. Unfortunately, many children from working poorfamilies often cannot even afford the reduced rate.While nearly 18 million children qualified for free or reduced-price meals in 2007, justover 8 million of these children participated in the School Breakfast Program. The oldadage is true: breakfast is the most important meal of the day, especially for children.Some schools do not offer the School Breakfast Program, and in others logistical 8
  21. 21. barriers, such as bussing schedules, don’t allow enough time for children to eatbreakfast before the school day begins. To reach more children, the level ofreimbursement for the School Breakfast Program should be increased to encouragemore schools to participate.Expand Access to Quality Nutrition in the SummerFood pantries, soup kitchens, and other charitable food assistance organizationsreport seeing an increased need for food assistance for children during summermonths. While nearly 18 million children participated in the free or reduced-costschool meal programs in 2007, only 2 million received daily assistance through theSummer Food Service Program (SFSP). One of the largest barriers to serving morechildren in the summer is that there are not enough organizations willing to sponsorthe program. The administrative and policy barriers to this program should bestreamlined to encourage more agencies to participate, bringing meal service tomore children in communities nationwide.Improve Access to Nutrition AfterschoolFor too many children, access to complete nutritious meals is limited to what childrenreceive at school. This leaves evenings, weekends, and vacations where children maybe lacking adequate nutrition. In 2007, the Child and Adult Care Food Program(CACFP) provided congregate snacks and meals to over 3 million children and seniorsin daycare homes, centers, and afterschool care. There are currently only 14 statesthat receive supper reimbursement for service to children through the CACFP At-RiskAfterschool program. In other states, afterschool programs, like Kids Cafes, are oftenserving complete meals to children, but only being reimbursed at the snack rate.Improvements can be made to reach more children outside of school hours byexpanding the number of states that can serve meals to children in these “at-risk”areas. ReferencesHunger Action Center. Feeding America. Retrieved April 01, 2012 fromhttp://hungeractioncenter.org/issues.aspx 8
  22. 22. According to Jamie Oliver Celebrity Chef and Foundation Head“we need a Food Revolution”:Were losing the war against obesity in the US. Its sad, buttrue. Our kids are growing up overweight and malnourishedfrom a diet of processed foods, and todays children will be thefirst generation ever to live shorter lives than their parents. Itstime for change. Its time for a Food Revolution."Since Ive been working in America, Ive been overwhelmed bythe number of people who have come out to support the FoodRevolution. More than 630,000 people have signed thepetition, over 300,000 of you subscribe to our newsletter andthousands of you have written to me. The only message I keephearing is that you believe your kids need better food, and thatyou want help to keep cooking skills alive. Thats why this FoodRevolution matters."The problem stems from the loss of cooking skills at home andthe availability of processed foods at every turn, from theschool cafeteria to church function halls, factories and offices.This Food Revolution is about saving lives by inspiringeveryone: moms, dads, kids, teens and cafeteria workers to get 9back to basics and start cooking good food from scratch.
  23. 23. Jamies ambitionA national movement to change the way America eatsJamie wants to mobilize the huge response to the Food Revolution so far and turn itinto a movement for change in which America leads the world. It will bring togethermillions of people and inspire the nation to fight obesity with better food. At its heartis a powerful strategy to get people cooking again. Here are some of the ways well bedoing that:More cooking at home A nationwide network of community kitchens where anyone can go to learn basic home cooking Jamies home cooking courseFreshly cooked meals at school An activist program to support parents who want better food in their childs school A community website to encourage grass-roots activities for change all over the USCooking in the community The Food Revolution truck, a mobile food classroom and flagship center for the Food Revolution A cooking course available in church halls, community and healthcare centers and the workplaceSchools and Communities - to inspire and educate parents, carers, young adults andchildren through: Freshly cooked meals in schools and colleges Cooking lessons for kids at school Lessons teaching basic food skills to healthcare and social care professionals Cooking classes for the public in the communityCorporations - to promote culture change and encourage community investment onseveral levels: Food industry - help to tackle obesity by producing better food products and labeling products in a more honest way Healthcare sector - investing in future health means cost savings down the 9
  24. 24. line Employee health - provide better food for employees in company canteens and provide cooking classes for employees to give them the skills they need to be healthyJamie Oliver FoundationFIFTEENThe flagship Restaurant, Fifteen London, established in 2002 with two other locationsfollowing the same inspirational model: Fifteen Amsterdam (in 2004), FifteenCornwall (in 2006). At the heart of the business is the desire to enable young peopleto believe in themselves and persuade them the future is theirs to create. Every year,each restaurant takes on unemployed and under-qualified young people and trainsthem to become qualified chefs through a unique Apprentice Programme. They aretaught to love and respect food and its provenance – taking in everything fromtraditional bakery and butchery, to the finest pastry skills.The name Fifteen comes from the original group of 15 apprentices who joined theLondon programme in 2002. Since then, more than 220 young people have graduatedacross all the restaurants, with some of them now running their own restaurants,starring on TV or working in top-class kitchens from London to New York to Sydney.Jamies School Dinners / Feed Me Better (established 2003)The 2005 TV show, Jamies School Dinners, uncovered the appalling quality of foodserved in school dining halls across the UK and subsequently Jamie started the FeedMe Better campaign, a petition to demand government intervention, funding andtraining for dinner ladies to address the problem.Jamie received 271,677 signatures and in response the government established theSchool Food Trust whose mission is "to transform school food and food skills,promote the education of health of children and young people and improve thequality of food in schools.“Jamies Ministry of Food (established 2008)Ministry of Food is all about getting people cooking again. Jamie wants to show usthat anyone can learn to cook – and that its fun, cool, can save you money and helpyou, your family and friends to live a healthier life. It also promotes the idea of Pass ItOn, to encourage people to share their cooking skills with other people and teach 9
  25. 25. their friends what they have learnt.Kitchen Garden ProjectWe teach primary school children the joys of growing and cooking their own food inthe hope that it will plant a seed for positive eating habits that will last a lifetime. Webelieve it is absolutely vital to teach children about food and practical cooking skillsfrom a young age in order to have any long term affect.Jamies Food Revolution (established 2010)Jamies Food Revolution combines the ambitions of both Jamies Ministry of Foodand Jamies School Dinners and exists to tackle the obesity epidemic in America.The campaign seeks to educate people about food and cooking, address the qualityof the food served in school lunch halls and inspire food retailers to provide goodquality, fresh, local food to their customers.The campaign is funded solely by donations made from the USA.http://www.jamieoliver.com/us/foundation/jamies-food-revolution/why ReferencesJamie Oliver Foundation. Retrieved April 01, 2012 fromhttp://www.jamieoliver.com/foundation/ 9
  26. 26. According to Nancy Gibbs (2006) there is a great importance ofsharing a family meal:Close your eyes and picture Family Dinner. June Cleaver is in anapron and pearls, Ward in a sweater and tie. The napkins arelinen, the children are scrubbed, steam rises from the green-bean casserole, and even the dog listens intently to what isbeing said. This is where the tribe comes to transmit wisdom,embed expectations, confess, conspire, forgive, repair. Theidealized version is as close to a regular worship service, withits litanies and lessons and blessings, as a family gets outside asanctuary.That ideal runs so strong and so deep in our culture and psychethat when experts talk about the value of family dinners, theymay leave aside the clutter of contradictions. Just because weeat together does not mean we eat right: Dominos alonedelivers a million pizzas on an average day. Just because we aresitting together doesnt mean we have anything to say: childrenbicker and fidget and daydream; parents stew over the remainsof the day. Often the richest conversations, the moments ofgenuine intimacy, take place somewhere else, in the car, say, onthe way back from soccer at dusk, when the low light and lackof eye contact allow secrets to surface. 10
  27. 27. Yet for all that, there is something about a shared meal--not some holiday blowout,not once in a while but regularly, reliably--that anchors a family even on nights whenthe food is fast and the talk cheap and everyone has someplace else theyd rather be.And on those evenings when the mood is right and the family lingers, caught up in anidea or an argument explored in a shared safe place where no one is stupid or shy orashamed, you get a glimpse of the power of this habit and why social scientists saysuch communion acts as a kind of vaccine, protecting kids from all manner of harm.In fact, its the experts in adolescent development who wax most emphatic about thevalue of family meals, for its in the teenage years that this daily investment payssome of its biggest dividends. Studies show that the more often families eat together,the less likely kids are to smoke, drink, do drugs, get depressed, develop eatingdisorders and consider suicide, and the more likely they are to do well in school,delay having sex, eat their vegetables, learn big words and know which fork to use. "Ifit were just about food, we would squirt it into their mouths with a tube," says RobinFox, an anthropologist who teaches at Rutgers University in New Jersey, about themysterious way that family dinner engraves our souls. "A meal is about civilizingchildren. Its about teaching them to be a member of their culture.“The most probing study of family eating patterns was published last year by theNational Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University andreflects nearly a decades worth of data gathering. The researchers found essentiallythat family dinner gets better with practice; the less often a family eats together, theworse the experience is likely to be, the less healthy the food and the more meagerthe talk. Among those who eat together three or fewer times a week, 45% say the TVis on during meals (as opposed to 37% of all households), and nearly one-third saythere isnt much conversation. Such kids are also more than twice as likely as thosewho have frequent family meals to say there is a great deal of tension among familymembers, and they are much less likely to think their parents are proud of them.The older that kids are, the more they may need this protected time together, but theless likely they are to get it. Although a majority of 12-year-olds in the CASA studysaid they had dinner with a parent seven nights a week, only a quarter of 17-year-olds did. Researchers have found all kinds of intriguing educational and ethnicpatterns. The families with the least educated parents, for example, eat together themost; parents with less than a high school education share more meals with theirkids than do parents with high school diplomas or college degrees. That may end upacting as a generational corrective; kids who eat most often with their parents are40% more likely to say they get mainly As and Bs in school than kids who have twoor fewer family dinners a week. Foreign-born kids are much more likely to eat with 10
  28. 28. their parents. When researchers looked at ethnic and racial breakdowns, they foundthat more than half of Hispanic teens ate with a parent at least six times a week, incontrast to 40% of black teens and 39% of whites.Back in the really olden days, dinner was seldom a ceremonial event for U.S. families.Only the very wealthy had a separate dining room. For most, meals were informal, akind of rolling refueling; often only the men sat down. Not until the mid--19thcentury did the day acquire its middle-class rhythms and rituals; a proper dining roombecame a Victorian aspiration. When children were 8 or 9, they were allowed to jointhe adults at the table for instruction in proper etiquette. By the turn of the century,restaurants had appeared to cater to clerical workers, and in time, eating out becamea recreational sport. Family dinner in the Norman Rockwell mode had taken hold bythe 1950s: Mom cooked, Dad carved, son cleared, daughter did the dishes.All kinds of social and economic and technological factors then conspired to shredthat tidy picture to the point that the frequency of family dining fell about a third overthe next 30 years. With both parents working and the kids shuttling between sportspractices or attached to their screens at home, finding a time for everyone to sitaround the same table, eating the same food and listening to one another, became aquaint kind of luxury. Meanwhile, the message embedded in the microwave was thattime spent standing in front of a stove was time wasted.But something precious was lost, anthropologist Fox argues, when cooking came tobe cast as drudgery and meals as discretionary. "Making food is a sacred event," hesays. "Its so absolutely central--far more central than sex. You can keep a populationgoing by having sex once a year, but you have to eat three times a day." Food comesso easily to us now, he says, that we have lost a sense of its significance. When wehad to grow the corn and fight off predators, meals included a serving of gratitude."Its like the American Indians. When they killed a deer, they said a prayer over it,"says Fox. "That is civilization. It is an act of politeness over food. Fast food has killedthis. We have reduced eating to sitting alone and shoveling it in. There is noceremony in it.“Or at least there wasnt for many families until researchers in the 1980s beganlooking at the data and doing all kinds of regression analyses that showed how ashared pot roast could contribute to kids success and health. What the studies couldnot prove was what is cause and what is effect. Researchers speculate that maybekids who eat a lot of family meals have less unsupervised time and thus less chanceto get into trouble. Families who make meals a priority also tend to spend more time 10
  29. 29. on reading for pleasure and homework. A whole basket of values and habits, of whicha common mealtime is only one, may work together to ground kids. But its abellwether, and baby boomers who wont listen to their instincts will often listen tothe experts: the 2005 CASA study found that the number of adolescents eating withtheir family most nights has increased 23% since 1998.That rise may also reflect a deliberate public-education campaign, including public-service announcements on TV Land and Nick at Nite that are designed to convincefamilies that its worth some inconvenience or compromise to make meals together apriority. The enemies here are laziness and leniency: "Were talking about acontemporary style of parenting, particularly in the middle class, that is overindulgentof children," argues William Doherty, a professor of family social science at theUniversity of Minnesota at Minneapolis and author of The Intentional Family: SimpleRituals to Strengthen Family Ties. "It treats them as customers who need to bepleased." By that, he means the willingness of parents to let dinner be an individualimprovisation--no routine, no rules, leave the television on, everyone eats what theywant, teenagers take a plate to their room so they can keep IMing their friends.The food-court mentality--Johnny eats a burrito, Dad has a burger, and Mom pickspasta--comes at a cost. Little humans often resist new tastes; they need somenudging away from the salt and fat and toward the fruits and fiber. A study in theArchives of Family Medicine found that more family meals tends to mean less sodaand fried food and far more fruits and vegetables.Beyond promoting balance and variety in kids diets, meals together send themessage that citizenship in a family entails certain standards beyond individualwhims. This is where a family builds its identity and culture. Legends are passeddown, jokes rendered, eventually the wider world examined through the lens of afamilys values. In addition, younger kids pick up vocabulary and a sense of howconversation is structured. They hear how a problem is solved, learn to listen to otherpeoples concerns and respect their tastes. "A meal is about sharing," says Doherty. "Isee this trend where parents are preparing different meals for each kid, and it takesaway from that. The sharing is the compromise. Not everyone gets their ideal menuevery night.“Doherty heard from a YMCA camp counselor about the number of kids who arrivewith a list of foods they wont eat and who require basic instruction from counselorson how to share a meal. "They have to teach them how to pass food around andserve each other. The kids have to learn how to eat whats there. And they have to 10
  30. 30. learn how to remain seated until everyone else is done." The University of Kansas andMichigan State offer students coaching on how to handle a business lunch, includingwhat to do about food they dont like ("Eat it anyway") and how to pass the salt andpepper ("Theyre married. They never take separate vacations").When parents say their older kids are too busy or resistant to come to the table theway they did when they were 7, the dinner evangelists produce evidence to thecontrary. The CASA study found that a majority of teens who ate three or fewer mealsa week with their families wished they did so more often. Parents sometimes seem alittle too eager to be rejected by their teenage sons and daughters, suggests MiriamWeinstein, a freelance journalist who wrote The Surprising Power of Family Meals."Weve sold ourselves on the idea that teenagers are obviously sick of their families,that theyre bonded to their peer group," she says. "Weve taken it to an extreme.Weve taken it to mean that a teenager has no need for his family. And thats just nottrue." She scolds parents who blame their kids for undermining mealtime when theadults are co-conspirators. "Its become a badge of honor to say, I have no time. I amso busy," she says. "But we make a lot of choices, and we have a lot more discretionthan we give ourselves credit for," she says. Parents may be undervaluing themselveswhen they conclude that sending kids off to every conceivable extracurricular activityis a better use of time than an hour spent around a table, just talking to Mom andDad.The family-meal crusaders offer lots of advice to parents seeking to recenter theirhousehold on the dinner table. Groups like Ready, Set, Relax!, based in Ridgewood,N.J., have dispensed hundreds of kits to towns from Kentucky to California, coachingcommunities on how to fight overscheduling and carve out family downtime. Moreschools are offering basic cooking instruction. It turns out that when kids helpprepare a meal, they are much more likely to eat it, and its a useful skill that seemsto build self-esteem. Research on family meals does not explore whether it makes adifference if dinner is with two parents or one or even whether the meal needs to bedinner. For families whose schedules make evenings together a challenge, breakfastor lunch may have the same value. So pull up some chairs. Lose the TV. Let the phonego unanswered. And see where the moment takes you. ReferencesGibbs, N. (2011). The Magic of the family meal. Time Inc. Retrieved April 01, 2012from http://www.time.com/ time/magazine/article/0,9171,1200760,00.html 10
  31. 31. The characteristics of the organization such as its purpose andstructure, social economic help determine the role of theleader. These variables are situational influences in leadershipthat operates in a subtle and maybe ignored intentionally.Leadership consists of the relationship between leadership, itsfollowers, and the organization. Leaders that function betweenorganizational relationship and situation expectations shouldcollaborate/be clear.A person over the age of 65 is at an amazing rate of beinghunger. Senior hunger in America is a monumental problem.Today, there are more than 7.5 million seniors in the UnitedStates facing the threat of hunger. These numbers are veryalarming but the fuel that ignites the flame should motivesaction that will stomp how hunger for seniors. The growingnumber of seniors demands constant focus on the demands tomanage and control the increasing rate of hunger seniorsworldwide. MOWAAs four pillars outline our comprehensiveapproach to ending senior hunger (Meals, 2012).The Vision and Mission of Meals on Wheels (MOW) is; to endsenior hunger by 2020; Our Mission is to provide nationalleadership to end senior hunger. On September 1, 2009, theMOWAA Board of Directors approved a new vision for the 11
  32. 32. Meals On Wheels Association of America: to end senior hunger by 2020. In order toturn this 2020 vision into a reality, a national movement to end senior hunger byrecruiting 6 million people who are willing to stand up and pledge to do what it takesto end senior hunger (Meals, 2012).The Services InitiativesThe 2007 research shows close to 6 million seniors’ battles hunger. The greatestimpact is to eliminate senior’s hunger by decreasing the numbers with a commitmentto raising the number of volunteers that pledge to assist with MOW in America by2020. There have been several different events held annually that brings awarenessto senior hunger worldwide. March is the month each year that the Mayors forMeals are held to increase awareness and get volunteers and raise funds. Anotherevent is Meals for Moms mother’s day meals and e-cards to make homebound seniormothers feel special (Mayor, 2006).MOWAA have several major constituents that donate funds to maintain theoperations of the organization. 1) Wal-Mart Foundation - MOWAA Building the FutureGrants Program, 2) We are Meals On Wheels National Multi-Media Public AwarenessCampaign, 3) Wal-Mart Foundation Institute for Senior Nutrition Education, and 4)MOWAA State-Affiliate Training Wheels Program. Homebound seniors can betterunderstand health information through health literacy, Rutgers University and theUniversity of Maryland has established food safety practices among both MOWprograms and homebound seniors. Feelgoodfood is an organization that provideshome-delivered meals and telephone reassurance to seniors upon their dischargefrom hospitals and other inpatient facilities, helping to substantially reduce post-discharge readmissions and other healthcare costs (Meals, 2012).Guidance of LeadershipThe fund raises is based on the Four Pillars of the MOWAA to eliminate senior hunger.The National Campaign for Community Impact helps member programs serve moremeals, maintain and repair needed equipment, allows seniors to live independently,in their own homes.MOWAA empowers leaders in the senior nutrition field with training, skills andknowledge. There are five critical training areas: nutrition, leadership, development,communication, and volunteer management. Money is still needed for the 11
  33. 33. educational purpose. The National Response conducts research and provides a betterunderstanding of the extent of senior hunger, identifying emerging trends and raisingawareness. The leadership believes in transparency and understands the important ofavoiding waste, and ensuring efficient and dedicated action (Meals, 2012). ReferencesMayors Unite Across the USA to Deliver Meals to Homebound Citizens; Mayors ForMeals Initiative to Raise Awareness of the Serious Problem of Senior Hunger inAmerica. PR Newswire, New York. March 22, 2006. Retrieved April 1, 2012 fromhttp://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/docview/451208604?accountid=7374Meals On Wheels Association of America (2012). Retrieved April 1, 2012 fromhttp://www.mowaa.org/page.aspx? pid=212 11
  34. 34. According to Meals On Wheels:The Meals On Wheels Association of America is the oldest andlargest national organization composed of and representinglocal, community-based Senior Nutrition Programs in all 50 U.S.states, as well as the U.S. Territories.All told, there are some 5,000 local Senior Nutrition Programsin the United States. These programs provide well over onemillion meals to seniors who need them each day. Someprograms serve meals at congregate locations like seniorcenters, some programs deliver meals directly to the homes ofseniors whose mobility is limited, and many programs provideboth services.While remarkable, the one million meals per day figureunderestimates the size and shape of our network and its reachand influence in communities across America. In addition tothe hundreds of thousands of seniors who receive meals, thereare many thousands of professionals employed at the variouslocal Senior Nutrition Programs across the U.S. More notablethan that is the virtual army of volunteers who also "work" forthese programs. It is said that this group, numbering between800,000 and 1.7 million individuals, is the largest volunteerarmy in the nation. 12
  35. 35. The PledgeA groundbreaking research study found that as of 2007, there were nearly 6 millionseniors facing the threat of hunger. Our goal is to match that number – with 6 millionpeople who are willing to stand up and take the Pledge to end senior hunger inAmerica by the year 2020.March For Meals & Mayors For MealsMarch For Meals is an annual national campaign, held in March of every year, anddesigned to increase public awareness, recruit new volunteers and increase fundingfor Members of MOWAA.The Rural InitiativeWhile Senior Nutrition Programs across the United States share problems common toall of them—such as a growing aging population and limited resources—SeniorNutrition Programs in rural areas face unique challenges such as time, distance, costand labor. ReferencesMayors Unite Across the USA to Deliver Meals to Homebound Citizens; Mayors ForMeals Initiative to Raise Awareness of the Serious Problem of Senior Hunger inAmerica. PR Newswire, New York. March 22, 2006. Retrieved April 1, 2012 fromhttp://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/docview/451208604?accountid=7374Meals On Wheels Association of America (2012). Retrieved April 1, 2012 fromhttp://www.mowaa.org/page.aspx? pid=212 12
  36. 36. According to Research, “The most important factors whenforming collaborations are partners with whom one sharesobjectives… having a personal relationship with the IT leader…having institutional missions that are like one’s own… and shareservices and development projects” (ECAR, 2007, p. 49).“Collaborations with shared objectives accepted by allparticipants enjoy more efficient decision making” (ECAR,2007, p. 49). ReferencesECAR Research Study. (2007). Forming and managingcollaborations. Educase Center for Applied Research. RetrievedApril 1, 2012 fromhttp://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ers0704/rs/ers07046.pdf 13
  37. 37. According to the ACGA website:The Mission of the American Community GardeningAssociation is to build community by increasing and enhancingcommunity gardening and greening across the United Statesand Canada.The American Community Gardening Association (ACGA) is abi-national nonprofit membership organization ofprofessionals, volunteers and supporters of communitygreening in urban and rural communities. The Associationrecognizes that community gardening improves people’squality of life by providing a catalyst for neighborhood andcommunity development, stimulating social interaction,encouraging self-reliance, beautifying neighborhoods,producing nutritious food, reducing family food budgets,conserving resources and creating opportunities for recreation,exercise, therapy and education.ACGA and its member organizations work to promote andsupport all aspects of community food and ornamentalgardening, urban forestry, preservation and management ofopen space, and integrated planning and management ofdeveloping urban and rural lands.The Association supports community gardening by facilitating14the formation and expansion of state and regional community
  38. 38. gardening networks; developing resources in support of community gardening; and,encouraging research and conducting educational programs. ReferencesACGA Website. Bringing People Together. Retrieved April 01, 2012 fromhttp://www.communitygarden.org/ 14
  39. 39. According to Local Harvest, “The best organic food is whatsgrown closest to you. Use our website to find farmers markets,family farms, and other sources of sustainably grown food inyour area, where you can buy produce, grass-fed meats, andmany other goodies. Want to support this great web site? Shopin our catalog for things you cant find locally!” ReferencesBringing People Together Retrieved April 01, 2012 fromhttp://www.localharvest.org/ 15
  40. 40. According to volunteer match:VolunteerMatch strengthens communities by making it easierfor good people and good causes to connect. The organizationoffers a variety of online services to support a community ofnonprofit, volunteer and business leaders committed to civicengagement. Our popular service welcomes millions of visitorsa year and has become the preferred internet recruiting toolfor more than 81,000 nonprofit organizations”Does Your Nonprofit Fight Hunger?With support from the Walmart Foundation, our new initiativeprovides free tools and trainings specifically for organizationsthat involve volunteers in the fight against hunger.Grow Your Employee Volunteer ProgramOur newest service, VolunteerMatch Consulting, helpscompanies of all sizes develop programs to successfully engagevolunteers. ReferencesBringing People Together Retrieved April 01, 2012 from 16http://www.volunteermatch.org/
  41. 41. Thank You from the LDR 625 M7 Red Team CLC! Danielle Crisp Marcie Jenkins-Williams Jody Martinez Mohamed Soliman 17