Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
  • Save
Slow mobility
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply
Published

2012 …

2012
By Geetam tiwari

Published in Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
3,515
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2

Actions

Shares
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Estimates for Delhi were based on less reliable evidence and were more uncertain than those for London.
  • At baseline travel patterns in Delhi are different from London, with less car use and more walking and cycling. People travel an average of 13 km by bike and 10 km on foot per week.
  • In a projection for 2030 there is a large increase in total travel including a large increase in car use and an increase in motor cycle and rail use. There is a fall in cycling and a small fall in walking.
  • In our active travel future there is no increase in car use but a large increase in cycling (33 km per person per week) and a smaller increase in walking (12 km per person per week).
  • These are the per capita carbon dioxide emissions from transport from the different futures. BAU is business as usual with no mitigation measures.
  • In Delhi as in London we found the biggest benefit from less heart disease (affected by both air pollution and physical activity) and stroke. But we also found fewer road traffic fatalities and important benefits from less diabetes and depression.
  • In Delhi as in London we found the biggest benefit from less heart disease (affected by both air pollution and physical activity) and stroke. But we also found fewer road traffic fatalities and important benefits from less diabetes and depression.
  • Photo: Dinesh Mohan
  • Photo: Ian Roberts

Transcript

  • 1. Reduction in trafficcongestion and Green Mobility for Delhi Geetam Tiwari Department of Civil Engineering &Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Program (TRIPP) Indian Institute of Technology Delhi(IITD) New Delhi, India
  • 2. Impact on Public Health of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Land Transport Based on :Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: urban land transport. Woodcock J, Edwards P, Tonne C. et al. The Lancet: Published Online November 25, 2009DOI:10.1016/S0140- 6736(09)61714-1 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. Possible Impact on CO2London (woodcock J et al, Lancet, 2009)Population London Delhi2006 = 7.5m2030 = 9.0mDelhiPopulation2004 = 14.8m2030 = 26.0m Aggregate Transport CO2 CO2 Emissions Aggregate Transport CO2 CO2 Emissions Transport CO2 Emissions Per Reduction on Transport CO2 Emissions Per Increase on Emissions Person (tCO2/ 1990 (%) Emissions Person (tCO2/ 1990 (%) person) person) (tonnes)2006 London 9,647,900 -2.50% 6,146,6512004 Delhi 1.3 0.4 97%2010 BAU 9,935,897 0% 8,268,298 1.3 0.5 165%2030 Scenario 10,381,318 4.80% 19,550,6931 BAU 1.2 0.8 526%2030 Scenario 6,480,565 -39% 17,069,6682 LCD 0.7 0.7 447%2030 Scenario 6,120,306 -43% 10,458,7363 AT 0.7 0.4 235%2030 Scenario 3,608,226 -65% 9,327,2074 ST 0.4 0.4 199%
  • 5. Possible scenarios for Delhi• Business as usual scenario: Projection of existing trends and no coherent strategy to reduce the increase in the use of cars, but includes an anticipated increase in rail use.• Lower-carbon-emitting vehicle scenario: This scenario relies on an ambitious implementation of vehicle technologies along with alternative fuel usage and represents an anticipated increase in rail use.• Increased active travel scenario (walk and cycle): In this scenario, a reversal of present trends is assumed with a small increase in the distance walked and more than double increase in distance cycled. It represents a large increase in rail use and small increase in bus use. Policy interventions include substantial investment in infrastructure designed for pedestrians and cyclists rather than for cars, carbon rationing, road pricing, traffic demand management, restrictions for car parking and access, reduced speed limits, and behavioral change approaches (e.g., raised awareness, travel planning).
  • 6. Possible scenario for Delhi . cont• Sustainable transport scenario: Included effects of the above two scenarios i.e. lower emissions from motorized vehicle and low car use from active travel scenario. Policy change would require high- intensity implementation and effectiveness of all measures. Further reduction could occur through use of electric vehicles with energy from low-carbon sources; shorter-distance trips; and continued shift from car use to walking or cycling.• Short distance active travel scenario: In this scenario, it is assumed that the same motor vehicle distances are travelled as in the sustainable transport scenario but only half the increase in distances walked and cycled. This scenario represents less travel and shorter travel distances than in the other scenarios.
  • 7. GHG from Transport modes• Collective modes of transport consume far less energy and generate fewer GHG emissions than private vehicles.• Vehicles powered by electricity and fuel cells tend to generate considerably fewer GHG emissions than those powered by internal combustion engines.• Small scooters and motorcycles have relatively low GHG emissions, comparable to rail transit and para-transit services.• Petrol tends to have the highest GHG emissions per km of the commonly used fuels. Natural gas tends to rank somewhat better, diesel even better and electricity best of all. The statement does not hold good if coal is used to produce electricity and in India approximately 53.3% of the power generation is by using coal (CEA 2009).• At present in Delhi, rail transit has comparatively lower load factors and buses are overloaded. Given the situation, GHG emissions per passenger-km will be comparatively lower for buses than rail transit.
  • 8. Delhi travel patterns 100 90 Baseline 80km per person per week 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Bus Motorcycle Car Bicycle Rail Walk 8
  • 9. Delhi travel patterns 100 90 Baseline 80km per person per week 2030: Lower Carbon Driving 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Bus Motorcycle Car Bicycle Rail Walk 9
  • 10. Delhi travel patterns 100 90 Baseline 80km per person per week 2030: Lower Carbon Driving 70 2030: Increased Active Travel 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Bus Motorcycle Car Bicycle Rail Walk 10
  • 11. Delhi CO2 emissions transport 0.80CO2 emissions: tonnes per person 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 2010 BAU Lower Carbon Active Travel Combination 11 Driving
  • 12. Delhi: Health impacts by cause Change in disease burden Change in premature deaths Ischaemic heart 11-25% 2490-7140 disease Cerebrovascular 11-25% 1270-3650 diseaseRoad traffic crashes 27-69% 1170-2990 Diabetes 6-17% 180-460 Depression 2-7% NA 12
  • 13. Delhi: Health impacts by cause Change in disease burden Change in premature deaths Ischaemic heart 11-25% 2490-7140 disease Cerebrovascular 11-25% 1270-3650 diseaseRoad traffic crashes 27-69% 1170-2990 Diabetes 6-17% 180-460 Depression 2-7% NA 13
  • 14. More cyclists: less danger but more casualties? 14
  • 15. Many cyclists: low danger and few casualties 15
  • 16. Bicycle lanes in DelhiSpecial lighting for NMV lanes
  • 17. Bus and Emergency vehicles out of congestion Car lanes congested Jakarta Delhi Bogota
  • 18. Policy implications• Plan to increase walking & cycling and reduce car use 18
  • 19. Policy implications• Plan to increase walking & cycling and reduce car use – Reallocate space from the car 19
  • 20. Policy implications• Plan to increase walking & cycling and reduce car use – Reallocate space from the car – Reduce speed of motor traffic 20
  • 21. Policy implications• Plan to increase walking & cycling and reduce car use – Reallocate space from the car – Reduce speed of motor traffic – Provide direct, safe, and pleasant routes for walking & cycling 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. 300 Kms of Metro 2021
  • 24. Rickshaw as feeder mode for 30% metro trips10 km decrease in vehicular speeds, ~ 25% increase in metroridershipROAD CONGESTION IS GOOD FOR METRO
  • 25. Estimated PT trips• 3 to 4.3 million trips per day (15 to 23% of the total vehicular trips).• 26 to 38% trips feasible only if rickshaw is available for access and/or egress trips. 31 to 38% trips dependent on bus for feeder trips.• 70% PT trips will be on buses.• 35 to 37% metro trips depend on walking while in case of bus, 75% bus trips are dependent on walking. PT is dependent on NMVs
  • 26. Urban poor in Delhi Symbiosis between formal~90% people are employed in and informal sectorsunorganised sector( 2002)48% unorganised sector isdependent on “own business”-vendors etc.50% women have daily wagejobsWomen are either domesticworkers, self employed, orstreet vendors.52% women walk to workWomen have longer work daysthan men
  • 27. Identification of Informal Land Use School Complex Guess what’s this?Residential Area Office Complex
  • 28. Travel patterns of Urban poor andothers (Delhi 2001) Bus, twheelers and cars Bicycle, Bus, walk
  • 29. Activities Low Income Informal Neighborhood • Self planned • Land squatting • Proximity to formal sector • Travel not mere means but as part of activity
  • 30. Characteristics of Informal settlements (Urban Poor)• Location – wrt access to employment(formal and informal)• Activity Planning – Combining production and consumption activities• Space usage – High intensity of space usage through multiple use
  • 31. Large numer of people relocated for metroand other development projectsConverting walkingtrips tp motorisedtrips-buses, RTVs, LCVsLong cycling trips Time poverty of women increases Opportunity for “self employed” business reduces
  • 32. •Rehabilitation of slums results in converting nmv trips to mv trips Distance to main road after relocation 3000 • avg. distance to main road 2500 before relocation< .5 km. 2000 Distance (mts) •avg. distance to main road after Original 1500 relocation>2 kmn Relocated 1000 500 Distance to bus-stop after relocation 0 1500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Site Numbers 1250 •Avg. distance to bus stop 200Distance (mts) 1000 750 Original m before relocation Relocated 500 •Avg. distance to bus stop 1 km after relocation 250 0 •Minimum distance to bus stop 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 before 10m, after 1km Site Numbers
  • 33. Inclusive rd section: Bus, bicycle, three wheelers, street vendors A.N.Junction , Delhi, 2008 2 bus platforms (near side of junction) capacity:TU of 10 vehicles,at grade crossing Line capacity: 9000 prs/h Peak demand: 6000 prs/h
  • 34. Design of street vendors• Street vendors spaces defined by benches and bollards located outside pedestrian path and cycle track
  • 35. Pro poor trasnport possible:Bicycle lanes, pedestrian paths IIT Delhi January 08
  • 36. Conclusions• Replacing motor vehicle trips with walking or cycling is a win-win in both developed & developing countries• Pedestrians and cyclists have the right to direct, pleasant and safe routes• Restrict motor vehicles:– speed, road space and convenience 37