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  • 1. Ways to Study lecture 04Evaluating and programming
  • 2. Ways to study andresearchurban, architectural and technicaldesignProf.dr.ir. A.C.J.M. EekhoutProf.dr.ir. T. M. de JongDr. D.J.M. van der Voordt
  • 3. CONTENTS Introduction A.Naming and describingchapters to discuss B.Design research and typology C.Evaluating D.Modeling E.Programming and optimizing F.Technical Study G.Design Study A. Naming and describing H.Study by design 1. Criteria for scientific research and design Epilogue E. Programming and optimizing 27. Programming of buildings 31. Designing a city hall C. Evaluating 7. Ex post evaluation of buildings 20. Evaluating prototypes
  • 4. FunctionalityAccess / ParkingAccessibilityEffectiveness / EfficiencySecurity (ergonomic, social)Spatial orientationPrivacy and social contactIdentityphysical well-being (light, sound, heat, humidity)Future Value - flexibilityAesthetic requirementsImage qualityOrder and complexityRepresentativenessMeaning GrantCultural and Historical ValueTechnical aspects Fire Safety Structural Safety Building Physical quality Environmental Awareness and SustainabilityEconomic & Legal AspectsInvestment and operating costsTime InvestmentPublic and private regulations
  • 5. Initiatief the traditional building cycle ProgrammaPre-design research Ontwerp Plananalyse Uitvoering Post-Occupancy Evaluation Gebruik en beheer
  • 6. Scientific approach to designing Art Designing Research Scienceintuitive design - research by design - designing research design research typological research (empirical) research in favor of designing
  • 7. Designing with or without research - Own experiences - Own Imagination - Inspiring examples (precedents) - Application of results from research - research into user needs and satisfaction - size studies - plan descriptions and analysis plan (precedents) - Thematic studies e.g. flexibility, physical access, social security, sustainable building - Own research (investigating, searching, researching)
  • 8. Research Generating knowledge through: - Reflection, idea development, design studies, forming of hypothesis - Literature Study - Analysis of existing data (e.g. CBS)* - Collecting, processing and analyzing of empirical data through interviews, surveys, observations, experiments, study of documents, etc. *http://www.cbs.nl/en-GB/menu/organisatie/organisatie/internationale-samenwerking/int-perspectief.htm?Languageswitch=on
  • 9. Searching and Investigating - How large are the classrooms in school X? - How big should a classroom be, according to book Y? - How many toilets are there in theater X? - How many m2 does our neighborhood library has? - What kinds of education can be distinguished and what is the relationship between the type of education and housing? - What factors determine the size of a classroom? - What is a good method to determine this? - What factors determine the number of toilets in a public building? - Is there a method to determine the required number m2 for a neighborhood library? - Sources: literature, websites, empirical research
  • 10. Science ordered unity of the knowledge and the rules, laws, theories, hypotheses and systems with which further knowledge can be acquiredScientific in accordance with the requirements or rules of science
  • 11. Criteria for scientific research Science equals any collection of statements that features a reliable relationship to reality, a valid mutual relationship and a critical potential with regard to other statements in the same domain. - Methodical approach - Objectivity - Controllability - Validity - Reliability - Social relevance - Scientific relevance
  • 12. Project dependent research Context Dependent (place, time, local conditions)Project independent research Generic knowledge, as much as possible independently of the particular context or with a clear picture of context-sensitive factors
  • 13. Objectives of project dependent research before (ex ante) and afterwards (ex post) - Making reasoned and founded choices in programs of requirement and designs - Seeking optimal balance between conflicting requirements - Reviewing alternatives on expenses and quality - Determining whether objectives have been met - Identifying unintended and unforeseen effects - Starting points for a plan of improvement
  • 14. Findeisen & Quade (1985) The methodology of systems analysis Reviewing Designing andFormulation of Predicting of Choosing the screening of the problem effects best solution alternatives Initiative Goals Preconditions Interest (Criteria) Developing
  • 15. Objectives of project independent research before (ex ante) and afterwards (ex post) - Theory formation (product and process oriented) - Instrument development (tools) - Design Guidelines - Policy Recommendations - Database of reference projects (documentation - Analysis - Evaluation) - Research Methodological lessons
  • 16. a design Research flowchart Initiative Use andmanagement Program Execution Design
  • 17. The Program of Demands [PoD] Listing of quantitative and qualitative requirements and constraints to which a accommodation solution should meet. Ordered set of data on the accommodation needs of an organization and the performance required on the location, building, premises, building parts and facilities in the building and on the site.
  • 18. Functions of the PoD - Reflection on the accommodation task and the design assignment - Information and communications between the parties - Assessment tool - Budget Determination - Contract Formation
  • 19. Development of a PoD Static or Dynamic?
  • 20. Interaction between program and plan development
  • 21. Designing a City Hall - Weeber* Study of context“My design started with an extensive study of thelocation and the program of requirements”* Carel Weeber, Dutch architect (1937 -)
  • 22. Designing a City Hall - Weeber Summary program of requirements Relation schema + valuation determining the relations between parts and “I am learning it already by heart”. characterizing them
  • 23. Designing a City Hall - Weeber Scale relation study “I study possible organizations for the building and proportions of the parts of the building.” ”Guided by the program of requirements and the relational schema I determine the total concept. I am looking first to what I’ve got in hand. How much office surface is required? Is it an office with additional functions or is it a hall with offices?” “What the study of the program of requirements has yielded as a whole is placed in the context in terms of urban architecture. This will result in morphological requirements for the surroundings.“
  • 24. Designing a City Hall - Weeber Test of form Loose sketch Cross-section Study of the front
  • 25. Designing a City Hall - Weeber Design study for a library Adding functions: a library and some homes. No further study of a program of requirements for the homes was necessary: a house is a house” Final drawing
  • 26. Contents of a PoD
  • 27. recommended literatureWijk, M. (2004) Bouwstenen, gids bij het maken van een programma van eisen (Rotterdam) SBR
  • 28. Contents of a PoD 01 User demands - Principles, objectives, mission of the organization - Organizational (organigram) - Employees number part-time/full-time functions / disciplines relationships - Work processes (activities) primary and secondary processes, coherence and logistics (persons, goods), communication, concentration, individual / collective; privacy / social contact, internally and externally; representativeness prospects (trends, scenarios)
  • 29. Example of a company analysis
  • 30. Contents of a PoD 02 Functions and Performance Site - classification (layout) and internal design m2/room (functionally useful) supplement for circulation space additional space facilities construction relationships between spaces equipment & services (water, electricity, cabling) fixed furniture - supporting structure (flexibility!) - outer Skin (wall, floor, roof) - ducts and installations
  • 31. Contents of a PoD 02 Functions and Performance Functionality - space in m2 (site, building, workplace) - relationships separation / connection zoning compartmentation - use of space Mono / multifunctional individual / joint - general conditions accessibility security changeability (internal and external) identity/representation orientational convenience [sun/shadow] durability/sustainability
  • 32. Contents of a PoD 02 Functions and Performance Physical Conditions - thermal comfort temperature, air quality, radiation - visual comfort view, daylight, artificial light - acoustic comfort noise, acoustics etc. - safety Safety in use (use loads, ergonomics) Social security (i.e. intrusion security) Calamities i.e. fire (escape routes etc.) Operational safety (facilities) etc. Hazardous substances
  • 33. Contents of a PoD 02 Example 1: PoD of a building - Floor area 5100 m2 RFA*; max 6000 m2 GFA** - Proper recognizability of the organization - Representative, luxury entrance - Accessible to everyone, including people with disabilities - Central hall with reception - Sufficient lifts (maximum 1 minute delay) - Separate delivery entrance - Adaptability by layout flexibility (carrier / installation, grid size), expandability, multi-functionality of space, divisible into wings with private sanitary (part rentability) - Innovative office concept, fixed work stations secretary - Finishing and furnishing sober and practical * Rentable Floor Area ** Gross Floor Area
  • 34. Contents of a PoD 02 Example 2: PoD of a building PoD of an office building 200pp 175 flexible workplaces 2100m2 NFA* cockpits, etc. 200 m2 meeting rooms and reception areas 200 m2 restaurant 250 m2 service area (pantries, repro) 100 m2 Mailroom 35 m2 Library 35 m2 Archive 100 m2 storage room 30 m2 FNO Total 3050 m2 NFA* Supplement Factor GFA / FNO 1.6 Total GFA 4880 m2 GFA** * Net Floor Area ** Gross Floor Area
  • 35. Source: G. Streng en F. Vehoeven (1990), Programma van eisen huisvesting consumentenbond. Graduation thesisExample of a space-relation scheme
  • 36. Source: Grootenhuis (2002)Stadhuis Alphen aan den Rijn
  • 37. Contents of a PoD 03 Image Expectations - Cultural values For example socio-cultural - Representative character of the location architectural (modern, commercial) urban design - Modern architecture landscape - High quality of the facade (beautiful, durable materials) - Identity - Possibility of commercial expressions recognizability - Hal spacious and luxurious, high quality representativeness finishes (e.g. marble) - Interior furnishing according to own design line - Experiential value aesthetics design
  • 38. Contents of a PoD 04 Internal requirements and preconditions - Cost / budget - meet demands Sustainable Building investment operating costs - Safety burglary NEN 5088 - time - Gross initial yield at least 8% duration completion date - Rent max 275, -/m2 VVO service life - Completion not later than November 1 - working conditions on site during use - environment energy materials
  • 39. Contents of a PoD 05 External requirements and preconditions - Legislation - Funding Building Act grants Health and Safety Act environmental legislation fire security legislation zoning conservation area e.g. maximum height 40 m - Technical conditions shape m2 access site soil traffic / public transport utilities, water boards
  • 40. References - Existing PoD’s - Needs, wishes and preferences of clients, users and visitors (through direct participation / indirectly through research) - Experiences of building managers (idem) - Views of experts (designers, consultants, critics) (idem) - Guidelines and recommendations from the literature - Results from evaluation - Norms (NEN standards, quality marks) - Laws and legislation (Building Act, Health, private regulation) - Function analysis - Visit similar projects - Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE)
  • 41. Example of spatialstudy
  • 42. Example spatial studyGovernment BuildingsDepartment
  • 43. Example spatial studyGovernment BuildingsDepartment
  • 44. Real Estate Facts & Figures Key Figures m2 - Space per employee 25 to 30 m2 GFA - depending on business type - Surface per FTE 15-18 m2 NFA, 21-25 m2 per workstation RFA - GFA / NFA 1.5 - 1.7; NFA / GFA 0.58 - 0.67 - GFA / RFA 1.16 - 1.21; RFA / GFA 0.83 - 0.86 - Number of parking lots - A location: 10/100 Randstad employees; elsewhere 20/100 - B location: Randstad 20/100 workers; elsewhere 40/100 - Elsewhere, 1 or 2 / 100 m2 GFA - Reduction factor for easy access public and private transport
  • 45. Example from:Wijk, M. (2004) Bouwstenen, gids bijhet maken van een programma vaneisen (Rotterdam) SBR
  • 46. Evaluating - to value, determining what something is worth - Scientifically assess the content, implementation and effects of an intervention on the basis of certain criteria or objectives [side effects?] Forms - Ex ante versus ex post - Product oriented or process oriented - Integral or selective
  • 47. Evaluating Research Design Dynamic Evaluation Office Haarlem T0 T1 T2 Old Experiment New office innovation Control Control Control T0 no change T1 T2
  • 48. Exploration of ideas - review of literature - experts’ interviews - site visits Comparative Building Performance floor plan analysis Evaluation: on similarities - questionnaires and dissimilarities - interviews - observation etc. Typology of different solutions with pros and cons for quality and costsDescription and analysis Evaluation
  • 49. Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE)Health centre Leiden
  • 50. Spatial-Functional analysis of aconsultation bureau
  • 51. Prisons cost and quality of alternative types
  • 52. Decision points for evaluating - Which aspects (what to measure, what criteria) - What objects (selected cases) - How to measure - How to value - How important are (prioritizing) - How to analyze data - How to apply / implement
  • 53. Functional evaluation aspects - Access and parking facilities - Accessibility - Effectiveness / efficiency - Safety (ergonomic, social) - Spatial orientation - Territoriality, privacy and social contact, identity - Physical wellbeing (light, acoustics, heat, drafts, humidity) - Future Value - Agility / Flexibility
  • 54. Aesthetic evaluation aspects - Order and complexity - Representativeness - Significance Grant (symbolism, semiotics) - Cultural historical Value - Image quality
  • 55. Aesthetic evaluation aspects Criteria for architectural quality - Order and complexity: clearly readable and fascinating - Clear distinction between public - private - Appropriate use of architectural tools such as color, material, texture, light - Interesting symbolism and signification (expressiveness) - Clear relationship between form and function - Contribution to quality of public space
  • 56. Technical/Economical evaluation aspects Technical aspects - Fire Safety - Structural Safety - Building physical quality - Environmental awareness and sustainability Economic and legal aspects - Investment and Operating expenses - Time Investment - Public and private legislation
  • 57. How to measure? - Own observations - studying papers (literature, maps, archival records) - Ask methods (survey, interview) - Measuring using Devices
  • 58. How to value? Quality References - Existing PoD’s - Needs, wishes and preferences of clients, users and visitors (through direct participation / indirectly through research) - Experiences of building managers (idem) - Views of experts (designers, consultants, critics) (idem) - Guidelines and recommendations from the literature - Results from evaluation - Norms (NEN standards, quality marks) - Laws and legislation (Building Act, Health, private regulation) - Function analysis - Visit similar projects - Post-Occupancy Evaluation (POE)
  • 59. Example Real Estate Standard Access for trucks and passenger cars: - Distance to nearest highway - Distance to nearest highway junction - Traffic Flow / obstacles - Connecting type plot - Highway Quality classes e.g. - A = 500 m or more - 2 = 300-500 - 3 = 200 to 300 - 4 = 100 to 200 - 5 = less than 100 m
  • 60. Recommendations - support your program and design choices to your (outcomes of) research - test your design in various stages to your (results from) research - remember that research does not interfere with your creativity, but could provide a good balance between reason and emotion, between head and heart, between art and science
  • 61. Semester 2 building and materialization Central theme Subject in Semester 2 is the design and the materialization of a small public building in an urban context. The program is extremely simple in organization and relations. The emphasis is on the most fundamental qualities of a designed space in relation to materialization and realization. Objectives The main learning objectives of the semester builds forth on that of the first semester and provide further guidance on the architecture. The level of units of study “Design, Media Concepts” is widening. The contents of the unit of Construction, Building Physics and Structural Design is a partly broadening and partly introductory course. New in the semester is the educational unit of Real Estate & Housing, which included the building and construction law subjects. The level is introductory. A student who has completed the second semester has a basic level of a summary of all important aspects of the design. In addition, the student based on level understanding of various aspects of the building.
  • 62. Semester 2 main objectives - the student can engineering issues in a methodical and systematic investigations - the student architectural precedents in their various aspects analysis (program, context, type, composition, construction) - the student with the architectural concepts of architectural idea of a argue methodically building design - students may combine the knowledge and use of resources compositional architecture of a building design - the student the basics of materials science, building physics (light and thermal environment) and support structures to apply a building design - the student can describe different phases in the building while the actors, their activities and control options and products name and confront.
  • 63. Semester 2 program outline - The "climate machine", a greenhouse in the botanical gardens of Leiden, the final product of the design task, is an integration of spatial, constructive and building technical design. - Learning to design is also done in this semester in the “Integrated Design Project”. It involves both the conceptualization of the assignment as to the materialization and further elaboration. - The building has three different climate zones. At the start of each semester is an modified assignment isposted on the Blackboard Course. - The project is a simulation of a (small) design project in practice. - It reviews the technique of building. Supporting structures, separating constructions and finishing make the design to building. These have a major impact on cost, durability, maintenance and appearance. - Lastly, the building process gets a central place.