Ways to Study 2: concepts, types, models and programs
Ways to Study lecture 02Concepts, types, models
the bookVan der Voordt & Jong (2002) Ways to Study CONTENTS Introduction A.Naming and describing Empirical research B.Design research and typology C.Evaluating D.Modeling E.Programming and optimizing F.Technical Study G.Design Study H.Study by design Epilogue Study by design determined variable OBJECT determined design research design study variable typological research study by design CONTEXT
assignments 9-12 Publish on your website: 9. types useful for design your comparison could produce; 10. design concepts you could derive from the objects you published; 11. models you could make of the objects you published; 12. programs you can read from the published images;
Concept, type, model, program? Found by Tzonis (1999) figure 42 on page 89
Concept(ion) and typeA concept(ion):• has no form;• is a theme transferable to others;• it organizes design choices;• it is transferable in words, schemes and reference images;• it pervades a design into the details.
Examples of concepts Le Corbusier, sketch of the concept of his ‘Unité’ MVRDV, scheme of the concept for admission lodges on the ‘Hoge Veluwe’. ‘Transform the same type in brick, steel and wood.’
Types• Blue houses are a category• Cubic houses are a category• Blue, cubic houses are a type• A type combines incomparable categories, like form and color,• or beautiful, sturdy and useful.
Typical theaters prototype typeSemper, Bayreuth Scala, Milan Rossi, Genua OMA, The Hague
Are types models?• Are types and concept(ion)s on their way to become a design also models?• Klaasen (2002): ‘Yes!’• Quatremère de Quincy (1890?): ‘No! A type cannot be copied or realized as a model can.’• Leupen (Chapter 13): a type has to be transformed into a model by design to get the possibility to be realized.• A concept can not be realized either before it is elaborated: it only organises design choices.
Are models types?• There are types of models, but are there models of types?• Is any transferable idea a model?• A type can be transferred in words or a diagram.• Leupen (Ch. 13): Types should be transformed into models by design.
Verbal models‘Topfloor without Bottomfloor…‘Topfloor and Bottomfloor…‘Topfloor…‘Bottomfloor without Topfloor…‘Only Topfloor or Bottomfloor…‘Bottomfloor…‘Topfloor or Bottomfloor…‘Not Bottomfloor……‘If Topfloor than Bottomfloor… is closed.
Weeber designing a City Hall Van der Voordt & Jong (2002) Ways to Study, Chapter 31Introduction Design ProcessThis is the report of a design process of CarelWeeber for a new City Hall in the town of Berkel enRodenrijs. Each illustration indicates an importantstep in the design process.In my design process, the working out ofassociations and design ideas is taking place in myhead, in my memory. This may be done everywhereand at any time. I investigate an idea like that smallsketches. As I grow older, I am in need of fewersketches. Now that I am working exclusively on thecomputer, these sketches are at the same time thestart of a process of elaboration.Previously, I started with a drawing in ink in the top-left corner; a few days later I would finish in thecorner right-below. If that didn’t come off well, Istarted anew. I was taught to do so at the TechnicalUniversity of Delft; and basically this is still the wayin which I work. Study of context As the first study the context in terms of urban architecture
Weeber program first, relations Summary program of requirements Relation schema + valuationAlong with the situation I study the program of requirements A next step consists in determining the relations betweenextensively. I always make a summary of it; I am learning it parts and characterizing them.already by heart.
Weeber typing, concept and context Scale relation study I study possible organisations for the building and proportions of the parts of the building. Typing Urban contextGuided by the program of requirements and the relational schema I What the study of the program of requirements has yielded as a wholedetermine the total concept. I am looking first to what I’ve got in is placed in the context in terms of urban architecture. This will resulthand. How much office surface is required? Is it an office with in morphological requirements for the surroundings. In a small sketchadditional functions or is it a hall with offices? in perspective I look whether something can be made of this.
Weeber sketch and measures Test of form Loose sketch Cross-sectionFollowing this, the elaboration in floor-plans and cross-sections Sketch with a rulerstarts. I consider it to be very important that this is directly done inthe right proportion and scaling. These small sketches are acting asa further elaboration of the design ideas in my head.
Weeber front, 3D, alternative concepts Study of the frontNext I study color and texture of the front. Any number of these modest studies isbeing made. If I run into something of importance, I just make a note. Spatial sketch Different design idea A spatial sketch to look again whether it is any good. While studying a detail of the building, a different design idea emerged: some upturned halved spheres are forming corridors trough the space they are leaving open. A nice idea, a kind of fascination; something for a next design.
Weeber context, come-back, adding Come-back of an idea On the corner of the page the other design theme is returning. Maybe I saw in this also a solution; or maybe I was uncertain about the solution on which I was working; or maybe I just had fallen in love with this idea. Context Adding functionsStudy of the adaptation in the urban context, as far as entrance and It was permitted to add a few programmatic components. I added some homesaccessibility are concerned. and a library. Obviously, no further study of a programme of requirements for the homes was necessary: a house is a house.
Weeber extending the program Library studyA simple design study for the library. The envelope for it hailed backto the design of the city hall. For the rest it was matter of connectingwith the program here. I have partitioned it in segments precedingthe fitting in with the program.
Weeber final drawings, evaluation Looking Back Is this report of sketching happening in your head? This is no report of sketching but an elaborate program of requirements study; I am doing this for each design. You are unleashing your design idea on the urban context. Is this a characteristic approach? Yes, the program of requirements is providing a box of building blocks reacting to the location. What is making for the initial inspiration? My most important source of inspiration lies in a deadline. The approaching moment of presentation coerces the making of choices. A deadline is forcing the idea; for that I am not in need of flowers or things like that. It is just hard work. While your designing experience is growing, you are putting greater confidence in your intuition. I panicked only once in relation to the enduring absence of a design idea; in my time as a student. That proved to be also the last time. I have learned to take trust in the circumstance that design inspirations are coming by themselves. In addition I have learned that designing is just working hard. Final drawings Etc.During the production of the presentation drawings, I work with a pencil and a pen inhand. In the way I work, I calculate before I draw; so there is not much going wrong. Inaddition you see, before you start with ink, already while drawing the auxiliary lines,whether something is going wrong or right. My sketches are illegible and introverted.Designing this way is individual.