Sun, Wind, Water, Earth, Life, Living: 3a traffic

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  • 1. Sun wind water traffic earth life living, legends for design AR2U070 Territory (design) 5ECTSAR0112 Civil engineering for dummies (calculations) 2ECTS Prof.dr.ir. Taeke M. de Jong Prof.dr.ir. C. van den Akker Ir. D. de Bruin Drs. M.J. Moens Prof.dr.ir. C.M. Steenbergen Ir. M.W.M. van den Toorn
  • 2. Wet networks
  • 3. Distance between trenchesThe necessary distance L between smallest ditches or drain pipesis determined by precipation q [m/24h], the maximally acceptedheight h [m] of ground water above drainage basis between drainsand by soil characteristics. Soil is characterised by its permeabilityk [m/24h]. A simple formula is L=2√(2kh/q).
  • 4. Calculating the distance
  • 5. Wet network density by soil d(k,N,h)=250√(2N/kh) km/km2
  • 6. Two networks
  • 7. Names of networks
  • 8. Nominal hierarchy wet connections
  • 9. Nominal hierarchy dry connections
  • 10. The formation of right anglesLength (L) and width (W) of the mesh for agiven net density of (D=2)
  • 11. Superposition of networks
  • 12. Interference of networks
  • 13. Crossings
  • 14. Wet and dry crossings
  • 15. Rivers, canals and brooks
  • 16. Superposition races
  • 17. Interference with highways
  • 18. Interference highways and railways
  • 19. The same kind and level
  • 20. Limitating crossing movements
  • 21. T-crossings in Zoetermeer
  • 22. T-crossings in Meerzicht
  • 23. Crossings of the same kind and different level
  • 24. Tunnels and slopes
  • 25. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tension beam bridge (balk- of suspension bridge (hangbrug)arch bridge (boogbrug) liggerbrug) anchorage block (ankerblok)approach ramp(aanbrug abutment (landhoofd) suspension cable (hangkabel)thrust (horizontale druk) overpass, underpass suspender (hanger)deck (rijvloer) (bovenkruising, deck (rijvloer)trussed arch with upper onderdoorgang) center spanand lower chord deck (brugdek) (middenoverspanning)(vakwerkboog boog met continuous beam tower (toren)boven- en onderrrand) (doorgaande ligger) side span (zijoverspanning)abutment (landhoofd) pier (pijler) abutment (landhoofd) parapet (leuning)
  • 26. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tension trough arch bridge multiple span beam fan cable stayed (boogbrug met bridge (balk- of bridge (waaiertuibrug) laaggelegen liggerbrug met meer cable stay anchorage rijvloer) overspanningen) (tuiverankering)
  • 27. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tensionhalf-through arch viaduct harp cable stayedbridge (boogbrug bridgemet tussengelegen (harptuibrug)rijvloer)
  • 28. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tensiondeck arch bridge cantilever bridge transporter(boogbrug met (kraagliggerbrug, bridgehooggelegen cantileverbrug) (zweefbrug)rijvloer) suspended span trolley (wagen) (zwevend brugdeel) platform cantilever span (platform) (uitkragende zijoverspanning)
  • 29. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tensionfixed two-hinged single-leaf bascule lift bridge (hefbrug)three-hinged arch bridge (enkele guiding tower(ingeklemde, basculebrug) (heftoren)tweescharnier~, counterweightdriescharnierboog) lift span (val) (contragewicht
  • 30. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tensionportal bridge double-leaf floating bridge(schoorbrug) bascule bridge (pontonbrug) (dubbeleportal frame manrope basculebrug)(portaal) (mantouw)pier (pijler) pontoon (ponton)
  • 31. BridgesBailey bridge (baileybrug)swing bridge (draaibrug)
  • 32. Crossings of different kind and level
  • 33. Count your crossings (costs)
  • 34. Measures in traffic Design measures are deduced from the dispersion of actual measures.Normally the 5% largest measures are left aside for design (95 percentile). Dispersion of real car Dispersion of the width of widths in 2004; parking places in 1980; 95 95 percentile is 1.80m percentile is 2.50m
  • 35. A sidewalk tile as measure of reference
  • 36. Primary profile spaces neededPedestrian Cyclist Car 30 km/h Bus 50 km/h50 + 2 x 5 ≅ 75 + 2 x 15 ≅ 200 + 2 x 15 ≅ 255 +2 x 25≅ 60 cm 100 cm 230 cm 300 cm
  • 37. A residential street2.5 + 2 + 2.5 + 6 + 2.5 + 2 + 2.5 = 20m
  • 38. Roadhierarchy
  • 39. Profiles
  • 40. A road hierarchy
  • 41. The urban area around Dordrecht
  • 42. Papendrecht detail
  • 43. A central Dordrecht detail
  • 44. Dordrecht some 350 years ago
  • 45. Managing surface
  • 46. 30x30
  • 47. 30x60 W-E mirroring
  • 48. 60x30m N-S Turning and multiplying
  • 49. 60x30m N-S mirroring
  • 50. 60x30m elongating
  • 51. 60x60m mirroring
  • 52. 60x30m L-shape
  • 53. 60x60m U-shape
  • 54. 90x60m Closing
  • 55. Elongating and adapting 100x60m
  • 56. A neighbourhood, multiplying Fig. 16
  • 57. Saving pavement ensemble
  • 58. Saving pavement neighbourhood
  • 59. Saving pavement district
  • 60. District grids
  • 61. Cerda
  • 62. 20, 30, 40, 50m 50
  • 63. Cerda (1867) and Buchanon (1963) The same neigbourhood size
  • 64. Buchanan (1963)
  • 65. Buchanan (1963)
  • 66. Buchanan (1963)
  • 67. Buchanan (1963)A hexagonal pattern (Figure 12) is very efficient, with economical three-wayintersections, but other polygonal patterns are possible. A rectangular patternrequires very complex intersections.…The function of the distributory network is to canalize the longer movements fromlocality to locality.…This means that they cannot also be used for giving direct access to buildings, oreven to minor roads serving the buildings, because the consequent frequentjunctions would be dangerous and make the road inefficient.It is therefore necessary to introduce the idea of a hierarchy of distributors,whereby important distributors feed down through distributors of lesser category tothe minor roads which give access to the buildings [13].The system may be likened to the trunk, limbs, branches, and finally the twigs(corresponding to the access roads) of a tree. Basically, however, there are onlytwo kinds of road - distributors designed for movement, and access roads to servethe buildings.
  • 68. Grid flexibility (Bach)
  • 69. Grid flexibility (Bach) Dutch appointments ‘Duurzaam Veilig’
  • 70. Regional networks
  • 71. Network types1km 3km 10km 300m-10km
  • 72. Care for pedestrians is the core of urban design
  • 73. PedestriansReichow: car first Runcorn: Pedestrian first
  • 74. Pedestrians in residential area
  • 75. Radials for pedestrians and cyclists
  • 76. Railway stations
  • 77. Bus stations
  • 78. Bus routes
  • 79. Bach’s bus stop
  • 80. Bus stops