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# Sun, Wind, Water, Earth, Life, Living: 3a traffic

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### Sun, Wind, Water, Earth, Life, Living: 3a traffic

1. 1. Sun wind water traffic earth life living, legends for design AR2U070 Territory (design) 5ECTSAR0112 Civil engineering for dummies (calculations) 2ECTS Prof.dr.ir. Taeke M. de Jong Prof.dr.ir. C. van den Akker Ir. D. de Bruin Drs. M.J. Moens Prof.dr.ir. C.M. Steenbergen Ir. M.W.M. van den Toorn
2. 2. Wet networks
3. 3. Distance between trenchesThe necessary distance L between smallest ditches or drain pipesis determined by precipation q [m/24h], the maximally acceptedheight h [m] of ground water above drainage basis between drainsand by soil characteristics. Soil is characterised by its permeabilityk [m/24h]. A simple formula is L=2√(2kh/q).
4. 4. Calculating the distance
5. 5. Wet network density by soil d(k,N,h)=250√(2N/kh) km/km2
6. 6. Two networks
7. 7. Names of networks
8. 8. Nominal hierarchy wet connections
9. 9. Nominal hierarchy dry connections
10. 10. The formation of right anglesLength (L) and width (W) of the mesh for agiven net density of (D=2)
11. 11. Superposition of networks
12. 12. Interference of networks
13. 13. Crossings
14. 14. Wet and dry crossings
15. 15. Rivers, canals and brooks
16. 16. Superposition races
17. 17. Interference with highways
18. 18. Interference highways and railways
19. 19. The same kind and level
20. 20. Limitating crossing movements
21. 21. T-crossings in Zoetermeer
22. 22. T-crossings in Meerzicht
23. 23. Crossings of the same kind and different level
24. 24. Tunnels and slopes
25. 25. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tension beam bridge (balk- of suspension bridge (hangbrug)arch bridge (boogbrug) liggerbrug) anchorage block (ankerblok)approach ramp(aanbrug abutment (landhoofd) suspension cable (hangkabel)thrust (horizontale druk) overpass, underpass suspender (hanger)deck (rijvloer) (bovenkruising, deck (rijvloer)trussed arch with upper onderdoorgang) center spanand lower chord deck (brugdek) (middenoverspanning)(vakwerkboog boog met continuous beam tower (toren)boven- en onderrrand) (doorgaande ligger) side span (zijoverspanning)abutment (landhoofd) pier (pijler) abutment (landhoofd) parapet (leuning)
26. 26. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tension trough arch bridge multiple span beam fan cable stayed (boogbrug met bridge (balk- of bridge (waaiertuibrug) laaggelegen liggerbrug met meer cable stay anchorage rijvloer) overspanningen) (tuiverankering)
27. 27. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tensionhalf-through arch viaduct harp cable stayedbridge (boogbrug bridgemet tussengelegen (harptuibrug)rijvloer)
28. 28. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tensiondeck arch bridge cantilever bridge transporter(boogbrug met (kraagliggerbrug, bridgehooggelegen cantileverbrug) (zweefbrug)rijvloer) suspended span trolley (wagen) (zwevend brugdeel) platform cantilever span (platform) (uitkragende zijoverspanning)
29. 29. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tensionfixed two-hinged single-leaf bascule lift bridge (hefbrug)three-hinged arch bridge (enkele guiding tower(ingeklemde, basculebrug) (heftoren)tweescharnier~, counterweightdriescharnierboog) lift span (val) (contragewicht
30. 30. Bridgesbased on pressure or on tensionportal bridge double-leaf floating bridge(schoorbrug) bascule bridge (pontonbrug) (dubbeleportal frame manrope basculebrug)(portaal) (mantouw)pier (pijler) pontoon (ponton)
31. 31. BridgesBailey bridge (baileybrug)swing bridge (draaibrug)
32. 32. Crossings of different kind and level
33. 33. Count your crossings (costs)
34. 34. Measures in traffic Design measures are deduced from the dispersion of actual measures.Normally the 5% largest measures are left aside for design (95 percentile). Dispersion of real car Dispersion of the width of widths in 2004; parking places in 1980; 95 95 percentile is 1.80m percentile is 2.50m
35. 35. A sidewalk tile as measure of reference
36. 36. Primary profile spaces neededPedestrian Cyclist Car 30 km/h Bus 50 km/h50 + 2 x 5 ≅ 75 + 2 x 15 ≅ 200 + 2 x 15 ≅ 255 +2 x 25≅ 60 cm 100 cm 230 cm 300 cm
37. 37. A residential street2.5 + 2 + 2.5 + 6 + 2.5 + 2 + 2.5 = 20m
38. 38. Roadhierarchy
39. 39. Profiles
40. 40. A road hierarchy
41. 41. The urban area around Dordrecht
42. 42. Papendrecht detail
43. 43. A central Dordrecht detail
44. 44. Dordrecht some 350 years ago
45. 45. Managing surface
46. 46. 30x30
47. 47. 30x60 W-E mirroring
48. 48. 60x30m N-S Turning and multiplying
49. 49. 60x30m N-S mirroring
50. 50. 60x30m elongating
51. 51. 60x60m mirroring
52. 52. 60x30m L-shape
53. 53. 60x60m U-shape
54. 54. 90x60m Closing
55. 55. Elongating and adapting 100x60m
56. 56. A neighbourhood, multiplying Fig. 16
57. 57. Saving pavement ensemble
58. 58. Saving pavement neighbourhood
59. 59. Saving pavement district
60. 60. District grids
61. 61. Cerda
62. 62. 20, 30, 40, 50m 50
63. 63. Cerda (1867) and Buchanon (1963) The same neigbourhood size
64. 64. Buchanan (1963)
65. 65. Buchanan (1963)
66. 66. Buchanan (1963)
67. 67. Buchanan (1963)A hexagonal pattern (Figure 12) is very efficient, with economical three-wayintersections, but other polygonal patterns are possible. A rectangular patternrequires very complex intersections.…The function of the distributory network is to canalize the longer movements fromlocality to locality.…This means that they cannot also be used for giving direct access to buildings, oreven to minor roads serving the buildings, because the consequent frequentjunctions would be dangerous and make the road inefficient.It is therefore necessary to introduce the idea of a hierarchy of distributors,whereby important distributors feed down through distributors of lesser category tothe minor roads which give access to the buildings [13].The system may be likened to the trunk, limbs, branches, and finally the twigs(corresponding to the access roads) of a tree. Basically, however, there are onlytwo kinds of road - distributors designed for movement, and access roads to servethe buildings.
68. 68. Grid flexibility (Bach)
69. 69. Grid flexibility (Bach) Dutch appointments ‘Duurzaam Veilig’
70. 70. Regional networks
71. 71. Network types1km 3km 10km 300m-10km
72. 72. Care for pedestrians is the core of urban design
73. 73. PedestriansReichow: car first Runcorn: Pedestrian first
74. 74. Pedestrians in residential area
75. 75. Radials for pedestrians and cyclists
76. 76. Railway stations
77. 77. Bus stations
78. 78. Bus routes
79. 79. Bach’s bus stop
80. 80. Bus stops