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Social Cohesion: Lecture 1

Social Cohesion: Lecture 1






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    Social Cohesion: Lecture 1 Social Cohesion: Lecture 1 Document Transcript

    • Defining Setting X / lectureSetting X a community sample Setting X & The Fields of Opportunity
    • Social Cohesion / lectureSocial CohesionWhat is it ?Social cohesion is a term used in social policy, sociology and political science to describe thebonds or "glue" that bring and hold people together in society. Social cohesion is a multi-facetednotion covering many different kinds of social phenomena.A working definitionThe ongoing process of developing a community of shared values, shared challenges and equalopportunity focussing on the dynamic character in stead of considering it a static phenomenon.Sense of BelongingBelonging includes the persons fit with his/her environments and also has three sub-domains.Physical Belonging is defined as the connections the person has with his/her physicalenvironments such as home, workplace, neighbourhood, school and community. Social Belongingincludes links with social environments and includes the sense of acceptance by intimate others,family, friends, co-workers, and neighbourhood and community. Community Belongingrepresents access to resources normally available to community members, such as adequateincome, health and social services, employment, educational and recreational programs, andcommunity activities.
    • Face to FaceResearchers at McGill University found that it takes less than a day of no normal contact with theoutside world for an adult to start hallucinating.Even when its not such drastic circumstances, talking to a live person can give us a surge ofenergy in the middle of the workday. "In-person contact stimulates an emotional reaction," saysLawrence Honig, a neurologist at Columbia University. Bonding hormones are higher whenpeople are face-to-face. And some scientists think that face-to-face contact stimulates theattention and pleasure neurotransmitter dopamine, and serotonin, a neurotransmitter thatreduces fear and worry.Social CapitalSocial capital is a sociological concept used in business, economics, organizational behaviour,political science, public health and the social sciences in general to refer to connections withinand between social networks. Though there are a variety of related definitions, which have beendescribed as "something of a cure-all" for the problems of modern society, they tend to share thecore idea "that social networks have value. Just as a screwdriver (physical capital) or a collegeeducation (human capital) can increase productivity (both individual and collective), so do socialcontacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups".Scenario Based Design / lectureScenariosScenarios evoke reflection in the content of design work, helping developers coordinate designaction and reflection. Scenarios are at once concrete and flexible, helping developers manage thefluidy of design situations. Scenarios afford multiple views of an interaction, diverse kinds andamounts of detailing, helping developers manage the many consequences entailed by any givendesign move. Scenarios can also be abstracted and categorized, helping designers to recognize,capture, and reuse generalizations, and to address the challenge that technical knowledge oftenlags the needs of technical design. Finally, scenarios promote work-oriented communicationamong stakeholders, helping to make design activities more accessible to the great variety ofexpertise that can contribute to design, and addressing the challenge that external constraintsdesigners and clients often distract attention from the needs and concerns of the people who willuse the technology.ElementsScenarios have characteristic elements. They include or presuppose a setting: Scenarios alsoinclude agents or actors: human activities to include several to many agents. Each agent or actortypically has goals or objectives. These are changes that the agent wishes to achieve in thecircumstances of the setting. Every scenario involves at least one agent and at least one goal.ActorsWhen more than one agent or goal is involved, they may be differentially prominent in thescenario. Often one goal is the defining goal of a scenario, the answer to the question O , whydid this story happen? Similarly, one agent might be the principal actor, the answer to thequestion who is this story about? Scenarios have a plot; they include sequences of actions andevents, things that actors do, things that happen to them, changes in the circumstances of thesetting, and so forth.
    • EventsParticular actions and events can facilitate, obstruct, or be irrelevant to given goals. Representingthe use of a system or application with a set of user interaction scenarios makes that use explicit,and in doing so orients design and analysis toward a broader view of computers. It can helpdesigners and analysts to focus attention on the assumptions about people and their tasks thatare implicit in systems and applications. Scenario representations can be elaborated asprototypes, through the use of storyboard, video, and rapid prototyping tools. They are theminimal contexts for developing user-oriented design rationale: a given design decision can beevaluated and documented in terms of its specific consequences within particular scenarios.Scenarios and the elements of scenario-based design rationale can be generalized and abstractedusing theories of human activity, enabling the cumulation and development of knowledgeattained in the course of design.