Social cohesion


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Social cohesion

  1. 1. Week 1Social Cohesion / Theory outlineFor further study material for Social Cohesion theory see References under.Many definitions have been formulated for the concept of Social Cohesion. They all are vagueand hardly operational for designers. What does it mean for instance that Social Cohesion isdefined as the ‘glue that holds members of a society together? In this course an attempt is madeto apply Q methodology (see under) as a tool to help identify concrete aspects of social cohesion,to be improved, as perceived by community members. The so-called Q-concourse (see under) isbased on social cohesion theory. Typically sociologists recognize three main dimensions withinthe concept of Social Cohesion: Sense of Belonging, Face to Face contacts (sharing of the samephysical space), and Social Capital formulated as an economic aspect of Social Cohesion.Sense of BelongingBelonging includes the persons fit with his/her environments and also has three sub-domains.Physical Belonging is defined as the connections the person has with his/her physicalenvironments such as home, workplace, neighborhood, school and community. Social Belongingincludes links with social environments and includes the sense of acceptance by intimate others,family, friends, co-workers, and neighborhood and community. Community Belonging representsaccess to resources normally available to community members, such as adequate income, healthand social services, employment, educational and recreational programs, and communityactivities.Face to FaceResearchers at McGill University found that it takes less than a day of no normal contact with theoutside world for an adult to start hallucinating.Even when its not such drastic circumstances, talking to a live person can give us a surge ofenergy in the middle of the workday. "In-person contact stimulates an emotional reaction," saysLawrence Honig, a neurologist at Columbia University. Bonding hormones are higher whenpeople are face-to-face. And some scientists think that face-to-face contact stimulates theattention and pleasure neurotransmitter dopamine, and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that reducesfear and worry.Social CapitalSocial capital is a sociological concept used in business, economics, organizational behaviour,political science, public health and the social sciences in general to refer to connections withinand between social networks. Though there are a variety of related definitions, which have beendescribed as "something of a cure-all" for the problems of modern society, they tend to share thecore idea "that social networks have value. Just as a screwdriver (physical capital) or a collegeeducation (human capital) can increase productivity (both individual and collective), so do socialcontacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups".Example of a Social Cohesion breakdown into specific statements.Sample is taken from the Douwe Egberts Coffee case 2011 (see case 2011).I find it pleasant that I can drop in at a colleague’s office without making an appointment first. Iknow my colleagues pretty well. I like to tell about my work at home or to friends. They know quitewell what my work is about. I would like to know more about the personal interests of mycolleagues. What kind of hobbies they have. I do not have a clear picture of how my work fits inthe overall vision and mission of the organization. I feel there should be more informal events atmy department to get to know each other both on a professional and personal level. When my
  2. 2. colleague has been absent for more than 1 day I ask around the administration whats going on.When I am sick I find it pleasant when colleagues call me and ask me how I am doing. When Ireceive a lot of feedback on my work and from colleagues it makes me feel important and valued.Personal, face to face contact is crucial for my wellbeing. There are not enough human momentsin my opinion. I think that we can work much more efficient when we have more contact on apersonal level. I would like to be more involved in the overall policy making. I prefer E-mailcontact to face to face contact because it is time saving and to me time is very precious. I havemore social contacts at work then in my private life. I see myself first of all as a professional whodoes his job, and only secondly as a member of the organization .I prefer working at homebecause I feel less controlled by others. I feel very much at ease at work. Its a cozy place and Iregard my colleagues as my friends. Its very easy to take initiatives with others to start newprojects. It does not take a lot of preparation and paperwork. I feel I am treated very much equalto the others. I dont sense a considerable hierarchy within the institute. In my office I feel a bitlike a prisoner locked up in his cell from 9-5. I had rather work in an open space with others andbe more free to determine my hours. My department is quite isolated from the others. I havehardly any idea what is going on at the other departments. I feel like the institute is a big familyand I find a lot of solidarity among my colleagues. When I have problems, also personal, I candiscuss them with my colleagues. I feel free to invite my family to my workplace and introducethem to my colleagues.References:Sclove Richard E. (1995). Democracy and technologyNew York : Guilford PressFriedkin Noah E. (2000). Social CohesionDepartment of Sociology, University of California, Santa Barbara,California 93106;Putnam Robert, (2000). Bowlin Alone / The collapse and revival of American communityNew York, Simon & SchusterReeskens Tim , Botterman Sarah & Hooghe Marc, (2000). Is Social Cohesion one latent concept?Investigating the dimensionality of social cohesion on the basis of theKearns and Forrest typology. Center for Political Research, KULeuven
  3. 3. The “Individual Umbrella”
  4. 4. The “Social Umbrella”.Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. Motivation is said to beintrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but it can also be used to describethe causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation. According tovarious theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain andmaximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desiredobject, goal, state of being, ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such asaltruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not beconfused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is related to, but distinct from, emotion.A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) withthe intent to cause the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning tothe behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect isgreater, and decreases as duration lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can causethe action to become habit. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself, and other people. Thesetwo sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively.ReferencesCofer, Charles N; Appley, Mortimer H. (1967). Motivation: Theory and Research, New York,London, Sydney: John Wiley & SonsFishbein, M.; Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theoryand research, Reading, MA: Addison-WesleyWeek 2Q Factor AnalysisQ methodology provides a foundation for the systematic study of subjectivity, a person’sviewpoint, opinion, beliefs, attitude, and the like (Brown 1993). Typically, in a Q methodologicalstudy people are presented with a sample of statements about some topic, called the Q-set.
  5. 5. Respondents, called the P-set, are asked to rank-order the statements from their individual pointof view, according to some preference, judgment or feeling about them, mostly using a quasinormal distribution. By Q sorting people give their subjective meaning to the statements, and bydoing so reveal their subjective viewpoint (Smith, 2001) or personal profile (Brouwer, 1999). Fig.10 Laying the Q sort these individual rankings (or viewpoints) is then subject to factor analysis.Stephenson (1935) presented Q methodology as an inversion of conventional factor analysis inthe sense that Q correlates persons instead of tests;“whereas previously a large number of people were given a small number of tests, now we give asmall number of people a large number of test-items". Correlation between personal profiles thenindicates similar viewpoints, or segments of subjectivity which exist (Brown, 1993). By correlatingpeople, Q factor analysis gives information about similarities and differences in viewpoint on aparticular subject. If each individual would have her/his own specific likes and dislikes,Stephenson (1935) argued, their profiles will not correlate; if, however, significant clusters ofcorrelations exist, they could be factorized, described as common viewpoints (or tastes,preferences, dominant accounts, typologies, et cetera), and individuals could be measured withrespect to them.ConcourseStatements forming the Q sort are selected from the so called Concourse: a collection ofperceptions, opinions, expressions and so on associated with a certain topic. In this case: SocialCohesion. The concourse can be collected from:1. Newspapers, magazines, TV, observations, interviews and son on, or constructed from:2. Theory available on the topic. The concourse and the Q sort statements for the SC-Designcourse have been generated from the three dimensions of Social Cohesion theory, Sense ofBelonging, Face to Face contacts, and Social Capital. For each of the three dimensions 8statements have been formulated (see under). Q sorter
  6. 6. William Stephenson, inventor of the Q MethodologyFactor Analysis / Theory OutlineFor further study material for Factor Analysis theory see references under.Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed variables interms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors. In other words, it ispossible, for example, that variations in three or four observed variables mainly reflect thevariations in a single unobserved variable, or in a reduced number of unobserved variables.Factor analysis searches for such joint variations in response to unobserved latent The factorsresulting from Q analysis thus represent clusters of subjectivity that are operant, i.e., thatrepresent functional rather than merely logical distinctions (Brown, 1993; 2002[b]). "Studies usingsurveys and questionnaires often use categories that the investigator imposes on the responses.Q, on the other hand, determines categories that areoperant" (Smith, 2001). A crucial premise of Q is that subjectivity is communicable, because onlywhen subjectivity is communicated, when it is expressed operantly, it can be systematicallyanalyzed just as any other behavior (Stephenson, 1953; 1968).The results of a Q methodological study can be used to describe a population of viewpoints andnot, like in R, a population of people (Risdon et al., 2003). In this way, Q can be very helpful inexploring tastes, preferences, sentiments, motives and goals, the part of personality that is ofgreat influence on behavior but that often remains largely unexplored. Another considerabledifference between Q and R is that "Q does not need large numbers of subjects as does R, for itcan reveal a characteristic independently of the distribution of that characteristic relative to othercharacteristics.References.Exel Job van ,Graaf Gjalt de, (2005) Q Methodology/ A sneak Preview Erasmus MC, Institute forMedical Technology Assessment (iMTA),Vrije Universiteit, Dept. of Public Administration &Organisation Science, Faculty of Social Sciences.Brown Robert, (1996). Q Methodology and Qualitative Research Qualitative Health Research,
  7. 7. Campbell, T.C. (1995). Investigating structures underlying relationships when variables are notthe focus: Q : technique and other techniques, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of theAmerican Educational Research Association, San Francisco.Kramer, B., Hegedus, P., Gravina, V. (2003). Evaluating a Dairy Herd Improvement Project inUruguayto Test and Explain Q Methodology, Proceedings of the 19th Annual Conference Raleigh,NorthCarolina, USA, p. 347Kufeld, C. A Q –methodological study investigating the identity self – descriptions of a groupofex- smokers, Dissertation Research Project, University of Luton, p. 19: 3Scenario development & Flow Theory / Guest LectureA Scenario in SC-Design is the description, visual and/or textual, of a number of events asenvisioned to be happening in a certain time frame between actors as a consequence of a newTechnology implant. A Sub Scenario is considered as the envisioning of event(s) to be happeningbetween actors and one or two elements in Setting X. The Main Scenario is considered as theenvisioning of the events that take place between actors, when all Sub Scenarios are assembledinto one integral design in Setting X.1. ScenariosScenarios evoke reflection in the content of design work, helping developers coordinate designaction and reflection.Scenarios are at once concrete and flexible, helping developers manage the fluidly of designsituations. Scenarios afford multiple views of an interaction, diverse kinds and amounts ofdetailing, helping developers manage the many consequences entailed by any given designmove. Scenarios can also be abstracted and categorized, helping designers to recognize, capture,and reuse generalizations, and to address the challenge that technical knowledge often lags theneeds of technical design. Finally, scenarios promote work-oriented communication amongstakeholders, helping to make design activities more accessible to the great variety of expertisethat can contribute to design, and addressing thechallenge that external constraints designers and clients often distract attention from the needsand concerns of the people who will use the technology.ElementsScenarios have characteristic elements. They include or presuppose a setting: Scenarios alsoinclude actors: human activities to include several to many actors. Each actor typically has goalsor objectives. These are changes that the actor wishes to achieve in the circumstances of thesetting. Every scenario involves at least one actor and at least one goal.ActorsWhen more than one actor or goal is involved, they may be differentially prominent in thescenario. Often one goal is the defining goal of a scenario, why did this story happen? Similarly,one actor might be the principal actor, the answer to the question who is this story about?Scenarios have a plot; they include sequences of actions and events, things that actors do, thingsthat happen to them, changes in the circumstances of the setting, and so forth.EventsParticular actions and events can facilitate, obstruct, or be irrelevant to given goals. Representingthe use of a system or application with a set of user interaction scenarios makes that use explicit,and in doing so orients design and analysis towards a broader view. It can help designers andanalysts to focus attention on the assumptions about people and their tasks that are implicit in
  8. 8. systems and applications. Scenario representations can be elaborated as prototypes, through theuse of storyboard, video and rapid prototyping tools. They are the minimal contexts for developinguser-oriented design rationale: a given design decision can be evaluated and documented interms of its specific consequences withinparticular scenarios. Scenarios and the elements of scenario-based design rationale can begeneralized and abstracted using theories of human activity, enabling the cumulation anddevelopment of knowledge attained in the course of design.2. Flow Theory (contemplating and envisioning scenarios in Flow State)Flow also called "Optimal experience" is a concept developed by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi."the holistic experience that people feel when they act with total involvement" .References.Csikszentmihayli & Nakamura, Mihaly & Jeanne, (2002). The Concept of Flow, The Handbook ofPositive Psychology: Oxford University Press, pp. 89–92, ISBN 9780195135336Csikszentmihalyi, M.,(1988). Optimal experience: psychological studies of flow in consciousness,Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 15–35,Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály, (1996). Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention,New York: Harper Perennial, ISBN 0-06-092820-4Csikszentmihalyi, M & Rathunde, K, (1993). "The measurement of flow in everyday life: Towardsa theory of emergent motivation". In Jacobs, JE. Developmental perspectives on motivation.Nebraska symposium on motivation.Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi/Inventor of Flow Theory
  9. 9. Week 4Philosophy Lecture on Essence of Technology (e.a. Heidegger)
  10. 10. ReferencesHeidegger Martin,1949, The Question concerning technology, New York, Harper CollinsPublishersFromm Erich, 1955, The sane society, ISBN 978-0415605861Fromm Erich,1968, The revolution of hope: towards a humanized technology, ISBN 978-90561836Fromm Erich,1976, To have or to be, ISBN 978-0805016048Papanek Victor,1971, Design for the real world: Human ecology and social change, New York,Pantheon books, ISBN 0-394-47036-2Papanek Victor,1983, Design for human scale, New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, ISBN 0-442-276-16-8Papanek Victor, 1995, The green imperative: natural design for the real world, New York, Thamesand Hudson ISBN 0-500-27846-6Illich Ivan,1973, Tools for conviviality, ISBN 0-06-080308-8
  11. 11. Week 5Harris Profile MethodA New Product Profile (or Harris Profile) is a graphic representation of the strengths andweaknesses of design concepts. Originally, a New Product Profile is applied as a useful tool toevaluate and select development projects (ideas for new business activities).Per designalternative a Harris Profile is created. A number of criteria is used to evaluate the designalternatives. A four scale scoring is used for all criteria. Criteria should be selected according towhich the design alternatives should be compared (be sure to cover all important aspects of theproduct development project with the selected criteria).List the criteria and create a four-point scale matrix next to it. The scale is coded-2, -1, +1, and +2.Create a Harris profile for the design alternatives you want to compare. Draw the profile bymarking the scores in the four-point scale matrix for all the criteria.When the Harris Profiles of the design alternatives are completed, the profiles can be comparedand a judgment can be made as to which alternative has the best overall score.
  12. 12. Harris Profile Methodology
  13. 13. SC Design Harris profile, graphically presenting weight factorsReferencesRitchey, T. (2006). "Problem Structuring using Computer-Aided MorphologicalAnalysis". Journal of the Operational Research Society (JORS), 57, (7).Zwicky, F. (1969). Discovery, Invention, Research - Through the Morphological Approach.Toronto: The Macmillian Company.Zwicky, F. & Wilson A. (eds.) (1967). New Methods of Thought and Procedure: Contributions tothe Symposium on Methodologies. Berlin: Springer.Levin, Mark Sh. (1998). Combinatorial Engineering of Decomposable Systems, Dordrecht: KluwerAcademic Publishers.Levin, Mark Sh. (2006). Composite Systems Decisions. New York: Springer.Jones, J.C. (1981). Design Methods. Wiley.Week 6Feedback on Concept
  14. 14. Week 7Business, Branding and Promotion / the Look & Feel of a CIPS.BBP / Theory OutlineFor further study material for BBP theory see references.1. BBPA business planA business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they arebelieved attainable, and the plan for reaching those goals. It may also contain backgroundinformation about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. Business plans mayalso target changes in perception and branding by the customer, client, or larger community.When the existing business is to assume a major change or when planning a new venture a 3 to5 year business plan is essential.A branding planBranding describes the process by which entrepreneurs differentiatethemselves and stand out from others by identifying and articulating their unique valueproposition, and then leveraging it across platforms with aconsistent message and image to achieve a specific goal. In this way, enterprises can enhancetheirrecognition as experts in their field, and establish reputation and credibility.Branding consists of three elements: • Value Proposition: What does it stand for? • Differentiation: What makes it stand out? • Marketability: What makes it compelling?Promotion planPromotion is one of the four elements of marketing mix (product, price, promotion, distribution). Itis the communication link between sellers and buyers for the purpose of influencing, informing, orpersuading a potential buyers purchasing decision. The following are two types of Promotion:Above The Line Promotion: Promotion in the media (e.g. TV , Radio, Newspapers , Internet,Mobile Phones, and, historically, Illustrated songs) in which the advertiser pays an advertisingagency to place the ad.Below The Line Promotion: All other promotion. Much of this is intended to be subtle enough forthe consumer to be unaware that promotion is taking place. Examples: sponsorship, productplacement, endorsements, sales promotion, merchandising, direct mail, personal selling, publicrelations, trade shows.2. The Look & Feel of a CIPS.Humans visually perceive items not in isolation, but as part of a larger whole.
  15. 15. Themes:Defining the The Look and Feel of the CIPS in 3D CAD, sketches and storyboards, specifyingmaterials and finishes. Elaborating on the look and feel of the CIPS to match the Social Missionas developed in stage nr. 1: 3-i. In other words constructing a message by product design. GoodCIPS design should act as a catalyst for Social Change. There is general agreement that theway forms are seen follows ‘Gestalt’ rules, these suggest that things are initially seen holistically(as a single object). If this visual form holds attention or is of interest it is then viewedautomatically, in other words the different elements that make up the form are considered.Gestalt is a psychology term which means "unified whole". It refers to theories of visualperception developed by German psychologists in the 1920s. These theories attempt to describehow people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principlesare applied. Look & Feel of the CIPS can help to convey your Social Cohesion Design message.ReferencesSteffen, Dagmar,(2000). Design als Produktsprache, Der Offenbacher Ansatz in Theorie undPraxis, form Publisher, Frankfurt am Main.Csikszentmihalyi Mihaly / Rochberg-Halton Eugene, (1981). The meaning of things, domesticsymbols and the self, University of California Press.Arnheim, Rudolf, (1969). Visual Thinking, Berkeley, California, University of California PresRheinfrank, J., & Evenson, S., (1996). Design Languages. In T. Winograd (Ed.), Bringing designto software (pp. 63-80). New York: Addison-Wesley (ACM Press).Week 8Likert Scale MethodologyLikert Scale Methodology / Theory Main LineA Likert Scale is a psychometric scale commonly used in questionnaires, and is the most widelyused scale in survey research, such that the term is often used interchangeably with rating scaleeven though the two are not synonymous. When responding to a Likert questionnaire item,respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement. The scale is named after its inventor,psychologist Rensis Likert.An important distinction must be made between a Likert Scale and a Likert Item. The Likert scale
  16. 16. is the sum of responses on several Likert items. Because Likert items are often accompanied bya visual analog scale, the items are called sometimes scales themselves. A Likert item is simply astatement which the respondent is asked to evaluate according to any kind of subjective criteria;generally the level of agreement or disagreement is measured. Often five ordered responselevels are used, although many psychometricians advocate using seven or nine levels; Theformat of typical five-level Likert item is:1. Strongly disagree2. Disagree3. Neither agree nor disagree4. Agree5. Strongly agreeAfter the questionnaire is completed, each item can be analyzed separately or in some casesitem responses yam be summed to create a score for a group of items. Hence, Likert scales areoften called summative scales.Likert Scale MethodologyReferencesWuensch, Karl L., (2005). "What is a Likert Scale? And How Do You Pronounce Likert’?". EastCarolina University.Likert, Rensis, (1932). "A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes". Archives of Psychology140: 1–55.Mogey, Nora, (1999). "So You Want to Use a Likert Scale?". Learning Technology DisseminationInitiative. Heriot-Watt University.Babbie, Earl R., (2005). The Basics of Social Research. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. p.
  17. 17. 174. ISBN 0534630367.Trochim, William M., (2006). "Likert Scaling". Research Methods Knowledge Base, 2nd Edition.Meyers, Lawrence S.; Anthony Guarino, Glenn Gamst,(2005). Applied Multivariate Research:Design and Interpretation. Sage Publications. p. 20. ISBN 1412904129.Week 9Course Evaluation & Preparation for "Wise Owl" Award presentations.