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Ocw technology and_global_development_1__water_development_plan_for_java.ppt

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  • 1. Technology and Global DevelopmentAn example A Water Development Plan for Java - Indonesia, 1970’s Prof. dr. ir. W.J. van BlommesteinDr. W. RavesteijnJanuary 11, 2010 1
  • 2. Water Development Plan for JavaDream or Reality?Dream to connect irrigation systems all over Java in order to bring water from the wet West to the dry EastIncluding a main canal throughout Java and – through a siphon – to Madura (over 1000 km)Big reservoirs with pumping stations to overcome differences in heightJanuary 11, 2010 2
  • 3. Water Development Plan for JavaAimsWater control Irrigation possibilities for three rice cropsCanals For transportation To stimulate industrialisation To control erosion To strengthen Java’s competitive position towards SingaporeWas the plan to connect irrigation systems realised?January 11, 2010 3
  • 4. Water Development Plan for JavaProject ElementsWork in progress1929 KITLV 36765January 11, 2010 4
  • 5. Water Development Plan for JavaProject ElementsDam in theTjisadane RiverWhat you see,from the planewhen you fly intoJakartaConstructed in1934, photo 1995January 11, 2010 5
  • 6. Water Development Plan for JavaProject ElementsDam in theTjisdaneRiverThe samedam,ground levelConstructedin 1934,photo 1995January 11, 2010 6
  • 7. Water Development Plan for JavaProject ElementsDam in the Tjitaroem RiverConstructed in 1925(photo 1938) KITLVJanuary 11, 2010 7
  • 8. Water Development Plan for JavaProject ElementsSketches ofthe firstdam in theSampeanRiverConstructedin 1832January 11, 2010 8
  • 9. Water Development Plan for JavaProjects ElementsThe SampeanRiver- dam withdrainage sluice:how initialsketchesdevelopedConstruction in1876 and 1900(photo 1932)January 11, 2010 9
  • 10. Water Development Plan for JavaProject ElementsPemali irrigationsystemDevising alarger system toconnectingsystemsConstructed in1896January 11, 2010 10
  • 11. Water Development Plan for JavaProject ElementsAfter constructingmain parts of thestructure (dams,irrigation systems)reservoirs weredeveloped andcreated1931 KITLV 25170January 11, 2010 11
  • 12. Water Development Plan for JavaProject ElementsLooking down fromthe reservoir in theprevious slide ontothe head canalleading away from it1931 KITLV 25171January 11, 2010 12
  • 13. Water Development Plan for JavaProjects aimsPlanting out of RiceSeedlings1900 KITLV 12186January 11, 2010 13
  • 14. Water Development Plan for JavaProject aimsRice harvest1920 KITLV 19183January 11, 2010 14
  • 15. Water Development Plan for JavaConsequences- Social DisadvantagesReservoir construction caused“Transmigrasi” Moving landless people from densely populated area’s to other Indonesian islands causing cultural rivalry and violence between settlers and the indigenous population map from http://www.thalassa.net/images/ Map_Indonesia_C.jpgWho benefits from modernisation?January 11, 2010 15
  • 16. Water Development Plan for JavaConsequences- Ecological DisadvantagesNew breeding ground for water relatedparasites causing bilharzia and malariaBig reservoirs stimulate erosionSedimentation in reservoirsWater plants will obstruct navigation http://www.travelplaces.co.uk/imageEconomically feasible? s/A1_grand_prix/indonesia-rice- paddy.jpgJanuary 11, 2010 16
  • 17. Water Development Plan for JavaRealisationWhat do you think: has the plan been realised or not?Why has it (not) been realised?January 11, 2010 17
  • 18. Water Development Plan for JavaAnalysisSeveral angles to look at the case: Actor analysis Technology: artifacts, complex artifacts, technical systems Technology + social context: sociotechnical systems Technology + cultural context: technological regimesJanuary 11, 2010 18
  • 19. Water Development Plan for JavaActor AnalysisGetting a structured overview of the involved parties (individuals andgroups) and their interests. Which relevant groups are involved? What are there perceptions? What influence or power do they have?January 11, 2010 19
  • 20. Water Development Plan for JavaTechnologyWhat technologies are used?Irrigation systems: hardware Sluice doors Weirs Canals Division structures etc.January 11, 2010 20
  • 21. Water Development Plan for JavaSociotechnical SystemsHow do technology and social context interact? Systems of irrigation and water management Connected systems in irrigation areas or in river basis One system of irrigation and all actors, regulations, education facilities etc. involved Important: systems approach, system dynamics, system innovationJanuary 11, 2010 21
  • 22. Water Development Plan for JavaTechnological RegimesTo consider: Exploitation Welfare Industrialization and development Important: mind-set, regime transformationJanuary 11, 2010 22
  • 23. Water Development Plan for JavaConclusionsTechnological Regimes Regime transformation:Sociotechnical Systems System innovation:Actor analysis Opinion key players:January 11, 2010 23
  • 24. Water Development Plan for JavaConclusionsTechnological Regimes Regime transformation: from welfare to industrializationSociotechnical Systems System innovation: scale of operations increasedActor analysis Opinion key players: National- YES International- NOJanuary 11, 2010 24
  • 25. Water Development Plan for JavaConclusionsInternationally there was no willingness to investDespite advantages, national enthusiasm etc. social end ecologicaldisadvantages were considered more important by internationalinvestors who were needed to finance the project.January 11, 2010 25