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The lecture slides of lecture Introduction to Human Models of the Modelling Course of Industrial Design of the TU Delft

The lecture slides of lecture Introduction to Human Models of the Modelling Course of Industrial Design of the TU Delft

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Lecture Slides: Lecture Introduction to Human Models Lecture Slides: Lecture Introduction to Human Models Presentation Transcript

  • H-L-1: Introduction of Human Models Ir. Iemkje Ruiter Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering Delft University of Technology Challenge the future 1
  • Contents Part I Introduction to human models 1 Introduction 2 Human Systems 3 Senses of human beings 4 Cognitive model Part II: Using anthropometric model in design 1 Analysis 2 Modelling 3 Simulation 4 Evaluation Challenge the future 2
  • Example of a human model Mass Courtesy of http://www.clker.com/clipart-family-unit.html Challenge the future 3 View slide
  • Example of a human model Test Courtesy of http://www.clker.com/clipart-family-unit.html Challenge the future 4 View slide
  • What is a model of a human? Human Model H Based on information about  human What kind of information? P When was the information collected? Product model Goal? Based on information about the product =0 http://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/BERGEN-Professional-Mini-Very-Low-Pressure-HVLP-Spray-Gun-BER8700-/321092569141 Challenge the future 5
  • Information of human • Philosophy • Psychology • Sociology Cognitive & Emotional • Anthropology • Ergonomics • Anatomy Physical • Anthropometry • Physiology Challenge the future 6
  • Model of the appearance of human Types of information Time Purpose Challenge the future 7
  • Example: Dolls Types of information Time Purpose Challenge the future 8
  • Example: Mannequins Types of information Time Purpose Challenge the future 9
  • Inside human: Human torso model Types of information Time Purpose Accuracy Assembly Courtesy: http://www.usahobby.com/science/anatomy.php/1 Challenge the future 10
  • Three-year-old Child Nursing Manikin Purpose: Operations of child care; Airway administering; Oral and nasal feeding Holistic care; Bathing and bandaging activity … Courtesy of http://www.medical-model.com/en/Product-1119.html Challenge the future 11
  • Virtual Reality Arthroscopic Simulator for practicing minimally invasive surgery Monitor displays  images inside the  human model Human model Minimally Invasive  Surgery  Instruments Opening Courtesy of http://www.readingshoulderunit.com/new-developments/arthroscopy-simulator Challenge the future 12
  • Anatomical drawing Anatomical studies of the shoulder By Leonardo da Vinci (ca 1510) De humani corpris fabrica By Andreas Vesalius (1543) Courtesy of jboultondesign.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/davinci www.yvcc.edu/.../Documents/vesalius2web.jpg Challenge the future 13
  • The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp Rembrandt van Rijn (1631) Mauritshuis museum, The Hague, the Netherlands Challenge the future 14
  • Feet and models of them Challenge the future 15
  • La Sportiva climb shoes Anthropometry & Biomechanics contribute to design Courtesy of http://www.sportiva.com/ Challenge the future 16
  • Biomechanics measure contribute to design Challenge the future 17
  • Prosthesis Peter Stuyvesant Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland Challenge the future 18
  • Prosthesis design -Walking Challenge the future 19
  • Prosthesis design -Running Aimee Mullins Challenge the future 20
  • Aimee Mullins Different purposes Courtesy of www.kennethcole.com/ Challenge the future 21
  • Human systems The nervous system The musculoskeletal system The circulatory system The respiratory system The gastrointestinal system The integumentary system The urinary system  The reproductive system The immune system The endocrine system  Challenge the future 22
  • Human circulatory system Ancient  Model Current  model Challenge the future 23
  • Artificial heart valve design Challenge the future 24
  • Respiratory system Challenge the future 25
  • Studying respiratory system contribute to design Studying respiratory system Courtesy of www.elements4health.com/.../sleep-apnea-mask.jpg Challenge the future 26
  • Human Sense Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 27
  • Sight Human sense Sight Hearing Smelling Taste Touch Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 28
  • Sight & Design Human sense Road sign design Sight Hearing Smelling Taste Touch Courtesy of http://citylu.wordpress.com/2011/02/09/australian-cities-an-italian-perspective/ Challenge the future 29
  • Sight & Design Human sense Sight Wake up light Hearing Smelling Taste Touch Courtesy of http://www.techfresh.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/philips-wake-up-light.jpg Challenge the future 30
  • Hearing Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 31
  • Hearing and Design Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 32
  • Hearing and Design Human sense Sight Cancel the noise Hearing Taste Touch Smell Quality Convenience  Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 33
  • Hearing and Design Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 34
  • Human Sense Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 35
  • Human Sense Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 36
  • Human Sense Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 37
  • Touch sense & Design Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 38
  • Touch sense & Design Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 39
  • Human Sense Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 40
  • Smell & Design Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 41
  • Smell & Design Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 42
  • Smell & Design Human sense Sight Hearing Taste Touch Smell Courtesy of http://www.scientificpsychic.com/workbook/chapter2.htm Challenge the future 43
  • Toward cognitive model: Using sensor in training Cognitive model A cognitive model is an approximation to animal cognitive processes (predominantly human) for the purposes of comprehension and prediction. Courtesy of http://www.123rf.com/photo_12496301_abstract-cognitive-intelligence.html Challenge the future 44
  • A simple cognitive model Courtesy of Developing a model of cognitive interaction for analytical inclusive design evaluation, Patrick Langdona, Umesh Persadb, P. John Clarksona Challenge the future 45
  • Toward cognitive model: Using sensor in training Challenge the future 46
  • Toward cognitive model: Using sensor in training Challenge the future 47
  • Cognitive model: Design for improving memory Challenge the future 48
  • Cognitive model & Design Courtesy of http://m4.uxcell.com/i/11d/ux_a11120300ux0116_ux_g01.jpg Challenge the future 49
  • Cognitive model example: Cockpit design The cockpit of Boeing 747-400 has 365 buttons/controls, The older version has 970 buttons Challenge the future 50
  • Innovation & cognition: Open the tin can from side Challenge the future 51
  • Cognitive model: Group model Challenge the future 52
  • Crowded: Basic fire escape planning Courtesy of http://www.visualbuilding.co.uk/images/2D/fireescapeplan.jpg Challenge the future 53
  • Crowded: Supermarket floor planning (in Dutch) Challenge the future 54
  • Group: Eating within culture context Challenge the future 55
  • Part II Using anthropometric model in design Challenge the future 56
  • The ideal model from Leonardo da Vinci Challenge the future 57
  • Le Corbusier's Le Modular Diagram Utilizing graphic devices as a vector for understanding human proportion. Challenge the future 58
  • History of anthropometry Challenge the future 59
  • The starting point Adolphe Quetelet (1796-1874) Founder scientific anthropometry Body-mass index (Quetelet index) Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolphe_Quetelet Challenge the future 60
  • Practices: Acquiring anthropometric data Challenge the future 61
  • The highest & the shortest men in the Netherlands Challenge the future 62
  • Anthropometry: from measurement to theory Courtesy of Estimation of deep-abdominal-adipose-tissue (DAAT) accumulation from simple anthropometric measurements in Indian men and women, V Brundavani, SR Murthy and AV Kurpad Challenge the future 63
  • Dined dined.io.tudelft.nl Challenge the future 64
  • Four steps in using anthropometric data in design Evaluation  Simulat ion Modeling  Analysis Modelling Challenge the future 65
  • Analysis  What kind of product are you designing? Image of human Evaluation  Simulat ion Modeling  Replacing parts of human  (prosthesis) Analysis Adding to a human  (orthesis) Cognitive support  (user interface) Physical support  (cabin, support, outfit, grip, tool…) Modelling  What do you need to know about: The human being Human‐product interaction Challenge the future 66
  • Analysis – The user Gender Age Ethnic background … What do you need to know about the product user? Challenge the future 67
  • Analysis: The interaction ‐‐ What do  you need to  know about  the user‐ product  interaction? ‐‐ What does the user do with the product? What does the product ask from the user? What interaction is critical? What are the comfort zones? Challenge the future 68
  • Analysis: different design phases need different information Analysis More specific information  regarding the user Embodiment Challenge the future 69
  • Modelling Evaluation  Anthropometric  data:  Simulat ion Modeling  Analysis static  (dimensions rigid body) dynamic  (dimensions while moving) Modelling Challenge the future 70
  • For industrial production From individual to groups Challenge the future 71
  • Human models What • Soldiers • Human Model Measure‐ ment Adults • Children Who Who How • Elderly Challenge the future 72
  • Human models How • Body dimensions (length, weight, etc.) • Human Model Measure‐ ment Range of motion of the joints • Shape of body(parts) Who What Who • Growth (changes over a period of time, group) Challenge the future 73
  • Human models What • Questionnaire • Human Model Measure‐ ment Instruments • Photogrammetry Who How Who • Laser scanning Challenge the future 74
  • Human models – how Questionnaire • Stature and weight only • ‘Lie’ to the (socially acceptable) mean value Challenge the future 75
  • Instrument used in measuring Instruments: Anthropometer ‐ Callipers ‐ Tape measure ‐ Grip force dynamometer ‐ Challenge the future 76
  • 3D scanning 3D laser scanning Courtesy of http://ir-ltd.net/3d-bodyscans-soon-to-be-released/ Challenge the future 77
  • Example: Size china project www.sizechina.com How SizeChina can help your products fit the Chinese population Challenge the future 78
  • Example: Size china project www.sizechina.com Preparation  After processing Scanning Challenge the future 79
  • Example: Size China project www.sizechina.com Result Challenge the future 80
  • Data presentation Table 3D Physical 2D 3D digital Challenge the future 81
  • Tables Challenge the future 82
  • Dined: 2D data presentation Challenge the future 83
  • 2D template Challenge the future 84
  • 2D data correlations Challenge the future 85
  • 3D physical Challenge the future 86
  • 3D digital 3D Wireframe  model (ADAPS) 3D Solid Model (Jack) Challenge the future 87
  • Example: ADAPS First  model: American pilot Followed  by: Dutch man and woman  Dutch elderly (male and female)  Dutch children (0‐4 year old) Challenge the future 88
  • Example: ADAPS Challenge the future 89
  • Case study: ADAPS child models (0-4 years old) Who have been measured? Who ADAPS How was the model made? How What What has been measured? And how? Challenge the future 90
  • Case study: ADAPS child models (0-4 years old) Who Who have been measured? KIMA  pilot:  +/‐ 600 children in Zuid‐Holland 0 – 5.5 years old KIMA : +/‐ 2200 children representative sample of Dutch children 2 – 12 years old Challenge the future 91
  • Case study: ADAPS child models (0-4 years old) What What has been measured? Challenge the future 92
  • Case study: ADAPS child models (0-4 years old) What How has it been measured Challenge the future 93
  • Case study: ADAPS child models (0-4 years old) What How has it been measured Challenge the future 94
  • Case study: ADAPS child models (0-4 years old) How How was the model made? How many models? •relative vs. absolute growth •changes of proportions •determined by goal (safe areas) Which dimensions usable? •Correlation with stature (arbitrairy >0,5) •Location (in formula) Challenge the future 95
  • Case study: ADAPS child models (0-4 years old) How many models? How •0‐1 year old : 4  (0‐3, 3‐6, 6‐9 en 9‐12 months old) •1‐2 year old : 2 (12‐18 en 18‐24 months old) •2‐3 year old : 1 (24‐36 months old) •3‐4 year old : 1 (36‐48 months old) •4‐5 year old : 1 (48‐60 months old) Which dimensions usable? •Reduction number of dimensions: measure d usable Pilot KIMA  0 – 12 months old 23 13 Pilot KIMA  12 – 24 months old 33 17 KIMA  2 – 5 years old 40 23 Challenge the future 96
  • Modelling Starting point: ADAPS model BOY4 Procedure Data The model Challenge the future 97
  • Modelling Give the stature of the model the value of the measured  stature of the 4‐year‐old Starting point: ADAPS model BOY4 Compare the dimensions of model and measured values  Procedure Adapt the model Data The model Repeat this for P3 en P97 Reduce the differences between measured values and  model dimensions to the smallest possible difference Challenge the future 98
  • Modelling Starting point: ADAPS model BOY4 Procedure Data The model Challenge the future 99
  • Modelling Starting point: ADAPS model BOY4 Procedure Data The model Challenge the future 100
  • Simulation From Simulat ion Modeling  Description of the user analysis: Evaluation  User‐product interaction Phase of the design process Analysis From  modeling: What is important in selecting  a representative model  Modelling Challenge the future 101
  • Simulation steps Simulation Select a model (Adapt the selected model ) Translate user postures to model postures Challenge the future 102
  • Simulation steps Simulation Select a model (Adapt the selected model ) Translate user postures to model postures Challenge the future 103
  • Simulation steps Simulation Select a model (Adapt the selected model ) Translate user postures to model postures Challenge the future 104
  • Simulation steps Simulation Select a model (Adapt the selected model ) Translate user postures to model postures Challenge the future 105
  • Critical questions in simulation Which user and product dimensions are important What are the criteria for possible/comfortable use What problems are to be expected Which part of the users will have problems Which part of the users is excluded from using the product Challenge the future 106
  • Case study: Mechanical medical bed Extendable head support Nylon slide sheet Velcro straps for fixation Adjustable supportive surfaces Complete symmetry and ideal sizes based on anthropometrics Triple parted semiflexible bridging transfer flaps Four polyurethane swivel castors with large diameter Height-adjustable undercarriage Challenge the future 107
  • Studying critical dimensions Figure 69 Human-product- interaction scenario of the concept Figure70 Adapting the carriage’s height Figure 71 Adjusting the top-surface Figure 72 Unfolding the flaps Figure 73 Slide sheet under evacuee Challenge the future 108
  • Critical dimensions of the patient Comfort/Possible use Challenge the future 109
  • Critical dimensions of the care giver • What problems are to be expected • Which part of the users will have problems • Which part of the users is excluded from using the product Challenge the future 110
  • Test in different scenario's 1 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 4 B 5 6 Challenge the future 111
  • Case study: Problem definition The machine The Usage scenario Challenge the future 112
  • Case study: The design Challenge the future 113
  • Case study: preparation Gathering user data ADAPS DHM Challenge the future 114
  • Case study: simulation Challenge the future 115
  • Evaluation Evaluation  Evaluate modeling as well as simulation process Simulat ion Modeling  Analysis What parts need attention? Modelling Challenge the future 116
  • Evaluation: Population Validity Function Mannequin Did you have relevant data from your target group? Population Levels of validity (Hoekstra) • Who are the users (gender, age, ethnic background, etc.) • What has been measured of this population • What measurements have been used for the development of a model • How have missing data been estimated Assessment Predictive Challenge the future 117
  • Evaluation: Manikin Validity Function In what way does the model represent the  selected human characteristics? Mannequin What do you know about the model? • How is it built? • What do you know about he dimensions ? • What do you know about the ranges of motion? Population Levels of validity (Hoekstra) Assessment Predictive Challenge the future 118
  • Evaluation: Function Validity What is the relation between standard anthropometric postures and model postures? • Is there information on the relation between the standard anthropometric measuring postures and the functional postures? • If not, how did you cope with it? Function Mannequin Population Levels of validity (Hoekstra) Assessment Predictive Challenge the future 119
  • Evaluation: AssessmentValidity Function Mannequin Population What were the assumptions regarding: • Creating the digital human model • Usage of the digital human model(translation of human postures into model postures) Levels of validity (Hoekstra) Assessment Predictive Challenge the future 120
  • Evaluation: Predictive Validity Function Mannequin Population Levels of validity (Hoekstra) To what extend can you say something about the target group with the help of a digital human model • • • • What problems are to be expected? When is human-product-interaction critical? Which part of the users will have problems? Which part of the users is excluded from product use? • What influence do the assumptions in the modeling and simulation process have on the assessment? Assessment Predictive Challenge the future 121
  • Thank You! Ir. Iemkje Ruiter Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering Delft University of Technology Challenge the future 122