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Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
Introduction Geology 1
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Introduction Geology 1

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  • 1. Introduction Geology 1 G. Bertotti
  • 2. 0-introduction This course The overall goal: Make good predictions of the subsurface 2
  • 3. 0-introduction Predictions: statements on space/time domains which you do not know For instance, you need to decide: The trace of a tunnel http://ourworldheritages.com/2011/05/channel-tunnel/ The tunnel under the English Channel The Gotthard base tunnel 3
  • 4. 0-introduction Decide on boring for geothermal energy http://delftaardwarmteproject.nl/symposium_ downloads/GMG07%20Douglas%20Gilding%2 0-%20De%20warmte%20onder%20Delft.pdf The Delft Aardwarmte Project And, obviously, hydrocarbons 4
  • 5. You start from data points and use a bridge (=process) to go in an unknown region What will be the value of T at t3? temperatur e 0-introduction The essence of prediction making: This depends on ? 1) The data points you have 2) The process you envisage (the t1 t2 t3 time describing equation) What kind of behaviour do you expect in the case of the cooling of a magma chamber? Yellowstone caldera 5
  • 6. 0-introduction Visualizing the essence of prediction A physical process which tells you in which direction to move good control data points A geologist does this for the subsurface 6
  • 7. 0-introduction Tricky because the subsurface is of difficult access Direct methods such as boreholes give excellent but very limited information An indirect technique is seismics : provides “blurred” images of the subsurface 7
  • 8. 0-introduction Seismics: very powerful tool to acquire (2D and 3D) images of the subsurface Geophones (receivers) Vibrator (source) •the source generates sonic waves •waves through geologic bodies with different physical properties. •At interfaces energy is reflected and refracted •geophones (receivers) receive and record the signal bouncing back Bed 1 lower velocity higher velocity Bed 2 8
  • 9. 0-introduction The same reflection on different receivers source receiver Different reflections on the same receiver source receiver 9
  • 10. 0-introduction Following processing, stronger or weaker horizons are traced which roughly correspond to changes in physical properties Bed 1 lower velocity higher velocity Bed 2 Reflections provide information on the geometry of the horizons and on their spatial organization Reflections can be laterally (dis)continuous, they can be strong or weak, they can be organized in spatial patterns These features do reflect the organization of the rocks producing the reflections (reflectors) 10
  • 11. 0-introduction What you get The image is however not the reality: • only bundles of layers are visible (few 10s m) • possible artifacts • Section is in time and needs to be depth-converted 11
  • 12. 0-introduction Back to the seismic data A warming up exercise 12
  • 13. 0-introduction Your road map 1) Make a line drawing indicating the position of • Well developed reflections (bedding) • surfaces interrupting the lateral continuity of reflections (faults, for instance) • Surfaces separating domains with very different patterns (unconformities) 2) Define domains with different reflection patterns 3) Make a history of the section 4) Answer applied questions: • Where do you expect to have rocks with the highest degree of fracturing? • where are the rocks which have reached the highest temperatures? • Fluid flow Legend for your exercise reflections faults unconformities domains Most fractured domain Hottest rocks 13
  • 14. 0-introduction Legend for your exercise reflections faults unconformities domains Most fractured domain Hottest rocks 14
  • 15. 0-introduction The course General Geology Most of the processes we are interested in can be grouped in 1. 2. horizontal and vertical movements (tectonics) erosion, transport and deposition processes 15
  • 16. 0-introduction Our road map Part 1: the materials rocks Part 2 The accommodation space structure of the Earth horizontal movements plate tectonics vertical movements erosion Part 3: The infill sedimentary cycle transport sedimentation Part 4: the integrated analysis areas of shortening settings areas of extension 16
  • 17. Sources of figures http://www.dierengedrag.be/?page_id=107 http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread672665/pg688 http://shop.p-plus.nl/artikel.php?IK=2014 http://petroplayground.com/video-center/ http://www.kijkmagazine.nl/nieuws/supervulkaan-yellowstone-groter-dan-gedacht/ http://www.searchforbiblicaltruth.com/misc/resteyes/chinabridges.php http://sarjeevansainbhi.webs.com/apps/photos/photo?photoid=136219434

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