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Lecture Slides: Lecture Review

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The lecture slides of lecture Review of the Modelling Course of Industrial Design of the TU Delft

The lecture slides of lecture Review of the Modelling Course of Industrial Design of the TU Delft

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  • 1. G-L-1 Review The Modelling Team Department of Design Engineering Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering Delft University of Technology Challenge the future 1
  • 2. Aim To pick-up knowledge learned before To be able to interpret this knowledge in the Modelling Framework To be better prepared for Modelling Challenge the future 2
  • 3. Contents IO2081: G-L-1 Review • Our vision • Statics – Product in Action • Dynamics – Product in Motion • Summary • The workshop Challenge the future 3
  • 4. Our vision Challenge the future 4
  • 5. The Modeling Framework what are you studying? Case brief ‘touch’ your thoughts choices what exactly...? System choices what do you foresee? what does your model foresee? choices Thought simulation Experience Build abstract model choices Solve/ simulate Compare everything you did/ saw/ felt/ remember to be true... Finish! did you both agree? Acceptable ? Revisit choices do you need more insights/ data? Experiment Courtesy of centech.com.pl and http://www.clipsahoy.com/webgraphics4/as5814.htm Challenge the future 5
  • 6. Statics Case study: Nut Cracker Special Thanks to ir. Ernest van Breemen Challenge the future 6
  • 7. Design Brief A portable nut cracker Crack nuts by hand force Adapt to different sizes of nuts Ref. http://www.lizandlaura.com/fun-and-games/fortune/?read=1301456242 Challenge the future 7
  • 8. The basic thought We use Force to Break nuts Challenge the future 8
  • 9. How about the force? Comfort 150N The user Force 300N Nut Breaks Max 510N Courtesy of http://unrealitymag.com/index.php/2009/03/19/tom-cruise-working-on-mi-4/ Challenge the future 9
  • 10. What shall we do? Give me a place to stand, and I shall move the earth. Archimedes of Syracuse Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archimedes Challenge the future 10
  • 11. The lever Lever Mig-29 “Fulcrum” Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lever Challenge the future 11
  • 12. Physics behind L2 L1  20 M  0 L2 L1 F2 F1 Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lever Challenge the future 12
  • 13. The Experience Use the theory of the lever To zoom force at least two times larger Design a place to stand Challenge the future 13
  • 14. The first idea  It should work Something similar But  Too large  Not potable Challenge the future 14
  • 15. Then  It should work Something similar  Portable But  Too large Challenge the future 15
  • 16. The breakthrough  It should work Something similar  Potable  Small Challenge the future 16
  • 17. Thought simulation Nut here Grip here Challenge the future 17
  • 18. Thought simulation L2 Nut here Grip here L1 L1  2L2 Challenge the future 18
  • 19. First design with polished stainless steel L1  1402  422  146 L2  502  152  52 L1  2 L2 Challenge the future 19
  • 20. Design is how it works “Make it look good!' That's not what we think design is. It's not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works. Steve Jobs Challenge the future 20
  • 21. Components in the system? Cracker 1 Nuts 4 The system 2 Earth 3 User Challenge the future 21
  • 22. What is a system? System System consists of a set of interacting or interdependent system components (or subsystems) -Structure & interconnectivity -Boundary -Input & Output -Surroundings Challenge the future 22
  • 23. Components in the system? Boundary Cracker 1 Nuts 4 The system 2 Earth Your experiences? 3 User Challenge the future 23
  • 24. Physics behind: Newton's law of universal gravitation Fs  G msun mnut 2 rsun Fe  G mearth mnut 2 rearth Gravitysun  0.06%Gravityearth Challenge the future 24
  • 25. Explore the relations Cracker Nuts Earth User Challenge the future 25
  • 26. Explore the relations Cracker Gravity Gravity Nuts Earth Gravity User Challenge the future 26
  • 27. Explore the relations Cracker Gravity Gravity Nuts Earth Force NO Gravity User Challenge the future 27
  • 28. Explore the relations Cracker Gravity Force Gravity Nuts Earth Force No Gravity User Challenge the future 28
  • 29. Explore the relations Cracker Gravity Force Gravity Nuts Earth Force No Gravity User Challenge the future 29
  • 30. Explore the relations Cracker Force Gravity Nuts Earth Force
  • 31. The thought simulation Cracker 1 Nuts Cause 4 The system 3 2 Earth Effects User Earth Gravity User ~ Cracker Force Cracker ~ Nuts Force
  • 32. Further focus on the nut Nut Earth Cause Nut subsystem Cracker Effects Earth Gravity Cracker ~ Nut Force
  • 33. Explore the relations Cracker Force Gravity Nuts Earth Force
  • 34. Explore the relations Cracker Force Gravity Nuts Earth
  • 35. Modelling - The Nut – Analysis vity Earth ‐ Gravity •Earth Gravity θ G
  • 36. Modelling - The Nut – Analysis vity ndary Cracker ~ Nuts •Earth Gravity θ
  • 37. Modelling - The Nut – Analysis Cracker ~ Nuts vity •Earth Gravity ndary Input Reaction Friction Fu θ •From the grips FL
  • 38. Modelling - The Nut – Analysis Cracker ~ Nuts vity •Earth Gravity fu ndary Input θ •From the grips Reaction Friction •From the grips fLR
  • 39. The attribute of friction force coefficient of friction FU fu  fFu fU θ fL FL
  • 40. Modelling - The Nut – Equilibrium Cause ~ effect vity  F  0,  M  0 FU •Earth Gravity fU ndary Input θ •From the grips fL FL Reaction Friction G •From the grips
  • 41. Modelling - The Nut – Equilibrium Cause ~ effect vity •Earth Gravity ndary Input •From the grips Reaction Friction •From the grips •Diameter = 30mm
  • 42. Modelling - The Nut – Large & Small nut •Diameter = 40mm f = 0.4 •Diameter = 20mm f = 0.2
  • 43. Evaluation cannot guarantee that it will work.
  • 44. If this is an acceptable design 1 e developed a rtable nut cracker 2 normal conditions, it can ck nuts till 20mm in meter. (Small nuts) 3 We advice the user to purchase a caliper to make a precise measurement of the nut before usage 4 We also advice the user to dress a safety glasses in the case of trying to crack large nuts
  • 45. Evaluation: Revisit choices in the system Contact angles Diameters of the Nuts Gravity Friction coefficient
  • 46. Which parameter can be changed? Contact angles /Positions Diameters of the Nuts Gravity Friction coefficient
  • 47. Evaluation: Friction coefficient We may try to use rubber in the contact area, but rubber is not durable? What else can we do?
  • 48. A new idea – Change the contact angle A new idea
  • 49. A new cycle of modelling Cause ~ effect ty •Earth Gravity dary nput •From the grips eaction riction DIY it, Please •From the grips
  • 50. The origin of this case study Thank you: Ir. Ernest van Breemen
  • 51. Free your imagination in designing Courtesy of http://www.signetemporium.com/promo.php http://www.craftsmanspace.com/free-projects/rounded-wooden-nut-cracker-plan.html http://www.ohgizmo.com/2009/12/02/northern-industrial-tools-nut-cracker-is-one-serious-piece-of-holiday-kit/
  • 52. igid body dynamics pecial Thanks to Dr. Bas Flipsen The Modelling Team Department of Design Engineering
  • 53. Everything starts from here Observed from an inertial reference frame, the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate of change of its linear momentum: Law of Motion He never wrote d F  mv dt F  ma
  • 54. Dynamics – Equilibrium Forces related to Cause ~ effect ertia force avity undary Input Reaction Friction  d mv dt •Earth Gravity  F  0,  M  0
  • 55. Case study: Galileo's Leaning Tower of Pisa experiment Physicist Mathematician Astronomer
  • 56. Is it really true? Height 55.863 meters
  • 57. Hammer & Feather drop: Apollo 15 ref. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/apollo_15_feather_drop.html It seems true on the moon, how about earth? Challenge the future 57
  • 58. NASA “metric mixup” -Mars Climate Orbiter Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Climate_Orbiter, www.cnn.com Challenge the future 58
  • 59. NASA “metric mixup” - The tution fees $327.6 million: Orbiter and Lander $193.1 million: Spacecraft development $91.7 million: Launch $42.8 million: Mission operations $655.3 Million Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Climate_Orbiter Challenge the future 59
  • 60. Dimension problems Metric system + Imperial Units p NASA Imperial units USA $655.3 Million + Time Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_Climate_Orbiter Challenge the future 60
  • 61. Is it really true? Height 55.863 meters Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaning_Tower_of_Pisa, http://www.bluffton.edu/~bergerd/classes/NSC109/Handouts/answers2-3.html Challenge the future 61
  • 62. Inside the system? Earth Balls System Air User Challenge the future 62
  • 63. Reasoning about components: Which one is moving? Earth Inertia Balls System Air User Challenge the future 63
  • 64. Relations Earth Gravity Gravity Friction Air Balls Gravity Initial speed Breath? User Challenge the future 64
  • 65. Relations Earth Gravity Gravity Friction Air Balls Gravity Initial speed NO User Challenge the future 65
  • 66. Relations Earth Gravity Friction Balls Air Challenge the future 66
  • 67. Cause-Effect Cause Inertia • Resist to change Gravity • Ball drops Air drag • Ball slows down Effect Challenge the future 67
  • 68. Physics behind – The air drag The Air drag (scalar form) 1 FD   ACdV 2 2 Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics) Challenge the future 68
  • 69. Physics behind – The air drag Density Unit(kg/m3) The density of air 1.204 kg/m3 The Air drag (scalar form) 1 FD   ACdV 2 2 Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics) Challenge the future 69
  • 70. Physics behind – The air drag Reference Area Unit(m2) Cross section area Perpendicular to the velocity The Air drag (scalar form) 1 FD   ACdV 2 2 The velocity Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics), Courtesy of http://www.redlineblog.com/reventon-lambos-ruthless-new-bull/ Challenge the future 70
  • 71. Physics behind – The air drag The Air drag (scalar form) 1 FD   ACdV 2 2 Drag coefficient (dimensionless) Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics), http://www.cyclingweekly.co.uk/archive/348018/how-to-improve-your-aero-position.html Challenge the future 71
  • 72. Why? Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics), http://www.cyclingweekly.co.uk/archive/348018/how-to-improve-your-aero-position.html Challenge the future 72
  • 73. Physics behind – The air drag The Air drag (scalar form) 1 FD   ACdV 2 2 Density Unit(kg/m3) Reference Area Unit(m2) Velocity Unit(m/s) Drag coefficient (dimensionless) Ref. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drag_(physics) Challenge the future 73
  • 74. Modeling Height 55.863 R 60mm R 40mm Courtesy of http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaning_Tower_of_Pisa Challenge the future 74
  • 75. Dynamics – Equilibrium (Scalar) Forces related to Cause ~ effect Inertia force Gravity d  mv dt •Earth Gravity d 2 x(t ) m dt 2 mg Boundary F Input x Reaction Friction •From the air 1  dx(t )    ACd   2  dt  2 x(t ) - travel along X-axis Challenge the future 75 0
  • 76. Dynamics – The model Forces related to Cause ~ effect Inertia force Gravity  d mv dt F x 0 •Earth Gravity Boundary 2 d 2 x(t ) 1  dx(t )  m  mg   ACd   0 dt 2 2 dt   Input Reaction Friction •From the air x(t ) - travel along X-axis Challenge the future 76
  • 77. Dynamics – The model Forces related to Cause ~ effect Inertia force Gravity  d mv dt F x 0 •Earth Gravity Boundary 2 d 2 x(t ) 1  dx(t )  m  mg   ACd   0 2 dt 2  dt  Input Reaction Friction •From the air x(t ) - travel along X-axis Challenge the future 77
  • 78. Dynamics – Equilibrium 2 d 2 x(t ) 1  dx(t )  m  mg   ACd   0 2 dt 2  dt  We choose The ball radiuses are 60mm and 40mm, respectively The balls are made from Iron, density is 7800kg/m3 The travel distances is 50 meters The density of air is 1.204kg/m3 The reference area is  r2 The drag coefficient is 0.47 Challenge the future 78
  • 79. Dynamics – Equilibrium 2 d 2 x(t ) 1  dx(t )  m  mg   ACd   0 2 dt 2  dt  We choose IronV 4  Iron  r 3 3 The ball radiuses are 60mm and 40mm, respectively The balls are made from Iron, density is 7874kg/m3 The travel distances is 50 meters The density of air is 1.204kg/m3 The reference area is  r2 The drag coefficient is 0.47 Challenge the future 79
  • 80. Dynamics – Solve Big Small The big ball is 0.062 second faster Indeed, our experience is right, the big ball is faster. It is just hardly noticeable in this case (Human average reaction time: 0.215 second) Ref. http://www.humanbenchmark.com/tests/reactiontime/index.php Challenge the future 80
  • 81. Evaluations – Wooden ball Big Small 0.64 second, which is 10 times larger Now we know how smart Galileo Galilei is Challenge the future 81
  • 82. Safety regarding Wooden ball Safety region Courtesy of http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/deadly-storms-lash-europe/2007/01/12/1168105153228.html, http://www.bluffton.edu/~bergerd/classes/NSC109/Handouts/answers2-3.html Challenge the future 82
  • 83. The power of wind April 18, 2013 Challenge the future 83
  • 84. Wind speed in Pisa Data from http://www.windfinder.com/forecast/pisa 11 Knots = 5.66 meter/s
  • 85. Dynamics – Equilibrium F y ces related to Cause ~ effect  force y  d mv dt •Earth Gravity put eaction iction Y+ Wind Wind Wind ary •From the air 0 R 60mm R 40mm
  • 86. Dynamics – Equilibrium along Y es related to Cause ~ effect force d  mv dt d 2 y (t ) m dt 2 •Earth Gravity F y ry ut action ction •From the air 1  AC d 2 dy ( t )   V wind    dt   2 0
  • 87. Dynamics – Equilibrium along Y ces related to Cause ~ effect a force y  eaction riction y 0 d mv dt •Earth Gravity dary nput F 2 •From the air d 2 y (t ) 1 dy (t )   m   ACd  Vwind   0 dt 2 dt  
  • 88. Dynamics – Equilibrium 2 d 2 y (t ) 1 dy (t )   m   ACd  Vwind   0 dt 2 dt   We choose The ball radiuses are 60mm and 40mm, respectively The balls are made from Wood, the density is 684kg/m3 The wind speed is 5.66 m/s The density of air is 1.204kg/m3 The reference area is  r2 The drag coefficient is 0.47
  • 89. Dynamics – Equilibrium .5 meters Small 14.28 meters
  • 90. Safety region – Wooden ball 14.28 meters Safety region
  • 91. Safety region – Wooden ball Lean angle 5.5 degree Height 50 meters D = Height*tan(Lean angle)= 4.2 meters D Small wooden ball 14.28 meters
  • 92. How about an iron ball? Big Small 0.77 meter 1.16 meter
  • 93. Safety region – Iron ball 1.16 meters Safety region
  • 94. Safety region – Iron ball Lean angle 5.5 degree Height 50 meter D = 4.2 meters D Small iron ball 1.16 meter Now we know more about Galileo Galilei.
  • 95. ummary
  • 96. What did we learn Forces related  to Cause ~ effect System e-effect relationships Gravity Boundary Input Reaction Friction Check them, please, then tem components Inertia force F  0 M  0
  • 97. Workshop
  • 98. Workshops: Questions & Coaching Workshops: A sample question 1 coach 1~2 TA(s) Grading 0 •Not presented 0.5 •No progress 1 •Progressing
  • 99. How to do it? Advanced oices Cause-Effects Effects n Brief etch reen Line stem
  • 100. G-W-0 Slide:  The slide is straight, 5 meters long. In the initial design, the leaning angle 30 degrees. The slide is fixed on the ground, it surface friction coefficient 0.2. The accuracy of the leaning angle specified by you should be within ±1 degree. Child:  Weight 20kg, he keeps still in the process. 3
  • 101. G-W-0 Sketch: ystem Earth Air System Child Slide mg
  • 102. The Maple solution will be online after the workshop
  • 103. Please check MapleDoc The MapleDoc
  • 104. Demo Maple Demo Do and Don’t Maple Demo Workshop G-W-0 G-W-0 Practice G-W-0 by yourself, please
  • 105. Thank You! The Modelling Team Department of Design Engineering
  • 106. njoy Sunshine, Enjoy Modelling hen the spring is coming, Modelling is coming