Evolving Design - Lecture7. Hydraulics & pneumatics

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Evolving Design - Lecture7. Hydraulics & pneumatics

  1. 1. HYDRAULICS & PNEUMATICS DICK H. PLETTENBURGEvolving Design WB3110 Vermelding onderdeel organisatie
  2. 2. innovative upper extremity prostheses and orthoses www.dipo.3me.tudelft.nl ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  3. 3. Hydraulic: etymology• Latin hydraulicus, Greek hydraulikos, from hydraulis hydraulic organ [water organ], from hydor [water]+ aulos [pipe]Merriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  4. 4. Hydraulic: definition• 1 : operated, moved, or effected by means of waterMerriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  5. 5. Hydraulic: definition• 2 a : of or relating to hydraulics <hydraulic engineer> b : of or relating to water or other liquid in motion <hydraulic erosion>Merriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  6. 6. Hydraulic: definition• 3 : operated by the resistance offered or the pressure transmitted when a quantity of liquid (as water or oil) is forced through a comparatively small orifice or through a tube <hydraulic brakes>Merriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  7. 7. Hydraulic: definition• 4 : hardening or setting under water <hydraulic cement>Merriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  8. 8. Pneumatic: etymology• Latin pneumaticus, Greek pneumatikos, from pneumat-, pneuma air, breath, spirit, from pnein to breatheMerriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  9. 9. Pneumatic: definition• 1 : of, relating to, or using gas (as air or wind): a : moved or worked by air pressure b (1) : adapted for holding or inflated with compressed air (2) : having air-filled cavitiesMerriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  10. 10. Pneumatic: definition• 2 : of or relating to the pneuma : SPIRITUALMerriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  11. 11. Pneumatic: definition• 3 : having a well- proportioned feminine figure; especially : having a full bustMerriam-Webster Dictionary ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  12. 12. Hydraulics Fluid PowerPneumatics ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  13. 13. Basic Principles ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  14. 14. G ev i on ap co or sit nd on at po en ion a tide sa m tio bli n su freezingS L melting ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  15. 15. www.grc.nasa.gov ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  16. 16. Blaise Pascal, 1623 - 1662en.wikipedia.org ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  17. 17. Pascal’s Law:“a change in the pressure of an enclosed incompressiblefluid is conveyed undiminished to every part of the fluidand to the surfaces of its container” ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  18. 18. en.wikipedia.org ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  19. 19. SI unit of pressure or stress: 1 Pa = 1 N / m2 100 kPa  1 bar ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  20. 20. en.wikipedia.org ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  21. 21. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburgn.wikipedia.org
  22. 22. en.wikipedia.org ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  23. 23. www.grc.nasa.gov ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  24. 24. www.grc.nasa.gov ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  25. 25. www.grc.nasa.gov ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  26. 26. Simona - TUDelft ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  27. 27. TUDelft – www.ampelmann.nl ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  28. 28. www.festo.com ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  29. 29. Advantages of hydraulics Fluid does not absorb any of the supplied energy. The hydraulic working fluid is basically incompressible, leading to a minimum of spring action. When hydraulic fluid flow is stopped, the slightest motion of the load releases the pressure on the load; there is no need to "bleed off" pressurised air to release the pressure on the load. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  30. 30. Advantages of pneumaticsClean Air is used by a machine & is then exhausted to the atmosphere - no return line necessary. Any leaks will be of air (which is much less of a problem than oil leaks in Hydraulics).Availability Air is freely available in the pneumatics Most factories are pre-plumbed for compressed air distribution - which makes it very easy to set up a manufacturing processSimplicity of Design And Control Machines are easily designed using standard cylinders & other components. Control is as easy as its simple ON - OFF type control ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  31. 31. Advantages of pneumatics (cont.)Reliability Pneumatic systems tend to have long operating lives and require very little maintenance. Because air is compressable, the equipment is less likely to be damaged by shock. The air in pneumatics absorbs excessive force, whereas the fluid of hydraulics directly transfers force.Storage Compressed Air can be stored, allowing the use of machines when electrical power is lost.Safety Very small fire hazard (compared to Hydraulic Oil) Machines can be designed to be overload safe. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  32. 32. THE AMAZING WORLD OF PNEUMATICS ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  33. 33. Ctesibius (Κτησίβιος) [285 – 222 bc] ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  34. 34. 280 – 220 BC ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  35. 35. 10 – 70 AD ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  36. 36. Hero van Alexandrië ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  37. 37. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  38. 38. Hero van Alexandrië ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  39. 39. • aërofonen ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  40. 40. William Murdoch, 1754 - 1839 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  41. 41. William Murdoch: Engineer at Boulton & Watt Inventor of • gas lightning ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  42. 42. William Murdoch: Engineer at Boulton & Watt Inventor of • gas lightning ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  43. 43. William Murdoch: Engineer at Boulton & Watt Inventor of • gas lightning • sun and planet gear ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  44. 44. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  45. 45. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  46. 46. William Murdoch: Engineer at Boulton & Watt Inventor of • gas lightning • sun and planet gear • steam carriage ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  47. 47. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  48. 48. William Murdoch: Engineer at Boulton & Watt Inventor of • gas lightning • sun and planet gear • steam carriage • pneumatic tube message system • and many more ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  49. 49. http://www.dself.dsl.pipex.com ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  50. 50. The Central Telegraph Office of the GPO inLondon, Oct 1932http://www.dself.dsl.pipex.com ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  51. 51. http://www.trasa.ctrnactka.net/pod_doc/ppp.htm ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  52. 52. http://www.cix.co.uk/~mhayhurst/jdhayhurst/pneumatic/book1.html ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  53. 53. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rohrpost ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  54. 54. Pneumatics – time line1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 1965: large scale application of pneumatics. Industrial automization; tools; packaging food, etc. 1940-1945: development for the war industry Parijs: pneumatic tubes NS: pneumatic for stores and banks release of brakes ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  55. 55. ± 1900en.wikipedia.org ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  56. 56. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  57. 57. 1932 www.theaircar.com ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  58. 58. Fill pressure: 30 MPa Tank capacity: 0.3 m3 Range: 300km Max speed: 110 km/hwww.zevcat.com ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  59. 59. www.missouri-on-tour.nl www.floor-bv.nl ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  60. 60. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  61. 61. www.vt-totaal.nl [Wabco] ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  62. 62. ‘Faszination Pneumatik’ ISBN 3-8023-1886-2 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  63. 63. OR-gate AND-gatePistecky, 1976 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  64. 64. YES-gatePistecky, 1976 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  65. 65. NOT-gatePistecky, 1976 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  66. 66. www.festo.com ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  67. 67. PNEUMATICALLY POWERED PROSTHESES ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  68. 68. Dalish, 1877 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  69. 69. Dalish, 1877 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  70. 70. Dahlheim, 1915 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  71. 71. Anonymous, 1919 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  72. 72. Forcher, 1920 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  73. 73. Cool & Hooreweder, 1971 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  74. 74. Cool & Hooreweder, 1971 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  75. 75. ‘Inventions in the field of orthopaedic technology arethe proof of a missing reading list’ Prof. G.G. Kuhn, University of Münster, Germany ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  76. 76. Häfner, 1948 [Löffler, 1984] ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  77. 77. Lucaccini, 1966 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  78. 78. Lucaccini, 1966 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  79. 79. Lucaccini, 1966 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  80. 80. Lucaccini, 1966 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  81. 81. Otto Bock Healthcare GmbH ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  82. 82. AIPR, 1961 - 1969 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  83. 83. AIPR, 1961 - 1969 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  84. 84. AIPR, 1961 - 1969 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  85. 85. AIPR, 1961 - 1969 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  86. 86. AIPR, 1961 - 1969 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  87. 87. Steeper, 1963 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  88. 88. Baumgartner, 1977 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  89. 89. Baumgartner, 1977 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  90. 90. Kenworthy, 1974 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  91. 91. McWilliam et.al., 1970 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  92. 92. McWilliam et.al., 1970 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  93. 93. Bousso, 1969 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  94. 94. Bousso, 1969 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  95. 95. L.E. Carlson, 1971 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  96. 96. ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  97. 97. Schultz et.al., 2001 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  98. 98. Schultz et.al., 2001 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  99. 99. Forschungszentrum, Karlsruhe ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  100. 100. Plettenburg, 2002 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  101. 101. Vanderbilt University, USA ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  102. 102. Foto: Alex Ridder ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  103. 103. McKIBBEN-MUSCLECarlson, 1971 ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  104. 104. Shadow, UK ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  105. 105. Shadow, UK ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  106. 106. www.festo.com ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  107. 107. DBL, Netherlands ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  108. 108. DBL, Netherlands ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  109. 109. Vanderbilt University, USA ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  110. 110. www.festo.com ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  111. 111. www.geocities.comyoramretter ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  112. 112. www.zippy-online.co.uk ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  113. 113. home.people.net.au/~aircommand/ ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  114. 114. home.people.net.au/~aircommand/ ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg
  115. 115. THE AMAZING WORLD OF PNEUMATICS ©2010 Dick H. Plettenburg

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