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Electrical power drivers  et3026 wb lecture 9-13
 

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    Electrical power drivers  et3026 wb lecture 9-13 Electrical power drivers et3026 wb lecture 9-13 Presentation Transcript

    • March 22, 2009 1 Elektrische Aandrijvingen WTB Lokatie/evenement P.BAUER
    • March 22, 2009 2
    • March 22, 2009 3 Figure 21.1 Potential level method of representing voltages. Figure 21.2 Potential levels of terminals 1, 2, and 3. Fundamental Elements of Power Electronics
    • March 22, 2009 4 Figure 21.3 Changing the reference terminal. Figure 21.4 The relative potential levels are the same as in Fig. 21.2.
    • March 22, 2009 5 Voltage across some circuit elements Figure 21.5 Potential across a switch. Figure 21.6 Potential across a resistor. Figure 21.7 Potential across an inductor. Figure 21.8 Potential across a capacitor.
    • March 22, 2009 6 Figure 21.9 Basic rules governing diode behavior. Diode
    • March 22, 2009 7 Figure 21.10 (continued) a. Average current: 4 A; PIV: 400 V; body length: 10 mm; diameter: 5.6 mm. b. Average current: 15 A; PIV: 500 V; stu type; length less thread: 25 mm; diameter: 17 mm. c. Average current: 500 A; PIV: 2000 V; length less thread: 244 mm; diameter: 40 mm. d. Average current: 2600 A; PIV: 2500 V; Hockey Puk; distance between pole-faces: 35 mm; diameter: 98 mm. (Photos courtesy of Internationa Rectifier) Figure 21.10 (continued) a. Average current: 4 A; PIV: 400 V; body length: 10 mm; diameter: 5.6 mm. b. Average current: 15 A; PIV: 500 V; stud type; length less thread: 25 mm; diameter: 17 mm. c. Average current: 500 A; PIV: 2000 V; length less thread: 244 mm; diameter: 40 mm. d. Average current: 2600 A; PIV: 2500 V; Hockey Puk; distance between pole-faces: 35 mm; diameter: 98 mm. (Photos courtesy of International Rectifier) Figure 21.10 (continued) a. Average current: 4 A; PIV: 400 V; body length: 10 mm; diameter: 5.6 mm. b. Average current: 15 A; PIV: 500 V; stud type; length less thread: 25 mm; diameter: 17 mm. c. Average current: 500 A; PIV: 2000 V; lengt h less thread: 244 mm; diameter: 40 mm. d. Average current: 2600 A; PIV: 2500 V; Hockey Puk; distance between pole-faces: 35 mm; diameter: 98 mm. (Photos courtesy of International Rectifier) Figure 21.10 a. Average current: 4 A; PIV: 400 V; body length: 10 mm; diameter: 5.6 mm. b. Average current: 15 A; PIV: 500 V; stud type; length less thread: 25 mm; diameter: 17 mm. c. Average current: 500 A; PIV: 2000 V; length less thread: 244 mm; diameter: 40 mm. d. Average current: 2600 A; PIV: 2500 V; Hockey Puk; distance between pole-faces: 35 mm; diameter: 98 mm. (Photos courtesy of International Rectifier)
    • March 22, 2009 8 Figure 21.11 a. Simple battery charger circuit. b. Corresponding voltage and current waveforms. Figure 21.11 (continued) a. Simple battery charger circuit. b. Corresponding voltage and current waveforms. Battery charger with resistor
    • March 22, 2009 9 Battery charger with inductor Figure 21.12 a. Battery charger using a series inductor. b. Corresponding voltage and current waveforms. Figure 21.12 (continued) a. Battery charger using a series inductor. B Corresponding voltage and current waveforms.
    • March 22, 2009 10 Figure 21.12c See Example 21-1. Example 21.1
    • March 22, 2009 11 Figure 21.13a a. Single-phase bridge rectifier. b. Voltage levels. Figure 21.13b a. Single-phase bridge rectifier. b. Voltage levels. Single bridge diode rectifier
    • March 22, 2009 12 Figure 21.13c Voltage and current waveforms in load R.
    • March 22, 2009 13 Figure 21.14 a. Rectifier with inductive filter. b. Rectifier with capacitive filter. Figure 21.15 Current and voltage waveforms with inductive filter.
    • March 22, 2009 14 Figure 21.18 Dual 3-phase, 3-pulse rectifier.
    • March 22, 2009 15 Figure 21.19 Three-phase, 6-pulse rectifier with inductive filter. Three-phase 6 pulse rectifierFigure 21.20 Voltage and current waveforms in Fig. 21.19.
    • March 22, 2009 16 Figure 21.21 Another way of showing EKA using line voltage potentials. Note also the position of E2N with respect to the line voltages.
    • March 22, 2009 17 Figure 21.22 Successive diode connections between the 3-phase input and dc output terminals of a 3-phase, 6-pulse rectifier.
    • March 22, 2009 18 Figure 21.23 Line-to-neutral voltage and line current in phase 2 of Fig. 21.20. Effective, fundamental line current
    • March 22, 2009 19 Figure 21.24 Symbol of a thyristor, or SCR. The thyristor
    • March 22, 2009 20 Figure 21.25 a. A thyristor does not conduct when the gate is connected to the cathode. b. A thyristor conducts when the anode is positive and a current pulse is injected into the gate.
    • March 22, 2009 21 Figure 21.26 Range of SCRs from medium to very high power capacity.
    • March 22, 2009 22 Figure 21.27 a. Thyristor and resistor connected to an ac source. B . Thyristor behavior depends on the timing of the gate pulses. Figure 21.27 (continued) a. Thyristor and resistor connected to an ac source . b. Thyristor behavior depends on the timing of the gate pulses.
    • March 22, 2009 23 Figure 21.28 a. Thyristor connected to a dc source. b. Forced commutation.
    • March 22, 2009 24 Figure 21.29 A discharging capacitor C and an auxiliary thyristor Q2 can force-commutate the main thyristor Q1. Thus, the current in load R can be switched on and off by triggering Q1 and Q2 in succession.
    • March 22, 2009 25 Figure 21.30 a. SCR supplying a passive load. b. Voltage and current waveforms.
    • March 22, 2009 26 Figure 21.31 a. SCR supplying an active load. b. Voltage and current waveforms.
    • March 22, 2009 27 Figure 21.32 a. Line-commutated inverter. b. Voltage and current waveforms. Line commutated inverter
    • March 22, 2009 28 Figure 21.33 a. Electronic contactor. b. Waveforms with a resistive load.
    • March 22, 2009 29 Figure 21.34 Elementary cycloconverter. Cycloconverter Figure 21.35 Typical voltage output of a cycloconverter.
    • March 22, 2009 30 Figure 21.36 Three-phase, 6-pulse thyristor converter. 3 phase 6 pulse contr. converter
    • March 22, 2009 31 Figure 21.40a Delay angle: zero.
    • March 22, 2009 32 Figure 21.40b Delay angle: 15°.
    • March 22, 2009 33 Figure 21.40c Delay angle: 45°.
    • March 22, 2009 34 Figure 21.40d Delay angle: 75°.
    • March 22, 2009 35 • The 3 phase converter is connected to 3 phase 480 V 60 Hz source, Load 500 V dc resistance 2 ohm. Calculate the power supplied to the load for delays of 15 and 75. Example 21.17 • Ed = 1,35 E cos ά voltage drop on R • E= Ed - Eo • Id = E/R • P = EdId
    • March 22, 2009 36 Figure 21.41 Three-phase, 6-pulse converter in the inverter mode. Inverter mode
    • March 22, 2009 37 Figure 21.42a Triggering sequence and waveforms with a delay angle of 105°.
    • March 22, 2009 38 Figure 21.42b Triggering sequence and waveforms with a delay angle of 135°.
    • March 22, 2009 39 Figure 21.42c Triggering sequence and waveforms with a delay angle of 165°.
    • March 22, 2009 40 Figure 21.43 Permitted gate firing zones for thyristor Q1.
    • March 22, 2009 41 Figure 21.44 Equivalent circuit of a thyristor converter.
    • March 22, 2009 42 Figure 21.45 Equivalent circuit of a 3-phase converter in the rectifier mode.
    • March 22, 2009 43 Figure 21.46 Equivalent circuit of a 3-phase thyristor converter in the inverter mode.
    • March 22, 2009 44 Figure 21.47 Voltage and current waveforms in the thyristor converter of Fig. 21.39 with a delay angle of 45°.
    • March 22, 2009 45 Figure 21.48 See Example 21-11.
    • March 22, 2009 46 Figure 21.49 a. Instantaneous commutation in a rectifier when ∝ = 45° (see Fig. 21.58). b. Same conditions with commutation overlap of 30°, showing current waveshapes in Q1, Q3, Q5.
    • March 22, 2009 47 Figure 21.49 (continued) a. Instantaneous commutation in a rectifier when ∝ = 45° (see Fig. 21.58). b. Same conditions with commutation overlap of 30°, showing current waveshapes in Q1, Q3, Q5.
    • March 22, 2009 48 Figure 21.50 Waveshape of i1 in thyristor Q1 for a delay angle ∝. The extinction angle γ permits Q1 to establish its blocking ability before the critical angle of 300° is reached. At 300° the anode of Q1 becomes positive with respect to its cathode. The figure also shows the relationship between angles ∝, β, γ, and u.
    • March 22, 2009 49 Figure 21.51 Typical properties and approximate limits of GTOs and thyristors in the on and off states.
    • March 22, 2009 50 Figure 21.54 Typical properties and approximate limits of IGBTs.
    • March 22, 2009 51
    • March 22, 2009 52 Figure 21.59 E and I in the inductor of Fig. 21.58.
    • March 22, 2009 53 Figure 21.60a Currents in a chopper circuit. • Io = (Ia + Ib)/2 • IS = Io (Ta/T) • IS = Io D
    • March 22, 2009 54 Figure 21.60b Current in the load. • EsIs = EoIo • Eo=EsIs/Io • Eo= D Es
    • March 22, 2009 55 Figure 21.60c Current pulses provided by the source.
    • March 22, 2009 56 Example 21-11 Charge 120 V battery from 600 V dc source using a dc chopper, average current 20 App ripple 2 A, f =200Hz • dc current from the source • dc current in the diode • the duty cycle • inductance of the inductor • P = EoIo • Is = P/ Es
    • March 22, 2009 57 Example 21-11 Charge 120 V battery from 600 V dc source using a dc chopper, average current 20 App ripple 2 A, f =200Hz • dc current from the source • dc current in the diode • the duty cycle • inductance of the inductor • ID = Io- Is • D = Eo/ Es
    • March 22, 2009 58 Example 21-11 Charge 120 V battery from 600 V dc source using a dc chopper, average current 20 App ripple 2 A, f =200Hz • dc current from the source • dc current in the diode • the duty cycle • inductance of the inductor • ID = Io- Is • D = Eo/ Es
    • March 22, 2009 59 2 quadrant DC-DC converter • EL=D EH
    • March 22, 2009 60 Figure 21.64 Power can flow from EH to EO and vice versa. • IL = (EL- Eo)/ R EL > Eo
    • March 22, 2009 61 Figure 21.65 Circuit of Example 21-13. EL < Eo
    • March 22, 2009 62 Example 21-13. 100 V, 30 V, S ohm, 10 mH, 20 kHz, D=0,2 Value and direction of IL Pp ripple • EL = D EH= 20V • IL = (Eo- EL)/ R • T = 1/f
    • March 22, 2009 63 Figure 21.66 See Example 21-13.
    • March 22, 2009 64 Figure 21.67 See Example 21-13.
    • March 22, 2009 65 Figure 21.69 Two-quadrant electronic converter.
    • March 22, 2009 66 Figure 21.70 Four-quadrant dc-to-dc converter. • EL = D EH= 20V
    • March 22, 2009 67 Figure 21.70 Four-quadrant dc-to-dc converter. • ELL = EH (2D-1)
    • March 22, 2009 68 Figure 21.73 Four-quadrant dc-to-dc converter feeding a passive dc load R.
    • March 22, 2009 69 Figure 21.74 Four-quadrant dc-to-dc converter feeding an active dc source/sink Eo.
    • March 22, 2009 70 Figure 21.75a Switching semiconductor and snubber.
    • March 22, 2009 71 Figure 21.76a The square wave contains a fundamental sinusiodal component.
    • March 22, 2009 72 Figure 21.76b Single-phase dc-to-ac switching converter in which D = 0.5 and f can be varied.
    • March 22, 2009 73 Figure 21.77 Four-quadrant dc-to-ac switching converter using carrier frequency fc and three fixed values of D. • ELL = EH (2D-1)
    • March 22, 2009 74 Figure 21.78 Frequency and amplitude control by varying D.
    • March 22, 2009 75 Figure 21.79 Frequency, amplitude, and phase control by varying D.
    • March 22, 2009 76 Figure 21.80 Waveshape control by varying D.
    • March 22, 2009 77 Dc-AC SINE WAVE CONVERTER • ELL = EH (2D-1) • EH given • ELL requested f(t) • E = Em sin (360ft+ θ) • D(t) = 0.5 [1+Em/EH sin (360ft+ θ)] • amplitude modulation ratio
    • March 22, 2009 78 Example 21-14 • 200V dc source 4 q, switching converter operating at the carrier of 8kHz, desired sinusoidal 120 V 97Hz and θ=35 • Em = 120 Sqrt(2) = 170 V • m= Em / EH = 170/200 =0,85 • mf= fc / f= 8000/97 =82,47 • D(t) = 0.5 [1+Em/EH sin (360ft+ θ)]
    • March 22, 2009 79 Figure 21.82 Positive half-cycle of the fundamental 83.33 Hz voltage comprises six carrier periods of 1 ms each. • D(t) = 0.5 [1+Em/EH)
    • March 22, 2009 80 Figure 21.85 A two-quadrant PWM chopper and its load. The filter eliminates the unwanted carrier frequency component.
    • March 22, 2009 81 Figure 21.87 A comparator determines the crossing points between the miniature version ES of the wanted waveshape EL(t) and a triangular waveshape, thereby producing the control signal D(t). The signal triggers the switches in the chopper to generate the PWM waveshape that contains the wanted output EL(t). .
    • March 22, 2009 82 DC-AC 3 phase converter
    • March 22, 2009 83 Figure 21.91 a. PWM pulses between terminals A and Y, and their sinusoidal EAY component. b. PWM pulses between terminals B and Y, and their sinusoidal EBY component.
    • March 22, 2009 84 Figure 21.91 a. PWM pulses between terminals A and Y, and their sinusoidal EAY component. b. PWM pulses between terminals B and Y, and their sinusoidal EBY component.
    • March 22, 2009 85 Figure 21.93 Block diagram of a 3-phase PWM converter.
    • March 22, 2009 86
    • March 22, 2009 87 Example 21.15 •3 phase 245 V 60 Hz wanted, dc = 500 V , fc=540 Hz • the peak value of fundamental voltage •L1 N • ELN = 245/ sqrt(3)= 141 V • Em = ELN sqrt (2) = 200 V
    • March 22, 2009 88 Figure 21.95 See Example 21-15.
    • March 22, 2009 89 Figure 21.94 A more detailed diagram of a 3-phase PWM converter using IGBTs and a 3-phase RLC filter to suppress the carrier frequency components. The capacitors across the dc side provide a path for the reactive currents that are drawn by the 3-phase load.
    • March 22, 2009 90 Figure 21.97 Three-phase PWM voltages produced by a dc-to-ac converter operating at a carrier frequency of 540 Hz with a 500 V dc input. Top: EAY, EBY, ECY outputs, peak sinusoidal component = 200 V. Bottom: EAB, EBC, ECA outputs, peak 60 Hz sinusoidal component = 346 V, RMS value = 245 V.
    • March 22, 2009 91 Energy management
    • March 22, 2009 92 Variable voltage system
    • March 22, 2009 93
    • March 22, 2009 94 Series hybrid drivetrain
    • March 22, 2009 95 Parallel hybrid drivetrain
    • March 22, 2009 96 Energy storage can be classified as • Mechanical Energy Storage. • Magnetic Energy Storage. • Thermal Energy Storage. • Chemical Energy Storage.
    • March 22, 2009 97 Energy storage device Fundamental properties • the energy that can be stored in the element; • the power that can be drawn from/charged in the storage element; • the specific energy (energy per unit weight); • the specific power (power per unit weight); • the energy density (energy per unit volume); • the power density (power per unit volume).
    • March 22, 2009 98 Energy storage device Technology and economy • cycle life; • self-discharge; • costs • fast charge time; • cell voltage; • load current; • maintenance requirement; • energy efficiency.
    • March 22, 2009 99
    • March 22, 2009 100 Mechanical Energy Storage: Fly Wheels • Principle: Energy is stored in the form of Mechanical Energy. • Light weight fiber composite materials are used to increase efficiency. • Energy density =0.05MJ/Kg, η=0.8
    • March 22, 2009 101 •The Energy Density is defined as the Energy per unit mass: •Where, V is the circular velocity of the flywheel σ is the specific strength of a material ρ is the density of the material • 2E 1 V m 2 σ = = ρ
    • March 22, 2009 102 Properties of some materials used for building flywheels.
    • March 22, 2009 103 Advantages and disadvantages: • Very compact when compared to other energy storage systems. • Flywheels are used for starting and braking locomotives. • A flywheel is preferred due to light weight and high energy capacity. • It is not economical as it had a limited amount of charge/discharge cycle.
    • March 22, 2009 104 Batteries • the lead-acid battery, nickel cadmium battery (NiCd), the nickel metal hydride battery (NiMH) and the Lithium ion battery (Li-ion). iR 0E ohmR 2 0 peak,storage int ohm4( ) E P R R = + peak,storagepeak,storage /gram P P m =
    • March 22, 2009 105 Battery model
    • March 22, 2009 106 Comparison of prices 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 VRLA [A] Lead - acid [B] NiCd [B] NiMH [A] NiMH [B] Li-ion HE [A] Li-ion HP [C] Price[$/kWh] Low High
    • March 22, 2009 107 Supercapacitor sR C cu lR 2 peak,storage s4( ) cu P R = 21 C2E Cu=
    • March 22, 2009 108 ---------------7 0 -91,33 6 [17] -750- 1200 + -200- 300 70- 95 - -low environmental impact -moderat e --20 to 40 ----------65- 70 Mod erate 10800- 1200 33 200- 600 -40- 80 - flat-----20 to 50 --mod erat e to high --1,01,2 5- 1,1 0 1, 4 1,2--15- 2534 35 2-5300- 6002 6 33 --753524 035 -relatively low toxicity but should be recycled thermall y stable, fuse recomm ended 60 to 90 days low-20 to 6032 2 to 4 200 to 3003 0 40 -≤ 0, 5 5---1,2 539 --3028 38 -300 to 5002 6 27 37 --60- 120 -N i M H ---------------7 5 -15,23 6 -800-80- 150 50- 60 - very flat -----40 to 45 --mod erat e to high --1,01,2 5- 1,0 0 1, 29 1,2--15- 2034 35 2-5300- 7002 6 33 --353510 035 Sealed very flat -----40 to 50 --high--1,01,2 5- 1,0 0 1, 29 1,2--1034 35 3-10500- 2000 26 33 --30- 3735 58- 963 5 Vente d Sintere d plate flat-----20 to 45 --high--1,01,2 5- 1,0 0 1, 29 1,2--534 358-25500- 2000 26 33 --2035403 5 Vente d Pocket plate -Highly toxic, environmentally unfriendly thermall y stable, fuse recomm ended 30 to 60 days moder ate -40 to 6032 1[16 ] 100- 2003 0 [15] -12 0 ---1,2 5[14 ] --2028 [13] -1500 27 [12] --45- 80 -N i C d ---------------> 8 0 -9,1[11 ] -500- 1000 -150- 400 35- 50 - -high environmental impact -1 check/y ear -10 to 30 ----------75- 95 Very low 51000 33 50- 100 -10- 20 -VRLA flat-----20 to 40 --mod erat ely high --1,7 5 2,0 - 1,8 2, 1 2,0--4-6[9] [10] 61500 26 [8] --2535803 5 Tracti on -lead and acids environmentally unfriendly thermall y stable 3 to 6 months high-20 to 60[7] 8 to 16 < 100[ 5] [6] -0, 2 5 [ 4 ] ---2--5[3]-200- 300[ 1] [2] 37 --30- 50 -SealedL ea d- ac id B es t R es ul t P e a k En d of Lif e Op era tin g O pe n Ci rc ui t No mi nal O ve ra ll Ch arg ing conti nuo us pea k Disc harg e- prof ile (rela tivel y) ToxicitySafetyMainte nance Requir ement Overc harge Toler ance Opera ting Temp eratur e [°C] Fa st Ch arg e Ti me [h] Inte rnal Resi stan ce [mΩ ] Pow er Den sity Load Current [C] Cell Voltage [V]Efficiency [%] Self- disch arge [%/ mont h] Cale nda r life [yea rs] Cycl e life Specific Power [W/kg] Spe cific Ene rgy [Wh /kg] En erg y De nsi ty [W h/l]
    • March 22, 2009 109 -low environmental impact -no--25 to 65 ----------85 – 95 Low> 10> 500. 000 500 – 2000 -1 – 3 -S u p er ca p ac it or ????????????????????????HP (info epyon) -lowprotecti on circuit recomm ended; stable to 150 °C not require d low, no trickle charge -20 to 6032 ≤ 125- 5030 46 -≤ 1 0 > 3 0 ---3,3--1028 45 -> 1000 27 [5] --90- 120 -HP (phosp hate) -lowprotecti on circuit recomm ended; stable to 250 °C not require d low, no trickle charge -20 to 6032 ≤ 125- 7530 [4] -≤ 1 0 > 3 0 ---3,6 43 --1028 [3] -bette r than 300- 5002 6 27 --100- 135 -HP (mang anese) ---------------> 9 5 -10,63 6 -≥ 1000 -200- 300 80- 130 -HE -low environmental impact -moderat e --20 to 45 ----------90- 95 Mod erate 10> 1000 33 200- 1000 -60- 100 -HE slopi ng -----20 to 50 --mod erat e; high in pris mati c desi gns --3, 0 4,0- 3,0 4, 1 4,0--234 35->10 0026 33 --1503 5 40 035 HE (cobalt ) -lowprotecti on circuit required ; stable to 150 °C not require d low, no trickle charge -20 to 6032 1,5 to 3 150- 3003 0 [2] -≤ 1 < 3 ---3,6[ 1] --1028 45 -300- 5002 6 27 --HE (cobalt ) Li - io n B es t R es ul t P e a k E nd of Li fe Ope rati ng O pe n Ci rc ui t No mi nal O ve ra ll Ch arg ing conti nuo us pea k Disc harg e- prof ile (rela tivel y) ToxicitySafetyMainte nance Requir ement Overc harge Toler ance Opera ting Temp eratur e [°C] Fa st Ch arg e Ti me [h] Inte rnal Resi stan ce [mΩ ] Pow er Den sity Load Current [C] Cell Voltage [V]Efficiency [%] Self- disch arge [%/ mont h] Cale nda r life [yea rs] Cycl e life Specific Power [W/kg] Spe cific Ene rgy [Wh /kg] En erg y De nsi ty [W h/l] rage voltage under load is 3,7 V, so higher than the nominal voltage. The battery is often rated to this average voltage. pack. internal protection circuit uses 3 % of the stored energy per month. cell. conditions.
    • March 22, 2009 110 Case study Stand alone systems with diesel generator and 4Q operation (crane, elevator, car) • Size of the energy storage and generator (cost) • Power Management Strategy (PMS) • voltage level and interface with power electronic converter
    • March 22, 2009 111 Hybrid Dynamic Systems with Energy Storage Stand alone systems with diesel generator and 4Q operation (crane, elevator, car) • Size of the energy storage and generator (cost) • Power Management Strategy • voltage level and interface with power electronic converter Fig. 3. System topology for generator with Super capacitor. Fig. 2. System topology for generator with Li-ion HP battery. Fig. 1. Overview of generator with energy storage for 4Q-load.
    • March 22, 2009 112 Load profile 1. hoisting the empty spreader; 2. moving the trolley without load; 3. moving the crane; 4. lowering the spreader without load; 5. hoisting a container; 6. moving the trolley with a container; 7. moving the crane with a container; 8. lowering the container.
    • March 22, 2009 113 Simplified power profile
    • March 22, 2009 114 Only Generator • Max 1 pu, average power 0,14 pu • Breaking resistor PB1 PB2
    • Dia 114 PB1 The first part of the graph shows the elevator accelerating to travel up, travels up for a while at constant speed and decelerates. In the second part of the graph the elevator accelerates to travel down, travels down for a while at constant speed, and decelerates. There is a need for a large peak power for a short period during acceleration, and that during deceleration the system supplies small peak energy back during a short period. P Bauer; 28-5-2008 PB2 the power is fully being supplied by a generator. This system shows no difference with the normal case and is used as a reference. The nominal peak power of the generator is P Bauer; 27-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 115 Only Generator
    • March 22, 2009 116 Peak power shaving • Generator Max power 0,78 pu, 0,021 pu stored PB3
    • Dia 116 PB3 When the Peak Power Shaving PMS is used, the generator supplies most of the power. The storage element only supplies the power peaks needed for a short period of time. Parts of more or less constant power are supplied by the generator.T he storage element will be small. Not all regenerated energy can be stored in the storage element because of this small size.The nominal peak power of the generator is 0,78 . The energy that should be stored in the storage element is P Bauer; 27-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 117 Peak power shaving
    • March 22, 2009 118 Dynamic Power Management PB4
    • Dia 118 PB4 The Dynamic Solution PMS (DS) is specially designed for use with a VSCF generator. Such a generator cannot react to changes in the output power instantaneously. The energy storage is used to supply/absorb the difference in needed power and power from the generator. P Bauer; 27-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 119 Dynamic Power Management
    • March 22, 2009 120 Average power • Generator Max 0,14 pu PB5
    • Dia 120 PB5 In the Average Power PMS (AV), the generator continuously supplies the average power needed. All variations on this average power will be supplied or absorbed by the energy storage. P Bauer; 27-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 121 Average power
    • March 22, 2009 122 Max On or Off Power Management • Generator Max 0,33 pu PB6 PB7
    • Dia 122 PB6 In the Max On or Off PMS (MOO), the generator supplies its maximum rated power or it is turned off. The generator is dimensioned in such a way that its power rating is higher than the average power needed P Bauer; 27-5-2008 PB7 P Bauer; 28-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 123 Max On or Off Power Management
    • March 22, 2009 124 Only storage PB8 PB9
    • Dia 124 PB8 The Only Storage PSM (OS) supplies only power from an energy storage device. The storage can be charged from the grid. Electricity from the grid is less expensive than electricity generated by a diesel generator (comparing [10] and [11]). Further unbalanced cycles becomes an option. P Bauer; 27-5-2008 PB9 The energy storage becomes never empty. But after one cycle the storage element contains less energy. The decrease in energy is: . The fact that the energy in the energy storage decreases makes this system, for this case study, not feasible as stand alone system. P Bauer; 27-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 125 Only storage
    • March 22, 2009 126 Figures of merit • energy recovery factor • dissipation factor recovered regenerated E REC E = dissipated regenerated E DIS E = PB10 PB11
    • Dia 126 PB10 The energy recovery factor is the ratio between the total amount of energy that is recovered from the load and stored in the storage element ( ), and the total energy that could be recovered from the load ( P Bauer; 27-5-2008 PB11 If , the dissipated and recovered energy is only the energy that could be recovered from the load. If, , energy is dissipated that comes straight from the generator. This is a disadvantageous situation. P Bauer; 28-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 127 Energy recovery
    • March 22, 2009 128 Li-ion HP 1 1 overSize EOL DOD = ⋅cycle (DOD, EOL)f x= = PB12
    • Dia 128 PB12 The lifetime of a Li-ion HP battery is depended on the depth of discharge (DOD), number of cycles and the age [4]. The dependency on the DOD is not linear, a lower DOD means a much larger cycle life [4]. This relation is given schematically in Fig. 14. The lifetime of a Li-ion battery is 10 year [4, 13]. P Bauer; 28-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 129 Sizes of the generator and storage PB13 PB14 PB15
    • Dia 129 PB13 From energy saving point of view an optimum can be found. This is the line where all regenerated energy can be stored in the energy storage. This is given with the horizontal line in P Bauer; 28-5-2008 PB14 For the lifetime for the Li-ion HP battery it was calculated in section V that the energy storage should be oversized with a factor 42,8 to get the optimal cycle life. This optimal cycle life is given by the dashed line in (Fig. 15a). P Bauer; 28-5-2008 PB15 Combining the optimal lines of (Fig. 15a) and (Fig. 15b) result in (Fig. 15c). The line for the optimal energy saving should be multiplied with the factor 42,8. The intersection of the obtained line and the optimal cycle life line gives an optimum. In the figure an illustration is given for the PMSs. The intersection found in (Fig. 15c) of the optimal cycle life line and the optimal energy line gives a theoretical technical optimum. P Bauer; 28-5-2008
    • March 22, 2009 130 Comparison for costs for the different PMSs
    • March 22, 2009 131
    • March 22, 2009 132 Data for cost calculation 3 pu nom,gen,peak59 10 4676 [€]P⋅ ⋅ + [22]43 %Fuel efficiency generator [21]35.700 [kJ/l]Caloric value diesel [7]75 [€/kW]Price power electronics [20]Price generator [13]45.000 [€/kWh]Price super capacitor [4]2.000 [€/kWh]Price Li-ion HP [10]0,10 [€/kWh]Price electricity [11]1,00 [€/l]Price fuel SourceDataParameter 3 pu nom,gen,peak59 10 4676 [€]P⋅ ⋅ +
    • March 22, 2009 133 Sensitivity study: Variable Fuel Prices
    • March 22, 2009 134 Sensitivity study: Variable Li-ion Prices
    • March 22, 2009 135 Sensitivity study: Variable Generator Prices
    • March 22, 2009 136 Sensitivity study: Variable Power Electronics Price
    • March 22, 2009 137 Experimental verification Max On Off
    • March 22, 2009 138
    • March 22, 2009 139 Conclusions • Six different pms are defined • Fuel prices and storage prices are the most sensitive element • After an increase of 40%of fuel prices and 25% decrease of Li-ion prices the Max On or Off method has an advantage over the dynamic solution