Day 2 exploring communication patterns


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TU Delft OC Focus course on international diversity in educational settings

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Day 2 exploring communication patterns

  1. 1. Day 2 International Diversity in Educational Settings Dr. R.G.Klaassen Centre on Educational Expertise FOCUS 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Today I• Recognise different cultural dimensions influencing communication• Getting to know your role as a teacher in creating the learning environment 2
  3. 3. Programme day 2• Warming up/Recap• Discuss student Interviews• Communication Styles• break• Cases• The International Classroom 3
  4. 4. Experience preparing for civil engineering fieldwork• Class preparing for development work – master elective – what does it mean to work in different cultural contexts• working method: Interview a phd student about his/her international experience, group hussle, report findings to the subgroup, conclusions on the blackboard, general discussion• One of the conclusions: – You cannot make a Giraffe out of a Duck – A Giraffe is a Giraffe is a Giraffe 4 Source: Maurits Ertsen
  5. 5. We are all Similar, Different & Unique 5
  6. 6. Signals in communicationMoments that are pregnant with cultural meaning are those which violate our common sense 7
  7. 7. Discuss Interview results1. ODIS Observe Describe Interprete Suspend Evaluation2. Was there any moment that violated your common sense during the interviews with the student?3. What underlying value might be attached4. In what way do expect this will influence the classroom behaviour of your students4. What is the eye-opener of this interview5. Your role in education6. Do your plan to change anything in your education on the basis of your findings7. If so discuss what you want to change• Plenary Share tips/tops on the basis of your findings 8
  8. 8. 9The invisible face of culture: why do Spanish toy manufacturers believe the British are most peculiar in business?Victoria Guillén Nieto, University of Alicante
  9. 9. Communication styles of Stella Ting-Toomey• Individualism – Collectivism• Small – large Power Distance• Independent Me- Interdependent me• Low contextual – High Contextual 10
  10. 10. Individualism vs CollectivismIndividualist approach: Collectivist approach:• Strong assertion of • Representation of personal opinions collective opinions or• Display of personal ideas emotions • Restraint of personal• Personal accountability emotions and for problems or expression mistakes • Protection of ingroup manner for personal accountability 11
  11. 11. 12East vs West: cultural differences by Yang Liu January, 2008
  12. 12. 13East vs West: cultural differences by Yang LiuJanuary, 2008
  13. 13. Individualist dealing with Collectivists:• Process and relational aspects are most important (face maintenance)• Pick up conflict signs at early stage and address them immediately (not in the group)• Give face (give credit where credit is due/ a claimed sense of self-respect in social interactions should be acknowledged)• Be sensitive to the importance of quiet• Discard outcome/problem focused negotiations• Cooling period after any confrontation 14
  14. 14. Collectivists dealing with individualists • Assume problem solving attitude • Openly express opinions/point of view • Engage in assertive, equalizing style of communication • Use “I” Statements in the decision making process • Provide verbal feedback and engage in active listening skills • Use direct verbal messages • Commit to working out the conflict situation 15
  15. 15. Expectations on how we should be treated:Power DistanceSmall power distance: Large power distance:• Foster informal, High status positions receive:• Symmetrical Interactions • Priority treatment• Subordinates expect to • Assymetrical respect be respected and valued • Actions based on authority based on personal attributes not based on • Subordinate shows titles or positions deference• Supervisors have a consultative role 16
  16. 16. 17East vs West: cultural differences by Yang LiuJanuary, 2008
  17. 17. Construal of SelfIndepent Interdependent Me • ingroup-bound, ME • • obligatory agents, harmony seekers.• autonomous,• self-reliant, • responsive• unencumbered, communicators• rational choice-makers; • Present reflective of• direct verbal communicators projected “face-Image” with respect to• Present themselves as ingroup/outgroup credibly and competently relations 18
  18. 18. 19East vs West: cultural differences by Yang LiuJanuary, 2008
  19. 19. Low –High Context communications• direct verbal mode, • indirect verbal mode,• straight talk, • ambiguous talk,• nonverbal immediacy, • nonverbal subtleties,• sender-oriented value. • interpreter-sensitive• Explicit verbal value (Ting-Toomey, messages 1985). • Multi-layered contextsspeaker responsible for:• a clear, persuasive • listener expected to message read "between the lines,"• the listener can decode easily • infer implicit intent 20
  20. 20. Overscan-Underscan• High Context • Low Context history words future setting behavior words associates 21
  21. 21. 22East vs West: cultural differences by Yang LiuJanuary, 2008
  22. 22. Signals in communication• Know in general way how culture effects communication• Be aware of a moment in communication that is opaque to you (violates your common sense)• Monitor whether the other party is being stopped by what you said did 23
  23. 23. Rediscuss Interview results1. ODIS Observe Describe Interprete Suspend Evaluation2. To what type of communication pattern did you find.3. Does it change your opinion with respect to underlying values4. Do the communication patters explain certain classroom behaviour/or behaviour in the interview.5. Did you have new eye-openers6. Do you plan to change anything in your education on the basis of your findings7. If so discuss what you want to change• Plenary Share tips/tops on the basis of your findings 24
  24. 24. Cases:Issues to faceYour colleagues heard you have followed this class and they suddenly come up to ask you all kinds of questions dealing with:• Grading• Interaction with students• Making the best of it• Dutch students• Think of two relevant solutions to each 25
  25. 25. International UniversityExpectations:• International connectivity• Social Cohesian• Intercultural Learning• Infusion approach (implementing int. Dimension in the curriculum not enough) overlook intercultural learning 26
  26. 26. What kind of skills do studentsneed to acquire to function in the workplace? • intercultural dialogue • Discuss in small groups skills/attitudes your students should have to be successful in the workplace 27
  27. 27. The Intercultural Competencies list• Compare to the list and make your own top 5 ranking 28
  28. 28. Intercultural Competencies Top 5 ranking Business• Openness Professionals:• Flexibility• Personal autonomy • Listening Orientation• Emotional Strength • Synergy (Creating• Perceptiveness Alternatives)• Listening Orientation• Transparencies • Acceptance• Cultural Knowledge • Clarity of Communication• Influencing • Valuing Differences• Synergy 29
  29. 29. In what way are your Dutch andInternational students acquiring these specific skills/attitudes in YOUR class? And how are you accommodating this acquisition? 30
  30. 30. Homework• Fill out the Checklist of international working methods for yourself• Determine how to adapt or realise your students achieving the relevant Intercultural competencies in your class 31